US 2138958 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 6, 1938. H. w. coRBETT ET Ax.d 2,138,958
PREF'ABRICATED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Original Filed Sept. 28, i934 2 Sheets-Sheet l 57am/ey M1365 C'oreff He nl? Ha sek buffer Dec. 6, 1938. H. w. coRBETT ET Al. 2,138,958
PREFABRICATED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION originalFiled sept; 28, 1934 2 sheets-sheet 2 3 faam/@gf M22/Koweit fferzy fasefzzzqyer ma, ma
' Patented Dec. 6, 1938 o 2,138,958 'PnEFAnmoATEn 'nltglrnmo coNs'raUc- Harvey Wiley Corbett, New York, N. Y., andv Henry Hasenburger, East Orange, N. J.,
signers to Prebilt Housing Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application September 28, 1934, Serial No. 745,958
Renewed April 21, 1937 9 Claims.
This invention relates to an improved prefabricated building construction adapted primarily for residence or dwelling purposes, wherein use is made of an improved system of standardized units capable of being conveniently handled, readily assembled and retained in wall forming relationship, the principal object of the invention being the provision of novel building units by which space may be enclosed for human lo habitation purposes at lower costs and in a more satisfactory manner than is now obtainable by customary methods and materials employed in producing houses for residence purposes.
Other objects of the invention reside in the l5 provision of an improved dwelling construction composed principally of premanufactured units which prior to erection or assembly Will be com-v pletely finished in a shop or factory and shipped to the building site in a finished state for assembly and erection only; in constructing said prefabricated units so that no eld labor, other than that required in the assembly of said units, will be required in the matter of building erection;
to construct said units so that they will be completely interchangeable, and capable of being removed or added to without damage or material alteration to the structure of which they form a part;.to construct said units so that they may be suciently light in weight to be readily handled by the building erectors and to form said units in standardized dimensions based on a given module or multiple thereof in order to simplify erection or alteration problems; the units being of such design as to permit maximum freedom of design and appearance with but a minimum range of standard shapes; in constructing said units so that they readily combine into a solid,
self-bracing and 'self-supporting structure, easily and speedily assembled; in mechanically locking and joining the units so as to permit changes,
alterations and additions at any time after erection, without affecting other parts of the structure; the provision of a dwelling composed of prefabricated units which answer eiiiciently and economically all modern demands for dwelling comfort; and in the provision of a design which permits the erection of a house on any reasonable building site, and which will allow easy dismantling of the structure, producing theoretically no damage to the parts or site.
It is another object of the invention to provide prefabricated building units of such design that the economies resulting from modern manufacturing methods may be fully applied to the ieirection of buildings adapted for human habitaon. l
. Other features and objects of the invention will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter, and a further understanding of the invention may, therefore, be obtained by reference to the following description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. l is a perspective view of a dwelling constructed from the prefabricated building units comprising the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken through the lower portion of the building, disclosing the pier supports, and the lower door and side wall construction;
Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken through a plurality of adjoining wall units on the plane indicated by the line III-III of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a transverse vertical sectional view on the plane indicated by the line IV-IV of Fig. 2 and disclosing more particularly the construction of the first or lower floor units;
Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional view illustrating on a larger scale a pair of adjoining wall units and the fastening connections therefor;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical transverse sectional view through the assembly of building units comprising the oor construction; i
Fig. 7 is a detail vertical sectional View illustrating the construction employed in uniting ,the elements of the second oor with the outer` wall units;
Fig. 8 is a similar view of the roof assembly and mounting;
Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view on the line IX-IX of Fig. 8.
In general, the assembly of .prefabricated building units comprising the present invention, contemplates a suitable number of foundation piers i, preferably made of steel pipe and which support rolled steel girt units. The first floor, designated at A, is usually disposed a few feet above the ground, permitting a shallow but clear open space below the under side thereof. The girts, which are designated at 2, support the outer wall units, indicated generally at 3 and also the sheet steel door joists, indicated at l,
the under side of the latter being exposed to the outside air. At both the second foor and the roof levels similar but lighter steel girts vextend continuously around the house, affording sway stiffness to the structure. These upper girts support the upper floor and roof joists of sheet steel, the under sides of which form the finished ceiling surfaces beneath the same.
The piers I are formed to include base plates which are adapted to be placed in the ground, preferably below vthe frost line, and the said piers may be of adjustable construction in order to conveniently vary their effective height. To facilitate economy in building construction, the present invention contemplates a residence building which is devoid of basement or cellar features so that if desired, the building when erected may be dismantled and removed, without injury, to another site so that the owner of the building will be given more latitude in the selection of desirable sites for the placing of the dwelling than is now obtainable with standard methods of construction. The girts 2 are formed so that their lower flanges rest on cap pieces 6 provided at the upper ends of said piers and the stability of the girts in their operative positions is secured by providing the cap pieces 6 with upstanding brackets 1 perforated for the reception of fastening elements which are employed to bind the girts in secured connection with the upper ends of the piers- The first or lower iioor construction Aconsists of a plurality of parallel hollow sheet metal joists, indicated at 4, and each of these joists comprises a horizontally extending bottom wall 8, upstanding inwardly and angularly extending side walls 9-9 and a top wall I0, the latter being preferably joined as at II along its outer edges to the corresponding upper edges of the side walls 9-9. Welded, riveted or otherwise secured to the open outer ends of these hollow joist sections 4 are relatively heavy metallic brackets II', which include short horizontal extensions I2 arranged to project beyond the ends of the joists 4, and disposed for seating engagement on the upper flange of angle members I3 secured to the inner faces of the webs of the girts 2, whereby the spaced 1ongitudinally extending and hollow sheet metal door joists are carried by the girts supported by the piers I. The spaces formed between adjoining pairs of oor joists are closed by a plurality of sheet metal pans indicated at I4. These pans, in general, lie in the same horizontal plane as the bottom walls 8 of said iioor joists and in fact constitute even continuations thereof. Each of the pans terminates in upwardly directed flanges I5 which engage with and conform to the inclination of the joist side walls 9 9. Further positive support for the pans I4 is provided by connecting metallic straps I6 with the danges I5 of each of said pans, and which straps have their upper ends curved or bent to form hooks I1 which engage with the upper edges of the side walls 9-9 and the outer edges of the joist top walls I0, thereby suspending or hanging the pans I4 in desired association with the oor joists, the said pans constituting what may be termed filler units, and may contain insulation, as also may the floor joists, to minimize thermal transmission through the floor structure.
The top walls I0 are braced or supported by means of metallic braces I8 which have their ends fastened to the horizontal extensions I2 of the brackets II', the said braces extending into longitudinal grooves formed by parallel ribs I9 provided in the joist top walls I0. Supported by the joists 4 is a wood platform or other form of ooring 20. This ooring may be fastened in place by providing the top walls III of the joists 4 with wooden blocks 2l, the latter being positioned in the depressed grooves 22 formed centrally in the top of said joists by the construction of the ribs I9, and the blocks 2| may be cemented or otherplugs 23 provide for the ready positioning ofq dowels cr the like (not shown) used in connection with room partitions, stairways or the the like which are asembled on the first floor.
The outer wall units 3 are of standard or corresponding dimensions and each wall unit comprises a hollow rigid panel or block formed to include preferably a wooden internal frame 25 having inner and outer facing sheets 26 and 21 respectively connected therewith. These sheets may be formed from a number of different materials such as steel, veneer or plywood, combinations of sheet metal and wood or the like whereby exposed surfaces of said sheets may be treated or finished to produce desired and appealing visual effects. As shown more particularly in Figs. 3 and 5, the vertical abutting edges of said Wall units are each constructed to include vertically extending wooden strips 28 which are faced with sheet metal as indicated at 29. The strips 28 are of a width materially less than the thickness of the wall units and include beveled outer surfaces 30 which are designed for engagement with the outer flanges of angular channel-shaped locking rails 3 I the latter preferably extending the full height of the building. Between the strips 28 and the main vertical frame pieces 25, there are disposed vertical reenforcing bars 32 reenforced by ribs of metal sheets 33. The above described structure of bars 32, sheets 33, and strips 28 constitute reduced extensions along the side edges of the wall units for joining the same together. As shown, these extensions have a thickness less than their width. Positioned between the adjoining surfaces of the metal faced strips 28, are horizontally and outwardly extending bolts 34 threaded at their inner ends to receive nuts 35, which are embedded between the strips 28 and by means of which construction the locking rails 3I may be drawn and maintained in clamping engagement with the outer beveled surfaces 30 in order to produce a rigid, self aligning and strongly braced wall structure capable of supporting the loads imposed thereon by the second floor and roof construction of the building.
It will be noted especially at this point that the building is devoid of the usual frame work generally found in buildings of this character. The hollow interior of the wall units may also be provided with standard forms of insulation to render said walls highly resistant to heat transmission. The locking rails 3l are concealed by covering the vertical spaces 36 provided between the adjoining edges of said wall units with removable cover strips 31.
The second floor construction is practically identical with the details previously described of the first floor construction and therefore a description thereof need not be repeated at this time, except to point out that the upper inner portions of the wall units 3 are inwardly recessed as at 38, shown in Fig. 7, for the reception of light channel girts 39, which are clamped as at 40' to the frame structure of said outer wall units and to the locking rails 3I. The upper flanges of the girts 39 receive the bracket extensions I2a of the brackets IIa of the hollow sheet metal oor forming joists found in the second iioor construcaisaecs tion. By this arrangement. it will be observed that the-weight of the second door construction is received directly by the lower of the outer wall units. f
The upper of the outer wall units are vertically aligned with and are seated upon the upper surfaces of the lower of the outer wall units, the said upper and lower wall units being united by the bolts 34 and the locking rails 3| which extend the full height of the building. 'I'he flooring 20a of the second floor construction registers neatly and accurately with depending extensions 4l provided on the inner lower portions of the upper set of outer wall units, as shown in Fig. 7, and the said extensions 4I serve to maintain the vertical registration of the aligned and superposed wall units.
The roof construction designated at 43 closely corresponds with the construction employed in the rst and second oors. That is, it is composed of similar hollow sheet steel members, joined as disclosed in Figs. 4 and 6 particularly. In the roof construction, however, as indicated in Fig. 9,
the top walls lllb of the joists are provided with centrally disposed drain grooves 22h to facilitate the flow of water or moisture from the upper surfaces of the roof. Also, instead of employing flooring, as in the previously described horizontal sections, the joists and pans of the roof are covered by means of sheet metal plates 44, which overlie the pans I4b and have their edges formed with arcuate grooves which lie in the groove 22h. The roof is further anchored and braced by means of angular clips 45, disclosed particularly in Fig. 8. .These clips engage with stationary shoulders 46 provided on the upper surfacesof the roof joists and the opposite ends of said clips are curved to conform. to the configuration of arcuate projections 4l provided on the upper and inner edges of the wall units 3. Wedge members i8 are then inserted between the clips 45 and said wall units to frictiona'ily retain said clips in their roof locking positions.
The wall units 3 adjacent to their upper regions have their outer surfaces provided, as disclosed in Figs. 7 and 8, with sockets 49 which extend horizontally around the outer walls of the building. These sockets are adapted for the reception of cornlces E or other lateral projections which may extend over the doorways or windows of the building. It will be understood that windows di which may be of standard design will be formed in certain of the walls units, but these windows do not interfere with the general operating principles of said wall units except to alter possibly somewhat the internal bracing or frame work thereof. The wall units are manufactured to dimensions that will suit multiples of, for instance, a 20 inch module and window openings, doorways and the like are based on this fixed unit of measurement. Due to the employment of the hollow floor joist and outer wall unit design, convenience is obtained in the matter of installing heating, air conditioning and lighting equipment,
all of which is built into the said units by factory methods so that assembling of such members is all that is required at the time of building erection. v
The outer wall units are one story high, and as now contemplated, l0 inches thick, and either 20 or 40 inches wide. The adjacent wall units are clamped together at their edges by the continuous vertical locking rails 3| which extend the full height of the house. In the event that the grooves 49 do not receive a lateral projecting member, such as a cornice 50, the unoccupied portions of saidl grooves may be closed by means of cover plates.
The housing construction described has the advantage of enabling the essential materials of the building to be produced with the accuracy, refinement and economy obtainable by carefully controlled modern factory methods, by which superior materials can be employed, improved features of design incorporated and. with the use of production machines and methods, extremely 10W manufacturing costs may be had. `The owner of such a building may enlarge` or remodel it at will without seriously disturbing the remaining units or if the owner desires to transfer the building from one site to another, the same can be conveniently accomplished without loss or waste of material. Moreover, with the use of the material specified, considerable freedom is allowed the builder or architect in the matter of varying both external and internal appearances so that buildings produced by our system will possess esthetic as well as purely utilitarian value.
What is claimed is:
l. In prefabrlcated building construction, a plurality of substantially rectangular, load-sustaining wall units, adjoining extensions formed with the vertical edges of each of said wall units, said extensions possessing a width less than that of the thickness of said wall units, fastening appliances engaging said extensions and a longitudinally extending locking member to secure said wall units in assembled relationship, said fastening appliances being accessible from the exterior of said wall units, and a removable strip connected with the outer portions of'said wall extensions for concealing said fastening means, said fastening means and said extensions defining a spacious chamber with said outer removable strip and the adjoining wall units.
2. In prefabrlcated building` construction, a plurality of hollow substantially rectangular, loadsustaining wall units of predetermined dimensions, abutting extensions projecting from the vertical sides of said wall units, said extensions *possessing a width less than that of the thick ness of said wall units and being provided with tapered surfaces, a channel rail engaging with the tapered surfaces of said extensions through the entire length thereof, threaded means for' retaining said channel rail in frictional assemof said extensions, said rails being accessible from the exterior of the wall construction formed by said units, and removable means carried by the outer portions of said Wall units for concealing said channel rails from exterior view, said removable means, channel rail and extensions deiining an enlarged chamber with said vertical sides of the wall units.
3. In prefabrlcated building construction, a plurality of rectangular wall-forming units, securing extensions formed with rthe vertical side edges of each of said units, said extensions possessing a thickness less than that of the width of said extensions and terminating in even relationship with the inner surfaces of said walls, the outer vertical portions terminating in tapered eX- tremities, said extensions on adjacent units contacting each other, non-rotatable threaded devices positioned between said extensions when said wall units are in assembled relationship, a channel shaped rail engaging with the tapered portions of said extensions to secure said walls against separation and bolts disposed to pass through opening in said rails and having their bled relationship with the said tapered surfaces *50 inner threaded ends thereof received by said nonrotatable devices, said vertical side edges of each of said units and said extensions forming a substantial spacious chamber therebetween.
4. The structure as defined in claim 1 in which the adjoining extensions each comprise a vertical strip, a pair of vertical reinforcing bars and metal sheets joined to said strip and bars.
5. The structure as defined in claim 3 in which the bolts are positioned between the contacting surfaces of the extensions and engage the nonrotatable threaded devices embedded between said contacting surfaces.
6. In prefabricated building construction, superposed rows of duplicative substantially rectangular wall frame units, each of said units comprising spaced parallel vertical stiles and top and bottom cross memb rs, the upper row of units being supported on he top cross members of a lower row of units, said stiles being vertically and inwardly recessed at the front of each frame unit and provided with vertically extending ribs disposed for registration with complemental ribs of adjoining frame units, a anged locking rail coextensive with the combined length of a pair of superposed units and cooperative with said ribs to hold said units against relative displacement, and fastening means accessible from the exterior of said frame units for maintaining said rails in clamping engagement with said ribs.
7. Building construction comprising a foundation girt, an upper girt, a lower row of-interchangeable duplicative load-bearing wall frames arranged vertically side by side between said girts, a second row of corresponding load-bearing wall frames mounted on said lower row of frames and extending above the upper girt, adjoining securing ribs formed with both of the vertical side edges of each of said wall frames, a channel rail coextensive with the combined length of a pair of superposed frames, said rail being cooperative with said ribs to hold said frames against relative separation, and securing means engaged with said upper girt and with said channel rail for holding the latter in secured engagement with said ribs and with said upper girt.
8. In building construction, a lower row of substantially rectangular wall frame units arranged vertically side by side, each of said units being of one story height and comprising spaced parallel vertical stiles and top and bottom cross members, the rear upper portion of each frame unit being inwardly recessed to form a girt-receiving seat, a girt positioned on said seat, a superposed row of wall frame units positioned on said lower row of wall frame units, the stiles of said units being vertically and inwardly recessed at the front of each frame unit and formed with vertically extending inwardly set ribs disposed for registration with complemental ribs of adjoining frame units, a channel rail coextensive with the combined length of a pair of superposed row of units and cooperative with the ribs thereof to hold said units against relative separation, and fastening means accessible from the front of said units for maintaining said rail in secured engagement with said ribs and girt.
9. In prefabricated building construction, a plurality of substantially rectangular load-sustaining wall units, each of said units comprising spaced parallel vertical stiles and top and bottom cross members, said stiles being vertically and inwardly recessed at the front of each frame and provided with vertically extending inwardly set ribs disposed for registration with complemental ribs of adjoining frame units, channel rails engageable with said ribs and disposed in the in- Wardly recessed portions of said stiles, and threaded fastening means accessible from the exterior of said frame units for maintaining said channel rails in clamping engagement with said ribs, said' fastening means being entirely disposed between the parallel vertical planes defining the front and back surfaces of said wall frame units.
HARVEY WILEY CORBETT. HENRY HASENBURGER..