US 2138351 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 29, 1938.
J. L. M GONIGALL 2,133,351 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Filed March 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 .awz
Wm. z. m aam i azg INVENTOR ATTORNE'Y 29, 1938. J. L. MCGONSGALL J 15 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Filed March 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 0 Jb/m I. lYcGonya/ll,
INVENTOR ATTORNEY INTERNAL COMBUSTI ON ENGINE Original Filed March 16, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet: 4
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ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 29, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Substitute for application Serial This application March 16, 1935.
No. 11,511, January 18,
1938, Serial No. 185,554
The present invention relates to the art of internal combustion engines, and particularly to a type wherein the usual form of piston, piston and connection rods so classified, are eliminated, and in their stead a core is operable between stationary parts of the engine cylinder, for example between an interior stationary part and an exterior stationary part, the firing strokes for operating the core taking place at alternate periods, and which construction and operation constitute the essential features of this type of engine.
This application is a substitute for application Serial No. 11,511, filed March 16, 1935, the latter application being a substitute for application Serial No. 571,208, filed October 26, 1931.
Another purpose is to provide an improved mechanism operatively connecting with the crank shaft of the engine for actuating intake and exhaust poppet valves, which permit of the intake of the fuel and the exhaust f the utilized gases.
Still another purpose is to provide, in an internal combustion engine of this type, an improved means of construction such as will afford a water jacket for the exterior and interior elements of the engine casing.
Another purpose is to provide in a Diesel type of engine a core movable between interior and exterior parts of the engine cylinder, with means for admitting a mechanism, actuated by connections with the crank shaft for the admission of oil in its crude state, and adapted to be fired, as a result of compression action at opposite ends of the core.
It is to be understood that the particulars herein given are in no way limitative, and that while still keeping within the scope of the invention, any desired modification of details and proportions may be made in the construction of the appliance according to circumstances.
The invention comprises further features and combination of parts to be hereinafter set forth, shown in the drawings and claimed.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view through the improved internal combustion engine constructed in accordance with the invention to illustrate the type adapting gasoline as its fuel.
Figure 2 is a sectional view on line 2-2 of Figure 1, showing a multiple of cylinders, wherein the core of one cylinder is in a position remote from a similar core in the other cylinder.
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view on line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a detail ton.
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view through a type of engine similar to that in Figures 1 and 2, insofar as the reciprocating piston is concerned, and wherein oil is used as fuel, the firing of the perspective View of the pissame occurring as a result of its being compressed.
Figure 6 is a sectional view on line 66 of Figure 5 showing a multiple of cylinders and also illustrating a scavenger pump or compressor, employed for blowing the utilized gases from the cylinder.
Figure 7 is a transverse seitional view on line l''i of Figure 5.
Referring to the drawings, l identifies a supporting frame for the exterior wall 2 of the engine cylinder 3, the exterior 2 being made rigid with the interior stationary core element 4 of the cylinder, by means of a cylinder head 5. The exterior wall of the engine cylinder has a water jacket 6, which communicates with a jacket 1 in a portion of the cylinder head 5, which jacket in turn communicates with the water jacket 8 of the stationary core of the engine cylinder. Operative between the exterior and interior stationary elements of the engine cylinder is a movable piston 9 provided with downwardly depending arms It, which are connected by a pin H to a pitman 82, which in turn is pivotally connected at l3 to the crank arms M of the crank shaft l5, which may be mounted in bearings of a foundation.
The interior stationary element of the engine cylinder is provided with the usual packing rings [6, while the contracted end I! of the movable core is provided with similar packing rings l8.
The cylinder head 5 is formed with intake and exhaust passages 19 and 20, to which the intake and exhaust pipes 2! and 22 are connected as shown. The intake and exhaust passages I9 and 29 communicate with intake and exhaust passages 23 and 24 formed int eriorly of the interior stationary core element of the engine cylinder. Also operatively mounted in the passages 23 and 24 are poppet valves 25 and 26, which have rods 21 and 28 extending down through the passages 23 and 24, and through the packing glands 29 and 30.
The upper ends of the intake and exhaust pipes 21 and 22 communicate, by means of the passages 3| and 32 with the combustion chamber 33 of the outer casing of the engine cylinder, so as to permit of the intake of the fuel at 3| and the exhaust of utilized gases at 32. At points where the pipes 2| and 22 communicate with the passages 3l and 32 poppet valves 34 and 35 control the valve openings 35 and 37. The poppet valves 34 and 35 are connected to operating rods 33 and 33, which are spring tensioned at 40 for normally closing the valves 34 and 35. The rods 38 and 39 are more or less guided in recesses 4|, where the cylinder head 5 registers with the flanged end of the outer casing of the engine cylinder. Below where the valve rods 38 and 39 are guided at 4!, their lower ends are connected by means of plates 42 to rods 43 and 44 which are guided in bearing arms 45, which are made integral with the frame I of the engine.
The valve rods 21 and 28 are also guided at 46 through the bearing arms 45 and are spring tensioned at 41. The lower ends of the valve rod 21 and 28 are inclined laterally at their lower portions as shown at 4B, and their lower extremi- 'ties are connected by the plates 49 to cam actuated rods 50 and SI, which are guided in the bearing arms 52 also constituting integral parts of the frame I, the rods 43 and 44 which actuate the, poppet valves 34 and 35 also passing through the bearing arms 52.
Journaled in bearings of the frame I are cam shafts 53 and 54 having gears 55 and 56, which mesh with the gear 51 mounted upon the crank shaft I5, in this manner power is transmitted to the cam shafts 53 and 54 for rotating the same and thereby bringing the cams in engagement with the rods 43 and 44 and 5|. There are two cams 58 and 59 on the camshaft 54, and two cams 60 and BI on the cam shaft 53. The rods 44 engage with the earns 59, while the rods 5I engage with the cams 58. That is, the lower ends of these rods ride over the cams, and the lugs 62 and 63 ride under the lower extremities of the rods, imparting movement to the rods 44 and 5I, for opening the exhaust poppet valves 26 and 35. The rods 43 and 50 have their lower extremities riding on the surface of the cams 60 and BI, so that the cam lugs I54 and 55 will ride under the extremities of the rods 43 and 50 and impart movement thereto for opening and closing the poppet intake valves 25 and 34, the purpose of admission of fuel into the combustion chamber 33 and into the combustion chamber 60, at a point between the core 4 and the interior of the piston 9. The piston 9 is movable and its lower sleeve portion .61 telescopes the core 4. The core 4 has a passage 68 through which a lead wire 69 may connect with a conventional type of spark plug 10. A similar spark plug H is mounted in the cylinder head of the outer wall of the cylinder casing,
Obviously Figure 1 shows the piston 9 on the verge of a firing stroke, hence on the verge of an exhaust stroke in the combustion chamber 33. Upon the piston 9 moving upward the exhaust valve 35 will open, and in which case the core 9 will force the utilized gases through the exhaust pipe 22, in this instance the intake poppet valves 25 and 34 remain closed. The momentum of the core 9 is sufficient to carry it upward, and then downward and again upward. On the down stroke of the piston 9 fuel is admitted by the opening of the poppet valve at 41 in the combustion chamber 33, and on the upward stroke this charge is compressed. However, on the down stroke the poppet valve 26 opens and therefore permits exhaust of the utilized gases from the combustion chamber 66 by the opening of the valve 25. Immediately following the compression stroke as the piston 9 moves upward the charge in the combustion chamber 33 is fired, then the piston 9 moves downward as a result of firing the charge in the combustion chamber 33, and upon so moving downward, a new charge having been drawn past the poppet valve 25 on the compression of the charge in chamber 33, is fired in the combustion chamber 66. These cycles of operation are alternately repeated, resulting in the operation of the engine as disclosed in Figures 1, 2 and 3.
Referring to Figures 5, 6 and '1, which is of a Diesel type of internal combustion engine, using oil as fuel, the power being derived as a result of first compressing air in the cylinder and then the fuel is injected in the combustion chambers.
In this type of engine a frame 12 is provided, which supports the interior and exterior stationary elements 13 and 14 of the engine cylinder. The exterior wall 14 is provided with a water jacket 15, which communicates with the interior stationary cylinder element (which has a water jacket 16), by means of passages 11 formed in the cylinder head 18.
In this type of engine a movable piston 19 having a depending sleeve portion is provided, and depending from the sleeve portion of the piston 19 are arms BI, which are pivoted at 82 to a pitman 83. The pitman 83 is in turn pivotally connected at 84 to the crank arms 85 of the crank shaft 88.
The crank shaft 85 has a gear 81 meshing with a gear 88 on a cam shaft 89, which is mounted in bearings of the frame 12.
The engine as disclosed in Figures 5 and 6 includes combustion chambers 90 and 9|, wherein the oil fuel is compressed and thereby creating such heat as to fire the fuel.
The cam shaft 89 is provided with oppositely disposed earns 92 and 93, and projecting from the frame 12 of the engine are bearings 94 and 95, in which rods 96 and 91 are guided. The rod 96 is connected to a rod 98 by means of an arm 99, and the rod 98 is in turn connected to a rocker lever I00, which in turn is pivoted at IOI to a valve rod I02, which in turn actuates a poppet Valve (not shown) in a casing I03. This casing I93 terminates in an injector I04, for injecting fuel such as crude oil into the combustion chamber 90.
The other rod 91 is connected to a valve rod I05 by means of an arm I06. The valve rod I05 in turn actuates the poppet valve (not shown) in casing I01, and connected to the casing I01 is a pipe I08, which engages through a passage I09 and terminates in an injector III) at the end of the passage I09, for the purpose of injecting crude oil fuel into the combustion chamber 9|. A pipe I II is connected to the casing I01, and connected to the pipe III is a pipe II2 which extends vertically and communicates with the casing I03 of the poppet valve (not shown). Crude oil of the proper consistency is supplied from any suitable source (not shown) to the pipe III, which and the pipe II2 feeds the supply to and through the poppet valves (not shown) This crude oil is lifted under pressure tothe poppet valves from its source of' supply through a pipe I53, as in Figure 6, by means of any suitable fuel pump as identified at H4. This pump is operated from the cam shaft 89.
The cylinder head 13 is secured to the flange of the exterior engine wall as identified at II5, while the central portion of the cylinder head 18 is secured to the interior core 13 of the engine cylinder by means of a screw I I6.
In order to eliminate the utilized gases subsequent to explosion in the combustion chambers 90 and BI, and to permit a new supply of air to enter, a scavenging pump or compressor as identified at IE1 is provided. This scavenging pump or a compressor is similar, in general construction, to
the engine itself. In other words, it comprises an exterior pump cylinder wall I I8 and an interior stationary pump core II9, there being a reciprocating core I20 provided with a depending sleeve I2I, which has downwardly projecting arms I22, which are in turn pivoted to the pitman I23 by The pitman its is in turn rank arm carried by the this manner reciprocating means of the p pivoted at to a crank shaft movements are I arted to the reciprocating core for the purpose of supplying air under through either one of the branch pipes 23 and and into one of the chambers and duo to the fact that the pipe 533 connects v .t the branch pipes it l and l35 at the port The branch pipes l and E35 communicate with the chambers and ii and also communicating with the chambers and Qiat points opposite the pipes 53d and WE are outlet pipes l3? and The passage 53! of the stationary core of the scavenging pump or compressor has a check valve i357, which opens on the downward movement of the core i 2Q, closes on the upward movement as indicated by the arrow A.
However, when the movable core moves downward in the direction of the arrow B air is drawn through the checl: valve 5 1% (which is similar to the check valve 528), into the chamber On the upward movement of the novable core air drawn into the chamber 2. is forced past the check valve idi, which also similar to the check valve 51%, the air passing through the portion 53m of the pipe 536, then into the pipe iSS, the air having sufficient pressure, to carry it into one of the chambers 95, through the branch pipes i3 1 and i In order to start this type of internal combustion engine, which is similar in prin ipal to the well known Diesel engine, in that crude oil of the proper consistency is used, tubes it? communicate with the combustion chamber 9i. These tubes are designed to be connected to any suitable supply of air under pressure, which may act upon the shoulders i i-3 of the movable cores shown Figure 6, the pressure of air acting upon the shoulder MB of the engine cylinder to the left in Figure 6, and there being a supply of air in the chamber ill of the engine cylinder to the left in Figure 6, so that supply of air is compressed, and immediately following the compression of the air in the chamber of the cylinder to the left in Figure 6, an injection of crude oil fuel enters the chamber, and as result of a high temperature of heat the explosion of the fuel takes place. At this point the supply of air through the tubes is shut oil. In this manner the internal combustion engine shown in Figures 5 and 6 is started. The cycles of operation are as follows.
The air under pressure from the scavenging pump or compressor first enters the chamber til and blows out the utilized gases, and leaves a fresh supply of air therein, and when the movable piston ill operates upwardly, it compresses the supply of air, and then the amount of crude oil is injected from the injector li'ld into the chamber t ll, which results in an explosion. When the movable piston i9 is moving upwardly and compressing the air in the chamber as ports of the depending sleeve of the movable piston "i9 register with the branch pipe i535 and the outlet pipe 93%, allowing air from the scavenging pump or compressor to blow out the utilized gases in the chamber 9i, thereby leaving a fresh supply of air therein. Then on a downward stroke of the movable piston "l9, the air in chamber 95 compresses, and instantly following fuel is injected through the injector its, resulting in an explosion. These steps of operation alternately repeat, and thereby impart revoluble movement to the crankshaft 36, from which power may be transmitted to any desired source.
The invention having been set forth, what is claimed is:
In an ternal combustion engine, the combination with a power cylinder consisting of an exterior wall having a cooling jacket and provided with opposed pressure power chambers, of stationary core element fixed within one of said chambers with its cylindrical periphery in spaced tion to the interior surface of said cylinder, a movable solid piston mounted for reciprocating Y overnent in the other pr ssure power chamber d having a depending sleeve telescoping over the stationary core element and reciprocating in he space between the stationary core element and the cylinder wall, a crank shaft operatively -ected to and being impelled by said reciprog piston element, power fuel admission he said chambers and being in turn operaeiy connected to said cranlr shaft, certain "of power fuel admission means being mounted in and pa" ing through stationary core, the construction and arrangement of said power fuel admission means being such as to alternately ope to, whereby reciprocating movement may be carted to the reciprocating piston element.
2. In an internal combustion engine the combination with a power cylinder consisting of an exterior wall having a cooling jacket and provided with opposed pressure power chambers, of a stationary core element fixed within one of said chambers with its cylindrical periphery in spaced relation to the interior surface of said cylinder, a movable solid piston mounted for reciprocating movements in the other pressure power chamber and having a depending sleeve telescoping over the stationary core element and -reciprocating in the space between the stationary core element and the cylinder wall, a crank shaft operatively connected to and being impelled by said reciprocating piston element, power fuel admission means for said chambers and being in turn operatively connected to said crank shaft, certain of said power fuel admission means being mounted in and passing through said stationary core, the construction and arrangement of said power fuel admission means being such as to alternately operate, whereby reciprocating move ment may be imparted to the reciprocating piston element, fuel igniting means associated with each of said chambers, certain of the fuel igniting means mounted in and passing through the stationary core element, said stationary core element having a cooling jacket and having a passage in oneof the heads of the cylinder communicating with the cooling jacket of the cylinder, whereby the interior and exterior wall of the cylinder may be kept cool.
JOHN L. MCGONIGALL.