US 2138999 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 6, 1938. w w, CLARK 2,138,999
VACUUM 'LIFT DEVI C E Filled June `30, 1957 v mor V/M M@ Patented Dec. 6, 1938 UNITED L,s'rA'i S @PATENT Torri/.CE
vvAQiJiHwil Lnr v11F-vivir r Wilmer W. spoken@ t .Application June 3o, 192W,seij'iarrzgi.v v151;;'17
v 1 claim. (Ci. 17o- 156) n. This -invention relates to a vacuum lift device for air and water craft, and it is oneobject of the invention to provide a device of this character of such construction that when it is incor- 5 porated in the construction of an airplane orthe 1 like, a vacuum may be created over the samelj and exert an upward pull which will'cau the 1 air craft to rise easily. Another object of the invention is thepr h) vision of a vacuum lift device which may mounted over the fuselage or the wingso a air craft or over the hull of a boat. whe may very effectively serve its. purpose and at h same time be out of the way. n
Another object of the invention is .to p
means whereby the vacuum created can'befcontrolled and thus the lifting power ofthe device regulated. It will thus be seen that by properly. adjusting the device, an airplane .or other air craft can be caused to rise easily and after reaching a desired altitude caused to remain at this altitude.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a device of this character which is of simple construction and very efiicient in its operation.
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, wherein Figure 1 is a top plan view of an air craft equipped with two of the improved vacuum lift devices.
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken vertically through one of the vacuum lift devices.
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view through a vacuum lift device of a modified construction.
Figure 4 is a sectional view of another modified form of the invention.
Figure 5 is a sectional view of still another modified construction.
In the accompanying drawing, the improved vacuum lift device has been shown incorporated in the construction of an airplane but, as previously set forth, it may be employed in the construction of a water craft such. as a subimarine, fast motor boat of the hydroplane type permit to rise easily and maintain a Substantially constant height after rising to the desired altitude. ,I The airplane illustrated in Figure l'hasthe usual body or fuselage I having side wingswZ which are very short, and a tall assembly iof a conventional form and construction. Therehas also been provided the usual propeller I at the` ure 1- Their-naif :j downwardlyth'rough a vstationary plate I5 which "is fixed upon the body I of the airplane in any desired manner .and carries a stuffing box I6 which fits about the shaft and prevents leak- V` ageof airgabout, the Jshaft.1 The shaft may be or other air or water craft which it is desired to that it projects forwardly of the wings. While ytwo vacuum lift devices have been shown in use,
it is .to `be understood that any numberfound able-'may be provided. y th"1'acuum`devi cesis constructed as 'j 2- a-nd consists of. afcyllndrical its, upper :and klower ends by LA shaft lll extends .vertically the 'drum .axially thereof and has its in`a 's`ocket I I carried by theL 1n ntem'ediateportion engaged sleevedjIZ of the, head 9. -V vriB lades I3 l pper edges I3'.extend7frorn the dges h areformed upongfront faces 15 adesy are'f'an importantl `feature as they "serve''ltd reduce, air friction and pressure at upperends of .the bladesl In order. to` brace'the varies or blades therev have been provided hoops I4 disposed in vertical spaced relationvto eachg0` other and firmly secured to the outer freefside; edges of the blades.A These hoopsmaintainthe blades in proper spaced relation to i each` other and also prevent them from loosing the. curvature shown in Figure l. The curvedbladesare set close together and while the best proportions 5 for practical use can only be determined by actual use, the number of blades in a device having a circular diameter ofzthreeffeetand a hub diameter of twelve inches will be. about thirty blades. The height of the-,bndes shoum 3 be about three feet. The reason for making the blades so high ln proportion to the width is to permit of running the device at a slowerspeed or, in other words, a fewer number of revolutions per minute and yetmake sure that no air entering at the top can Areach the bottom before being thrown out by centrifugal force. Referringto this figure it will be seen that the blades of the devicer5. curve.in an opposite'direction to that of thel device 8, this beirfdue posite dhetins" own by the` arrows in Fig'- 1-.:I0 of each device extends ofany. desired 'lengthi and extend downwardly 50 into the` bodyforfconnection with suitable driv- Y ing means. The plate also carries valvesll Iwhich are lscrewedinto lopenings formed in theplate -and connected-with pipes'IB which may be led gfromQa" suitablesource of ,air under pressure.' or 55 merelyadmit atmospheric air to pass upwardly through theplate I5 Flow of air upwardly through` the Vvalves IIg'controls operation of .the vacuum lift ginY a manner to be hereinafter set forth. It isimportant that dependable airtight 2. f valves capable of quick, accurate anddelicate adjustmentbe us 4 During use of the airplane to which the vacuum lift devices have been applied, rotary motion is imparted to the shafts In and the drums and blades carried thereby will have rotary motion imparted to them. The two devices rotate in opposite directions so that they will not exert a spinning edect upon the airplane. Therefore. the airplane will not be twisted and subjected to undesired strains and the normal ease with which it can be steered will not suffer any ill effects. As the devices rotate at a high rate oi' speed, air will be thrown outwardly by centrifugal force at the sides from between the curved blades as indicated by the arrows in Figure 2. Naturally. air from the surrounding atmosphere will tend to be forced into the device by atmospheric pressure to replace that thrown out by centrifugal force. No airl can` enter through the bottoms of the rotating members because the bottoms are closed in each form illustrated. Air cannot enter through the sides because a stream of air is being constantly thrown out by centrifugal force from each space between the blades and the curvature of the blades is such that even a strong wind blowing against a side of a rotating member cannot enter the spaces between the blades but will be deflected by the curvature at the outer ends of the rapidly moving blades. Therefore, the only place air can enter the rotating members is through the tops thereof. By having the centers closed at the tops as shown in Figures l, 2 and 5 air must .enter the rotating members at a distance from the centers of rotation. Ordinary atmospheric pressure is sufflcient to force the air into the devices to replace that thrown out of centrifugal force. The rotating members are intended to revolve at such speed that air forced in at the tops by atmospheric pressure will be thrown out the side's before it'can reach the bottoms of the spaces between the blades. The air at the bottoms of the spaces will be thrown out by centrifugal force and since no more air can get intol the bottoms of the spaces so long as therotating members continue to rotate at the reduisite speed, it follows that a vacuum will be formed at the bottom of each space between the blades of all the rotating members which will be equal to a vacuum over all or nearly all of the area covered by the rotating members. Lift will be gained from the atmospheric pressure exerted against the under side of the plate or cone closing the bottom of each device. Buch atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch so that a device which produces a high vacuum with the rotating member and which has an effective circular diameter of three feet, will have a theoretical lift at sea level of about seven tons or more. This will exert a lifting force and, permit the air plane to take oi very quickly as it will have a tendency to move vertically olf the ground. The devices also exert a gyroscopic ei'fect which tends to stabilize the airplane during flight and when properly adjusted permit the airplane to malntain itself at a constant altitude instead of gradually increasing its altitude. Maintaining the airplane at a constant altitude isaccomplished by opening lthe valves until a sufiicient quantity of air is allowed to pass 'upwardly through the casacca plate Il to counteract the lifting effect and when itis desired to descend, the valves can be opened until a sumcient quantity of air passes upwardly into the vacuum lift devices to permit downward movement of the airplane. It will thus be seen that the airplane can be allowed to sink and descend in a vertical path until it rests upon the ground. A safe landing can, therefore, be made during a fog as forward motion during landing is not necessary. At the beginning of a flight.' rotation of the vacuum lift devices is started with the valves wide open and the valves then slowly closed until the fuselage lifts slightly upon its springs. One side may lift first in case the airplane is unevenly loaded, in which case the valves will be adjusted until the lift is even.
'I'his will trim the load and the valves can then be closed equally and the airplane will rise from the ground when the engine is speeded up and suillcient pull exerted by the vacuum lift devices. 'Ihe propeller will impart forward movement to the airplane. The extent to which the valves are closed and the speed at which the vacuum lift devices rotate controls the speed at which the airplane rises. When a desired altitude is reached it is merely necessary to open the valves until no further lifting action is exerted beyond that necessary to maintain the air plane at the attained altitude.
In Figure 3 there has been illustrated a modified form of vacuum lift device. In this embodiment of the invention, the blades I9 radiate from a cone-shaped hub 20 formed with a socket to receive the upper end of the drive shaft 2|. A bottom plate 22 is provided and serves to insure outward movement of air by centrifugal force as indicated by the arrows. This vacuum lift device is of considerably less height than the vacuum lift illustrated in Figure 2.
The vacuum lift device mayalso be formed as shown in Figure 4 wherein there has been provided a conical bottom 22 from which rises a tubular hub 24. 'I'he blades 25 project radially from the hub and at their lower ends are welded or otherwise firmly secured to the bottom. The shaft 26 extends through the hub and is secured therein in any desired manner.
In Figure 5 there has been illustrated another modified construction. This form of vacuum lift device has a tubular hub 21 from which the blades 28 radiate and at the top of the hub there has been mounted a cap-plate or disc 2l which is of approximately one-half the diameter of the entire device so that air drawn downwardly will follow the path indicated by the arrows and be thrown outwardly by centrifugal force. The plate 30 corresponds to the plate l5 and may carry valves corresponding to the valves I1 if so desired.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new is:
A vacuum lift device comprising a tubular hub, a disc surrounding the upper end of said hub and closing the upper end thereof, and radially curved blades extending radially from said hub and projecting radially beyond the periphery of the disc, a stationary plate under ,the blades and hub and constituting a barrier for lower ends of spaces between the blades.