US 2138156 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
N0v 29, 1938- E. P. HALLIBURTON 2,138,156
PACKER Filed NOV. 16, 1936 r. my Ik\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\v BY auf MM..
ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 29, 1938 PACKER Erle P. Halliburton, Los Angeles, Calif., assgnor to Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company,
Application November 16, 1936, Serial No. 111,049
- 6 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus adapted for use in oil wells or the like and more particularly to packers or means for retaining elements in xed and sealed relation in an oil Well.
It is often desirable, as in the cementing of an oil Well, to fix a valve or other structure to a casing therein. An example of known means for this purpose is shown in the patent to Baker, No. 1,035,674, granted August 13, 1912.
In the prior art constructions of which I am aware metal parts, such as slips, have been necessary in order to hold the packer against movement in at least one direction.
It is an object of the present invention to devise a packer and a securing means which may secure a valve or other structure to a casing without the use of any metal parts.
It is a further object 'of the invention to devise means for securing some element in a casing by means which may be readily drilled out in case it is desired to remove that element from the casing. l
It is still another object of the invention to devise a novel method of setting a packer in an oil Well casing or the like.
Another object of the invention is to device simple means for securing and sealing an element, such as a valve, to the casing in which the packer or sealing means itself acts as the motivating force for effecting the sealing and securing action.
Other objects and advantages reside in certain novel features of the arrangement and method as will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the casing of an oil well with a valve assembly and a pac-ker being lowered into position, the figure illustrating the position of the parts before the packer has been set;
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the same apparatus as that shown in Fig. 1 but illustrating the position of the parts after the packer has been set; and
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a modiiied form of latching and securing means which may be used in place of )the latching and securing 'means of Figs. 1 and 2.
Referring to the drawing in detail and rst to the embodiment of the invention shown in Figs. l and 2, it will be seen that a casing of an oil well is there illustrated at Il. Located within the casing at a point where it is desired to maintain a seal is the -valve and packer assembly which constitutes the present invention. This assembly may be mounted upon the lower end of a drill stem or tubing I2, the assembly being secured thereto by latching means which will presentlybe described.
The assembly includes a lower packer retaining ring I3 which has a tubular extension I4 integral therewith. This element may be made of Bakelite or other material which has considerable strength but which may be easily drilled up in case it lis desired to remove the apparatus from the casing. The tubular extension I4 mayv be provided with a valve, as illustrated at l5.V This valve may be constructed entirely of cement or other material which may be readily drilled out. In a similar construction now being manufactured the valve seat is made of cement, the ball of hard rubber and the retaining spider for the ball of cement or fibrous material. It is obviously within the scope of the invention to use various materials other than these just mentioned, however, and it may be advisable to use soft metals, such as aluminum or aluminum alloys, for various parts of the apparatus.
For securing the element I3 and the valve I5 to the casing a packer I6 is employed, the packer serving the double function of sealing theelement I3 to the casing and of securing it thereto.
The lower end of the packer I6 is rigidly secured to the body portion I3 by being molded in the annular opening I'I beneath the shoulder I8 of the body portion I3. The upper end of the packer I6 is similarly secured to a collar I9 slidably mounted upon the tubular extension I4, the annular opening in the collar I9 being designated at 20 and the shoulder at 2|.
The packer I6 may be made of exible rubber. It may be of such consistency that it can be stretched. When stretched it will occupy the position and take a shape approximately like that illustrated in Fig. 1. To hold the packer in this shape suitable latching means is provided for interlocking the collar I9, the mandrel or tubing I2uand the tubular extension I4. This locking means is shown at 22 as'consisting of a simple toggle 1mb, the pins of which extend through openings 23 in the tubing I2 and cooperate with a groove 24 in the collar I9. The toggle 22 has an operating table or anvil 25 mounted on its axle which when struck by a weight such as that illustrated at 26 will collapse the toggle and unlatch the collar I9 from the tubing I2. For catching the toggle and the anvil suitable pins mazy be placed in the tubing I2 as`illustrated at 'I'he operation of the apparatus will be apparent from a study of Figs. 1 and 2. In preparing the apparatus before lowering it into the well, the packer I6 will be stretched by some suitable power means available at the well and the toggle placed in position to hold the parts in the position shown in Fig. 1 with the packer distended. 'It is to be noted that the lower end of the tubing I2 abuts against the upper end of the tubular extension I4 on the main body portion I3 of the assembly and that the parts are heldin this position by the collar I9. When the apparatus is lowered to the proper position in the well, the weight 26 is dropped and this unlatches the collar I9 as described above. When this happens the elasticity of the rubber packer I6 causes the collar I9 to move downwardly and the packer takes the position shown in Fig. 2. At the high temperatures and pressures normally existent in an oil well ordinary rubber is extremely sticky.
Upon the packer taking the position shown in Fig. 2, therefore, it will adhere to the casing Il. The adhesion to the casing may be enhanced-to some extent if the tubing I4 is provided with small openings such as are shown at 28 although these may not be necessary in all cases.
If, now, with the assembly in position as shown in Fig. 2, it is desired to remove the tubing i2 from the well, it will be apparent that all metal parts, such as the toggle 22 and the weight 26, are also removed, leaving only parts which may be made of Bakelite, cement or rubber which can be easily drilled out should this subsequently be desired.
One advantage in the use of the present assembly is in the cementing of oil wells. In normal use of the assembly the tubing I2 will remain in the position shown in Fig. 2 during the cementing operation. The cement will be forced downwardly through the tubing and through the valve I5. After the cement is in place beneath the assembly the tube I2 may be immediately removed. The valve I5 will close and no cement will iiow upwardly through the assembly. Likewise the packer I6 will hold the assembly against movement in an upward direction.
In a cementing operation the pressure at the valve may be extremely high and this will aid in setting the packer iirmly. This may be increased to some extent if the rubber in the packer I6 buckles slightly between the shoulder I8 and the inner surface of the casing I I, but since this may not always take place it has not been shown in the drawing. In any event, the packer will be iirmly bound to the casing.
In the arrangement of Figs. 1 and 2, as soon as the toggle 22 is released, the tubing I2 is wholly disconnected from the assembly. It will normally remain in place due to the weight of the tubing I2 and this weight will usually be sufiicient to enable the cementing operation to be carried on. In some cases it may be desirable, however, to provide separate means for latching or securing the tubing directly to the tubular extension I4 of the main body portion I3 of the assembly independently of the toggle latching mechanism. Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.
In Fig. 3 the valve assembly may be similar to that shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and the corresponding parts have been similarly designated. It is to be noted, however, that the toggle 22 instead of latching the collar I8 to the tubing I2 latches it to the tubular extension I4. 'I'he tubing I2 is connected to the tubular extension I4 by means of pins 29 operating in the bayonet slots 30. A weight 26 like that illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 may bedropped through the tubing I2 inthe arrangement of Fig. 3 and operate the toggle as before. The cementing operation may then be carried on with the tubing I2 secured to the tubular extension I4 and after the cementing. operation is completed the tubing I2 may be removed from the well by disconnecting the bayonet joint. Instead of a bayonet joint, the tubing I2 may be secured to the extension I4 by means oi screw-threads or other connectors.
If it is desired to remove the toggle mechanism 22 from the well after the cementing operation is completed, this can be done by connecting it by means of a exible connector, such as a chain, to the lower end of the tubing I2, but this has not been shown in the drawing. A
It is to be noted that in both embodiments of the invention illustrated the packer is set merely by dropping a weight in the tubing, the resiliency of the material of which the packer is made itself acting as the motive force for setting the packer. This constitutes a simple and eiective way of securing any element to the casing in a well. In addition it constitutes simple means for securing a valve or other element to the casing by means which may be readily removed from the casing subsequently.
If it is desired, the entire assembly, that is, the body portion I3 with its tubular extension I4, the collar I9, the packer I6 and the valve I5 in the tubular extension I4, may all be made of non-metallic, easily drillable, material. The packer may be made of soft rubber and the other members of the assembly of hard rubber, Bakelite", cement or concrete.
. While only two embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it is ob-` vious that various changes may be made both in the structure and in the method of operating the same without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the annexed claims.
1. Apparatus for securing and sealing an element in a casing or the like which includes a packer, means for holding the packer in stretched position and substantially out of contact with the casing and latching means cooperating with said holding means and operable to release the same at will to enable the packer to contact the casing.
2. Apparatus for securing and sealing an element in a casing or the like which includes a rubber packer, means for holding the packer in stretched position and means for releasing said holding means to enable the packer to contact the casing.
3. A packer adapted for use in oil wells or the like and comprising a body of elastic yieldable material, means for deforming the body into such shape that the same can be readily lowered into place in the well and means for releasing said deforming means to enable the body to change its shape under the inuence of its own elasticity to contact the wall of the well.
4. A valve assembly adapted to be secured and sealed to the casing of an oil well or the like and comprising a main valve body, a collar slidably mounted on a portion of said body, an elastic packer surrounding a portion of said body with one end secured thereto and the other end secured to said collar and means for latching the collar to said body to hold the packer in distorted position, the arrangement being such that upon the release of the latching means the packer may expand as the result of its elasticity and contact and stick to the casing.
5. A valve assembly adapted to be secured and sealed to the casing of an oil Well or the like and comprising a main valve body, a collar slidably mounted on a portion of said body, an elastic packer surrounding a portion of said body with one end secured thereto and the other end securedy to said collar and means for latching the collar to said body to hold the packer in distorted position, the arrangement being such that upon the release of the latching means the packer may expand as the result of its elasticity and contact and stick to the casing, said valve, valve body and collar being made o! hard non-metallic, readily drillable, material and said packer being made of soft rubber.
6. A structure adapted to be suspended on the lower end of a drill stem or tubing and lowered into the casing of a well to be secured to the casing, said structure including a main body having a portion abutting against the lower end of said drill stem, a collar slidably mounted on said portion of said body, an elastic packer having one end secured to said body and the other end secured to said collar and latching means for securing the collar to the drill stem, the arrangement being such that upon the release of said latching means the packer expands into contact with the casing and sticks thereto and at the same time the drill stem is disconnected from the structure so that it may be removed from the well.
ERLE P. HALLIZBURTON.