US 2139441 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
D. c. CLARKE REFRIGERATOR Dec. 6, 1938.
4 SheetsSheet l Filed July 1, 1933 IU'II-F W INVENTOR Q. Q Q Yuk. W
A TTORNEY D. C. CLARKE Dec. s, 1938.
REFRIGERATOR .Filed July 1, 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TTORNEZS Dec. 6, 1938. D. c. CLARKE 2,139,441
REFRIGERATOR Fild July 1, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENT OR ATTORNEY QH M D. c. CLARKE Dec. 6. 1938.
REFRIGERATOR 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 1, 1933 INVENTOR ATTORJVEY" i\ii:iilllilllll Patented Dec. 6, 1938 t i UNITED STATES PATENT orricr.
REFRIGERATOR Douglas C. Clarke, Mountain Lakes, N. 1., as-
signor to Edgar Alfred Self, New York, N. Y.
Application July 1, 1933, Serial No. 678,603
21 Claims. (01. 62-89) This invention relates to refrigerators and Fig. 8 is a horizontal sectional view along the more especially to refrigerators for domestic use. lines 8-8 of Fig. 6;
An object of the invention is to provide a re- Fig. 9 is a similar view along the lines 99 of frigerator which will conserve the cold air to Fig. 6; an unusually large extent. Fig. 10 is a perspective view of another form 5 A further object is the provision of a refrig-, of refrigerator embodying the invention, showing erator from which articles may be removed with one tray in an outward position and another tray a particularly high degree of ease and efficiency. partly projecting; v
A still further object is the provision of a re- Fig. 11 is a vertical section along the line li--ll 10 frigerator which is particularly well adapted for in l0 household use, Fig. 12 is a horizontal sectional view along the An additional object is the provision of a reline lZ-i2 of F g. 11; frigerator which can be economically manufac- 3 s a ear pe pe ve V ew With the D- tured'and assembled, which has an attractive aperating mechanism dotted in;
pearance, in which the available space is efficient Fig. 14 is a detail end view of the ice-cube l5 ly utilized, and which will effectively carry out trays in the ice-cube comp r m the purposes for which it is intended. Fig. 15 is a longitudinal sectional view along Still another object is the provision of a refrlgthe line i5-l5 of Fig. 14;
erator adapted for the efiicient transfer of heat Fig. 16 is a sectional detailed view from a point from the air chamber to the cooling unit in an j to the left f the p v red at Fig. 10 show- 20 d t; manner ing in detail a special form of mounting for the Another object is the provision of automatic retrays of Figfrigerators wherein freedom from frosting and 7 s a V ew Similar to 16 Showing the dehydration problems may be obtained. parts when the tray is in an outward position; 95 Other objects of the invention will in part be Figs. 18 and 19 are hor z a d v a obvious and will in part appear hereinafter. tional views respectively of a modified form of the The invention accordingly comprises an article refrigerator shown in Figs. 10 through 15, Fig. of manufacture possessing the features, proper- 19 bein S er e S on a ong the line ties, and the relation of elements which will be. 19-49 of to exemplified in the article hereinafter described Fig. 20 is a perspective view of still another and the scope of the application of which will form of construction embodying the invention;
be indicated in the claims. Fig. 21 is a transverse section along the line For a fuller understanding of the nature and 2l2| of Fig. 20; and
objects of the invention reference should be had Fi 22 is a pe p View Of e Cooling and to the following detailed description taken in conheat-transfer portions of the construction shown nection with the accompanying drawings, in in which: v In ordinary refrigerators, particularly refrig- Figure l is a perspective view of one form of erators designed for household use, the opening refrigerator embodying the invention, showing of a door permits the cold air contained in the one of the box-like trays with its associated sup- -refrigerator to pour out and hot air to move in. 40
plemental tray both in outward position; So marked is the rush of cold air from the re- Fig, 2 i 1 a, similar view showing the supplemenfrigerator that a ribbon positioned near the tal tray in inward position; bottom of the door will be blown outwardly by r Fig. 3 is a similar view showing the other boxthe flow. Since a household refrigerator is .Li like tray in outward position; opened several times during the preparation of Fig. 4 is a detail perspective view of the supe a Single a t W ll be See t t a large plemental tray shown in Fig. 1 and its mounting quantity of ice or power is required to constantmeans; ly cool ofi the hot air which replaces the pre- Fig. 5 is a rear perspective view with the operviously chilled air. 5o ating mechanism dotted in; Another objection to the ordinary type of re- Fig. 6 is avertical sectional view along the line irigerators lies in the fact that in the usual 66 of Fig. 5; household refrigerator the contents remain Fig. 7 is a horizontal sectional view along the wholly within the casing, and in order to be reline l-I in Fig. 6, with certain parts broken away moved must be individually lifted and withdrawn, 5 to reveal the details of the valve means; so that in order to lift out an article in the back of the refrigerator, several articles in the front of the refrigerator must first be removed.
With the foregoing and other difllculties in view, the present invention contemplates the provision of a refrigerator having individual boxlike, air-retaining trays which can be moved, preferably on a pivot, from the casing to permit ready access to all the contents thereof, and the provision of constructions of such nature that each box-like tray, either alone or together with a compartment which contains it, provides a basin for the retention of the cold air which was contained in the tray when it was within the refrigerator. The invention further contemplates the provision of a refrigerator wherein no flow of cold air from an upper tray to a lower tray can occur when the lower tray has been moved outwardly. Such outward flow of cold air would naturally result in a compensating flow of hot air into the upper tray and/or its compartment, and would further result in the wastage of a large quantity of cold air which would be pushed out of the lower tray as it was closed. In accordance with the invention, the flow of cold and warm air between several trays and/or compartments when a tray is moved outwardly may be prevented either by the provision of continuously acting flow-preventing means or by the provision of means for closing an upper opening when a lower door or tray is moved outwardly.
The invention also contemplates the provision of various features of construction whereby the operation, appearance or contour of a refrigerator may be enhanced. Among such features are the provision of trays which are adapted to be swung substantially 180 so as to project a minimum amount with respect to their capacity; the provision of trays which may be swung outwardly in either direction; the provision of supplemental trays whereby the holding capacity of one of-the box-like trays may be increased; the location of various parts of the mechanism in the rear corner portions of the refrigerator; the provision of improved holding means for ice cube trays, etc.
The tendency toward condensation and frostfrosting is likewise a serious drawback to present.
day automatic refrigerators; and with these and other problems in view, the invention further contemplates the provision in a refrigerator arranged for the indirect cooling of an air chamber, of a liquid which will transfer heat in an especially effective and efficient manner; and the provision of a refrigerator with indirect cooling means so arranged as to maintain continued freezing temperatures in one com artment and normal refrigeration temperatures in another compartment.
In the drawings there are illustrated two of the many forms of refrigerators which may be constructed in accordance with the invention. The exemplified forms are particularly adapted for household use, and are of the electricallyoperated type. It will be understood, however, that the invention is adapted for use with a wide variety of types of refrigerators.
The form of refrigerator exemplified in Figs. 1 through 9 includes a casing 20 which is generally rectangular in shape, and an enclosing body of insulating walls 2| including doors 22, 23 and 24. The door 22 opens into an ice cube compartment 25, the door 23 into a food compartment 26 and the door 24 into a food and bottle compartment 21. A plate 28 separates the compartments 25 and 28, and a plate 29 separates the compartments 26 and 21. The doors 23 and 24 form respectively a part of the box-like trays 30 and 3|, each having a bottom wall 33 and an arcuate wall 34. The trays are mounted on a centrally disposed vertical rod 35, so that as a door is opened the tray of which it forms a part is swung outwardly. The trays in the present instance are semi-circular and the doors are adapted to swing through an arc of substantially 180. Sealing means 36 and 31, which may be composed of rubber, are provided on the casing tightly to seal the space between the casing and the walls 33 and 34 of the trays when they are in an outward position. It will accordingly be seen that as either of the trays is swung outwardly the cold air in the tray-containing compartments cannot escape, but tends to settle into a basin provided by the bottom of the tray and the bottom of the compartment. The top of the tray and the compartment receives warm air from the outside, but the difference in temperature of the two layers of air will ordinarily be sufllcient to prevent any considerable mixing until the door is again closed, when the closing action will result in pushing out of the tray a large part of the warm air which is contained in the upper part of the tray and compartment and in pushing out only a small part of the cold air which was originally contained in the compartment. Accordingly, there is a very marked saving in cold air and a relatively slight need for re-cooling after the opening of a door or the removal or deposit of an article from or in the refrigerator.
If the compartments are permanently sealed one from another, there will, as will be evident, be very little loss in he cold air from the refrigerator. However, it is often preferable from an economical standpoint to cool the entire refrigerator directly by the flow of air from a single cooling unit, and to this end the plates 28 (Fig. 7) and 29 (Fig. 8) are provided, in the present instance, ,with openings 38 (Fig. 7); the plate 29 being disposed sufficiently below the bottom wall of the tray 30 so that cold air may flow under the tray to the openings. In order, however, to prevent the warm air which flows into the top of a compartment when the tray is opened from replacing the cold air in the compartment above it, means are provided to close the opening above a tray at the beginning of the outward swinging movement of the tray. The particular mechanism exemplified in Fig. 7 comprises valve plates 39 riding in tracks 40. Each plate is pressed outwardly by a spring 4| and is formed with openings 42 adapted to register with the openings 38 when the'door is closed. The outward movement of the plates 38 is limited by Steps 43 at the ends of thetracks so that when the tray is opened the openings 42 will be in non-registering position as indicated in Fig. 7. By this means all flow of air between an upper and a lower compartment is prevented when a tray in the lower compartment is in outward position, whereas a free flow of air through the refrigerator is permitted when the doors are closed. It will be apparent that there is no need of sealing the space between the compartments 26 and 21 when the tray 30 is in outward position, since the cold air in the compartment 21 will not rise and the bottom of the tray 3| and the compartment 26 will still serve as a basin for the retention of the cold air which was originallytherein. I
The compartment '25 contains an expansion unit 44, portions of which surround supporting means 45 for ice trays 46. These ice-cube trays are preferably mounted by means such. as illustrated in detail in Figs. 14 and 15. In a chamber 41 at one side of the compartment and outside of the insulation 2|, there is disposed in the present instance a motor 41a and a compressor 48. In ordinary refrigerators, this space is made large enough'to contain also a condenser unit or else the condenser unit is disposed outside of the easing. In the present instance, however, space is conserved by disposing condenser coils in the corner space 49 as indicated -at 5|! (see Fig. 5). If desired, and as hereinafter exemplified, other portions of the operating mechanism may be disposed in such space. By the provision of openings at the top and at the bottom of the chambers 49, a very efficient cooling of the condenser coils may be obtained due to the induced draft through the vertical chambers over thecoils. Vent openings may be formed in the bottom, top or side walls of the casing as desired. In the present instance, openings 5|la are provided in the side of the casing for admitting the air into the bottom of the chambers 49, and openings 5% are provided in the side of ihecasing for the escape of air from the top of these chambers. These corner-chambers provide a large amount of space for the condenser means, which permits a particularly eflicient cooling, and tends to reduce the frequency of the periods wherein the motor must be operated.
In order to reduce the number of compartments in the refrigerator, it is desirable that each tray have considerable depth. Since, however, the ordinary contents of a refrigerator are not particularly high, the invention includes as one of its features the provision of supplemental trays which, in the exemplified construction, provide an extra floor above the floor of each box-like tray. A supplemental tray 5| is provided in the box-like tray 30, and a supplemental tray 52 is provided in the box-like tray 3|. The tray 5| is semicircular in shape and comprises a floor 53 and bracing members 54, which are, in the present instance, suitably perforated to make handles for the removal of same. The tray is mountedupon an arm 55, carrying a sleeve 56, which extends about the pivot rod 35 soithat the tray may be swung inwardly and outwardly with case. In order to permit the tray 5| to be removed so as to clean the compartment 26, or so as to permit the high articles to be placed in the tray 30, the tray 5| is removably mounted on the arm 55 by means of a socket portion 51 adapted to fit over a wedgeshaped member 58 on the arm 55. It may be noted in this connection that the bracing members 54 serve to completely surround the floor of the tray 5| so that any liquidspilled on this floor will not flow back into the compartment but may be readily cleaned from the floor 53 of the tray.
Similarly, the trays 30 and 3| are provided with guard rails 59 which, together with the walls 34, and the doors, serve to prevent materials spilled in these trays from running off on the floor thereof. As will be seen, the tray 5| swings independently of the tray 3|l, so that i. may be left within the compartment, as indicated in Fig. 2, to permit the articles on the floor of the tray 30 to be 'removed, or may be swung ou.wardly, as shown in Fig. 1, to permit articles on the floor of the tray 5| to be removed. The tray 52 is similar to the tray 5|, except that it is only half the size thereof.
Ttis permits half of the tray 3| to be used as a bottle retainenas 52 is normally held in the far end of the tray 3| by means of a catch mechanism 60, including a latch 6|. When the tray 3| is moved outwardly the tray 52 moves outwardly with it, but may be pushed back into the compartment 21 upon the release of the latch. The box-like tray 3| is provided with a small arm 68, which limits the outward movement of the tray 52 and pushes the tray 52 into the far end of the compartment 21 when the door 24 is closed. The tray 52 is pro.- vided with strengthening members 64 similar to the strengthening members 54,- and is removably mounted on' an arm similar to the'arm 55.
If desired there mayalso be provided doors 65, 66 and 61 opening respectively to the chamber 47, to the far side of the compartment 26, and tothe far side of the compartment 21, so as to permit ready access to the chambers in question. for the purpose of repair, cleaning, etc.
The form of refrigerator exemplified inFlgsl 10 through 15 includes a casing 10, which is generally rectangular in shape, and an enclosing body of insulation II and an insulating doorlZ. Within the enclosing body 1| is a chamber 'I3-for a suitable ccoling fluid which may be air, brine or other suitable fluid, but which is preferably a liquid of the type hereinafter exemplified. The inner wall 14 of the chamber I3 is formed of highly conductive material, such as sheet metal, and is semi-cylindrical in shape to provide a space for,
tray thus forms a unit for retaining cold air.
Egress of air from this unit can occur only over the top thereof, so that there is a minimum tendency for cold air therein .to be displaced by hot air above the same.
indicated in Fig. 3. The tray In the present instance, these Each tray 15 is mounted on a centrally-disposed vertical pivot rod 19 by meansof a sleeve 80. This sleeve is mounted on the upstanding wall 18 of the tray. The wall 18 is desirably provided with re-enforcing means 8|. preferably carrying bracing tabs 82 which are secured to the semicylindrical wall H. Suitable ball-bearing means may be provided between the individual trays and roller bearings between the sleeves and the pivot rod, if desired. As will be seen, each tray 15 can be swung in either direction about its pivot so that pressure on either end thereof will initiate an outward swinging movement, which can be completed by drawing out the other end. Desirably, rubber friction members 83 are provided on the inside of the wall 14 so as to assist in setting the trays evenly within the refrigerator to permit the closing of the door 12, and so as to resist movement of the tray beyond a position, so that the outward swinging movement will not automatically carry the tray back into the re-' frigerator. Rubber cushion members 83a are provided on the front" walls of thetrays. As will be seen, each tray provides, in itself, a basin for the retention of cold air. As the tray is pushed outwardly in either direction, warm air from the outside follows it in. This air, however, is pushed out when the tray is again closed, so that the only loss is through such slight chilling of this air as may occur during the short time when the tray is in an outward position. The'air, which is in the tray loses some of its chill, as by radiation, etc., while the tray is pulled out. In order to permit the contents of the'traysto be readily viewed whendoor I! is opened each tray II is \7 provided with a transparent window ljb.
In the present exempliflcation there is provided an 'ice cube compartment 04 and a bottle com- 'partment 05, which are provided with individual chamber I3. This mechanism comprises a motor 02 and a compressor pump 93, as wellas condenser coils 84 and 951 Openings in the casing at these corner portions are provided as shown at 96 and 01 to permit a draft of air to flow over the mechanism. As above indicated, such a construction tendency for condensation to form in the trayprovides for efficient and economical operation, as well as for the economical utilization of space.
It is to be observed that since the chamber I3 is sealed, no condensation problems arise in connection therewith, and since the temperature of the fluid in chamber 15 higher than the temperature of the fluid in the expansion chamber, and since every small amount of hot moist air enters the refrigerator when it is opened, the
compartment is minimized. Such condensation as occurs may be caught in a sump 98, from which it may be removed when necessary; Ordinarily the temperature of the fluid in the chamber I3 will be kept higher than the freezing point of water, and in such case none of the frosting which has proved so troublesome in the ordinary refrigerator can occur. Furthermore, the marked tendency for dehydration which is a serious drawback in ordinary electric refrigerators is not present.
The ice cube trays 99 are mounted on edge supports I00, carried on members It, forming a forwardly-inclined gutter I 02. Any liquid spilling from the trays runs down the gutter and is collected in the sump I00, from which it may be readily removed by a cloth.
An additional feature of the invention resides in the provision, in a refrigerator having an air chamber and an elevated cooling unit, of improved means for cooling the air chamber. Such means as contemplated by the invention is an enclosure which embodies a wall of the cooling unit and a wall of the air chamber and which .provides a completely enclosed heat transfer i contemplated by the invention is adapted for use in refrigerators wherein the air chamber, the trays therein, the cooling unit, the freezing unit,
etc., are ofany well known or suitable type. In the present exemplification the chamber I0 is nearly filled with a liquid I04 which has afreezing point lower than the temperature at the wall of the cooling unit and which has a large change i in specific gravity between the normal upper temperature in the air chamber and the normal temperature of the freezing unit, For instance, when S0: is the gas utilized in the freezing unit, the liquid I04 should have a freezing point lower than 14. F. and should have a high degree of change in specific gravity between this temperature and 50 which embrace the normal temperature range of the air chamber. The liquid utilized should likewise be one which will not corrode the walls of the chamber, and-preferably, one which is relatively non-explosive so that it will not be dangerous if any leaks in the chamber should occur during operation.
Ethylene glycol (which is readily obtainable on the market as under the trade name "Prestone"), either alone or in admixture with water, is particularly desirable for this use. Pure ethylene glycol has a low freezing point (10 to 12 F.), has a change in specific gravity with temperature which is about'twice that of water at ordinary refrigeration ranges, is a non-elec- 'c trolytic compound which will not .attack metal, and has good surface-wetting qualities which promote the rapid transfer of heat thereto from the back wall of the refrigerator and from it to the cooling unit. As is well known, most mixtures of ethylene glycol and water have a still lower freezing point than pure ethylene glycol, a mixture containing 3 parts of water and 97 parts of ethylene glycol having a freezing point as low as 47 F.,and have other desirable qualities .of pure ethylene glycol in a high degree. In the event that the use of ethylene glycol, or mixtures containing it, is for any reason undesirable, various other liquids may be used, as, for example, mixtures of glycerin and water, methyl alcohol and water, ethyl alcohol and water, pure alcohols, diethylene glycol, suitable oils, etc. For instance, a mixture of 70 parts of glycerin and 30 parts of water has a freezing point of -38 F. and a good cubical expansion (1. e., a high change in specific gravity with temperature), and a mixture of 71 parts of ethyl alcohol and 29 parts of water'has a freezing point of about F. and a good cubical expansion.
In instances wherein more positive means than the members are desired to assure that the trays are properly centered in an inward or in an outward position, these members may be supplemented or replaced by other suitable mechanism. One form of such mechanism is shown in Figs. 16 and 17. In this form of construction the diametric wall of the tray carries an upper sleeve I05 and also a lower sleeve I00 which is in the form of a cam with its upper surface inclined downwardly to the left of Fig. 10. Above this sleeve is a cam member I01 having a similarly inclined lower surface. This cam is vertically keyed on an extension I00 of an annulus I00 which is fixed to the pivot rod 10. The member I0I is resiliently held in a downward position by a spring 0 so that, as the tray is swung toward an inward position, the pressure of the spring on the member I0I will tend to center the sleeve I06 so as to bring the right and left-hand edges of the tray flush with the normal base of the refrigerator. In order to hold the trays in a fully accessible outward position, the sleeve I06 is formed with a detent II I in which the lowermost point of the member I01 fits, as shown in Fig. 17, when the tray is in an outward position. It is to be noted that as soon as the tray is given a slight movement inwardly, the cam member I01 under the influence of the spring IIO will swing the tray around to a fully inward position.
-A distinctly annoying feature in present-day automatic refrigerators is the necessity for defrosting at frequent intervals. The construction 7 shown in Figs. through eliminates all necessity of defrosting, since evenif the liquid I04 reaches a temperature so that frosting will occur, the frost will disappear when. the liquid and without tendency-toward undesirablefr'eezreturns to its normal higher. temperature.
In many instances, howeverg-it is desirable to maintain a low temperature in the ice-cube chamber for a long period of time, as throughout a hot summer day to provide ice cubes in quantity, and the invention contemplates the provision of a refrigerator wherein ice cube production may be maintained as desired .without unduly cooling the air chamber of therefrigerator ing of the contents'of the air chamber.
In Figs. 18 and 19 there is shown a modified form'of the construction shown in Figs. 10
and the expansion unit, and a liquid-containing chamber II5 at the re'arof the trays. Conduits .I I0 and III are provided for connecting respectively the tops and bottomsof the chambers thus formed, to provide for the circulation of fluid. A portion of the chamber II5 extends under the bottle compartment,-as shown at II6a. In the conduit I I] there is provideda valve unit II8 which includes a thermostatic device of any well-known or suitable type; disposed in the fluid contained in the chamber I I5. This valve is normally arranged to be closed and is arranged to be opened only when the temperature of the liquid in the chamber I I5 rises above a degree at which it should eiliciently cool the air chamber containing the trays. If ethylene glycol or otherlow-freezing-point liquid is used, the temperature in the chamber I I4 and within the ice-cube compartment/may be kept well below the freezing point for a long period of time without'cooling the air chamber to a point where the contents will be frozen.
This feature of the invention is applicable to a wide variety of types of refrigerators.
There is exemplified in Figs. 20, 21 and 22 a conventional automatic refrigerator constructed to embody this feature. The refrigerator includes an insulated casing II9, an insulated door I20, stationary trays I2I in the refrigeration chamber, compressor and pump unit I22, condenser means I23, and, an expansion unit I24 carrying an ice-cube compartment I25 in which ice-cube trays I26 are contained, all of conventional construction. An insulating wall I21 provides. a chamber I20 for maintaining a. heattransfer fluid in contact with the cooling "unit I24 and about the ice-cube compartment I26. At the back of the refrigerator there is installed a plate I 25 which is bent out so as to provide, in conjunction with the rear wall of the refrigerator, a chamber I30 in the form of a long continuous conduit. This conduit communicates with the top of the chamber I20 at I3I and with the bottom of the chamber I28 at I32 through the medium of a pipe I33 so that the whole pruvidesa heat transfer chamber I34. A valve unit I35, whichjs thermostatically controlled by any well known or suitable means in response to the air in the tray compartment, controls the flow between the division I20 and I30 of the chamber I34. The slightly chilled' ethylene glycol or other fluid in the chamber I20 is admitted to conduit I30 only when the temperature in the air chamber rises to an undesired degree. Otherwise the low temperature liquid in the chamber I28 acts to assist in the rapid freezing of water in the icecube trays. Means such as are commonly employed in automatic refrigerators or other. suitable means to expedite or reduce the freezing action may be employed. Such means may consist of a control lever I36 which may be suitably connected with conventional control means.
The feature of the invention here under consideration is adapted for use not only in socal'led automatic" refrigerators, but also in refrigerators wherein the cooling unit embodies -areplaceable cooling medium which acts at a low temperature; since, as will be apparent, the advantages of maintaining a freezing chamber at a particularly low temperature and a refrigeration chamber at a relatively higher temperature will be present regardless of the type of low temperature cooling unit used. For instance, a dry-ice compartment may be utilized as the cooling unit in a construction such as shown in Figs. 18 and 19 or Figs. 20 through 22.
It will thus be seen that there may be provided in accordance with the invention refrigerators embodying one or more of several highly desirable features which make for efiiciency, accessibility,
convenience, and freedom from various drawbacks in the types of commercial refrigerators commonly provided for automatic used.
The invention accordingly comprises an article of manufacture possessing the features, properties, and the relation of elements which will be exemplified in the article hereinafter described and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the claims.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
so that it may be swung outwardly, said tray and said compartment being arranged to provide,
when the tray is swung outwardly, a basin for the retention of the cold air which was contained in said tray, means permitting the entrance into said compartment of cold air when said tray is in said compartment and means for preventing the entrance into said compartment of additional cold air which would be pushed out of the refrigerator during the closing action of the tray.
2. A refrigerator comprising a semi-circular box-like tray, and means at the front of the refrigerator for centrally pivoting said tray, said tray having an imperforate bottom wall and a. semi-cylindrical wall which prevents the egress of cold air when the tray is swung to an outward position, and means providing a compartment in the refrigerator for the reception of said tray, the space within said tray being substantially as great as the space within said compartment.
3. A refrigerator comprising a compartment, a semi-circular box-like tray normally situated in said compartment and movable outwardly therefrom to permit the contents to be lifted from the tray; meansproviding a centrally disposed vertical pivot to permit said tray to be swung outwardly by substantially a 180 movement. said tray and said compartment being arranged to provide when the tray is swimg outwardly a basin for the retention of cold air which was contained -in said tray means permitting the entrance into said compartment of cold air when said tray isin said compartment and means for preventing the entrance into said compartment of additional cold air which would be pushed out of the refrigerator during :the closing action of the tray.
4. A refrigerator comprising a compartment, a box-like tray normally situated in said compartment and movable outwardly therefrom to permit the contents to be lifted from the tray, said tray and said compartment being arranged to provide when the: tray is moved outwardly, a basin for the retention of the cold air which was contained in said tray, an additional compartment above the aforesaid compartment, an opening between said compartments, and means for closing said opening in responseto the initial outward movement of said tray.
5. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted box-like tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator to permit the contents to be lifted from the tray, and a supplemental tray normally'positioned within the main tray and having a floor spaced above the floor of the main tray and adapted to be swung independently of the main tray when the main tray is in an outward position to permit the removal of 'the contents from the floor of the main tray .or from the floor of the supplemental tray as desired.
6. A refrigerator comprising a compartment, a box-like tray normally situated in said compartment and movable outwardly therefrom to permit the contents to be lifted from the tray,
means providing a vertical pivot for mounting said tray so that it may be swung outwardly, said tray and said compartment being arranged to provide, when the tray is swung outwardly, a basin for the retention of the cold air which was contained in said tray, means for preventing the entrance into said compartment of additional cold air which would be pushed out of the refrigerator during the closing action of the tray, and a supplemental tray removably mounted within the main tray and independently mounted on the same pivotal axis to permit the supplemental tray to be within the compartment when the main tray is in an outward position.
7. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted box-like tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator to permit materials to be lifted from the floor thereof, a supplemental tray which is a smaller segment of a circle than the main tray to permit articles of considerable height to be placed in the near portion of the main tray, means to mount said supplemental tray for movement independently of the main tray, and means to assure that said supplementaltray is-drawn to an accessible position by the omward movement of the main tray.
8. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted boxlike tray formed with an imperforate bottom wall and with imperforate upstanding straight and arcuate walls, and enclosure means within the refrigerator closely approaching the top and sides of said tray when the refrigerator is closed.
9. A refrigerator comprising a plurality of semi-circular centrally-pivoted trays each formed with imperforate bottom, semi-cylindrical, and diametrical walls, and disposed one above another with the bottom of one tray subarea-141 semi-cylindrical and diametrical walls of a lowe tray whereby when a tray is opened no space for the reception of warm air above the open tray is provided.
10. A refrigerator comprising a food chamber and a plurality of pivoted box-like trays having imperforate front, bottom and arcuate walls, said trays substantially filling the space within said chamber..
11. A refrigerator comprising means providing a plurality of superimposed non-communicating compartments, a plurality of, similarly arcuate, box-like trays, having imperforate bottom walls and arcuate side walls, and means for pivoting said trays so that in one position they are within said compartments, the spacewithin each tray being substantially as great as therespective compartment.
12. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted boxlike tray adapted to be swung out of said 'refrigerator, having an upstanding arcuate wall and having an opening in one' of the sides of said tray, said opening leading from the interior of said tray to the interior of said refrigerator when said tray is not entirely within said refrigerator, and means poviding a compartment within said refrigerator for the reception of said,tray, the
space within said traybeing substantially as like tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator, and means providing a centrally disposed vertical pivot topermitsaid trays to be swung outwardly, said tray being formed with a wall which also constitutes at least a. part of one of the walls of said refrigerator, said tray having, an opening in one of the sides of said tray, said opening leading fromthe interior of said tray to the interior of said refrigerator when said tray is not entirely within said refrigerator whereby air in said tray may remain in said refrigerator when said tray is removed from said refrigerator.
14. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted boxlike tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator, and means providing a centrally disposed vertical pivot to permit said trays to be swung outwardly, said tray being formed with a wall which also constitutes at least a part of one of the walls of said refrigerator, said tray having an opening on one of the sides of said tray, said opening leading from the interior of said tray to the interior of said refrigerator when said tray is not entirely within said refrigerator, said side, when said refrigerator is closed, being adjacent to another part of said wall of said refrigerator.
15. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted boxlike tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator, said box-like tray having one wall which also at least in part constitutes at least a part of one of the walls of said refrigerator, and being and having an upstanding arcuate wall connecting two points of said first-mentioned wall of said tray, and means providing a compartment in which said tray is situate when said refrigerator is closed, the space within said tray being -sub- ,stantially as great as the space within said oompartment.
16. A refrigerator comprising a1 rectangular casing, and one or more box-like trays adapted to be swung out of said casing, each tray comprising an arcuate side portion and condenser rotatable about an axis in said wall of said tray,
stantially in contact with the upper edge of the means positioned in said casing adjacent said 1| arcuate portion and insulated therefrom, whereby said trays and said condenser means may occupy substantially all of the space at a predetermined level in said casing when said refrigerator is closed, and whereby said trays may be rotatably removed from the interior of said refrigerator without interference with said condenser means.
17. A refrigerator comprising a plurality of compartments, a plurality of box-like trays normally situated in the refrigerator and movable outwardly therefrom to permit the contents to be lifted fromthe tray, each tray being formed with wall portions to prevent the egress of cold air except in an upward direction when the tray is open, and means to prevent the flow of cold air from an upper compartment to a lower compartment when the lower tray is open to any material extent less than complete withdrawal.
18. A refrigerator comprising a casing having a predetermined volume, a semi-circular boxlike tray having upstanding semi-cylindrical and diametrical imperforate walls and occupying only a part of said volume, means providing a centrally disposed vertical pivot to permit the-tray to be swung outwardly of the refrigerator, and means to prevent the passage into the remainder of the refrigerator of warm air which moves inwardly as the tray is swung outwardly whereby substantially the entire body of warm air will be pushed out again as the tray is swung inwardly. I
19. A refrigerator comprising a casing having a predetermined volume, a semi-circular boxy like tray having upstanding semi-cylindrical and diametrical imperforate walls and occupying only a part of said volume, means providing a centrally disposed vertical pivot to permit the tray to be swung outwardly of the refrigerator by pressure on either side thereof, and means to prevent the passage into the remainder of the refrigerator of warm air which moves inwardly as the tray is swung outwardly whereby substantially the entire body of warm air will be pushed out again as the tray is swung inwardly;
20. A refrigerator comprising a casing having a predetermined volume, a plurality of verticallydisposed semi-circular centrally-pivoted trays and occupying only a part of said volume, each formed with an imperforate bottom wall and imperforate semi-cylindrical and diametrical walls to provide a basin for the retention of cold air, and each independently movable to a position outside of said refrigerator to permit the contents to be lifted therefrom; and means to prevent the passage into the remainder of the refrigerator of warm air which moves inwardly as a tray is swung outwardly whereby substantially again as the tray is swung inwardly.
21. A refrigerator comprising a pivoted boxlike tray adapted to be swung out of said refrigerator to permit the contents to be lifted from the tray, and a supplemental tray normally positioned within the main tray and having a floor spaced above the floor of the main tray and adapted to be swung independently of the main tray when the main tray is in an outward position to permit the removal of the contents from the floor of the main tray or from the floorof the supplemental tray as desired, there being an opening in the wall of said box-like trayat least as large as, and in registry with, the vertical contour of said supplemental tray whereby said boxlike tray may be swung out and said supplemental tray may remain in said refrigerator when said box-liketray is in outward position.
DOUGLAS 0. CLARKE.