US 2140220 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 13, 1938. w. COLVIN, JR
Filed Oct. 17, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet l 14427/0/77 Co/r/h J iWwgs w. COLVIN JR 2,140,220
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Filed Oct. 17, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 Snow; 3
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7 Sheets-Sheet 4 ROOF W. COLVIN, JR
Filed Oct. 17, 1934 Dec. 13, 1938.
Dec. 13, 1938. I w co v JR 2,140,220
ROOF I Filed OCt. 17, 1934 v 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 4 Yu I z M U Dec. 13, 1938.
W. COLVIN, JR
Filed Oct. 17, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 a I J awe whoa Dec. 13, 1938. w, COLVIN'LJR 2,140,220
ROOF Filed Oct. 17, 1934 Sheets-Sheet 7 L? g I 'I I 31mm ww mw Patented Dec. 13, 1938 UNITE D S TAT ES T oFFiciE" ROOF tion of New York Application October 17, 1934, Serial No. 748,736
This inventionlrelates to improvements in roofs and more especiallytoroofs particularly adapted for stadiums, outdoor arenas and'like purposes.
Objects of the invention are to provide an improved roof provided. with efficient means for heating the-outer surface thereof to prevent the accumulation of snow and ice thereon; to provide an improvedzroof including a supporting frame and a fabric covering of light, strong, durable 1 construction provided with electrical means for heatingthe same and'adapted'to be rolled up and unrolled'over the supporting frame to be quickly brought into use'and' removed: as desired.
Another object of: the invention is to provide ,an improved roof. of the character referred to having a'fabric'covering formed of a plurality of: separated sections movable; independently of each. other whereby it may be used to cover an entire arena, or portions thereof or to be rolled up to leave the arena uncovered;
A still further object of the invention is toprovide an improved roof equipped with'electrical heating means providing for heating the entire outer surface or selected areas thereof at will.
The-invention, with other objectsand advantages thereof,v and the particular construction, combinationsand arrangements of parts. comprising the same, will be understood from the'hereinafter contained detailed description when cnsidered in connection with the accompanying drawings, forming part hereof and illustrating embodiments of the invention.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is an end view of a roof constructed inaccordance with the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a top planview with portions broken away. showing the fabric covering partially unrolled over the supporting, frame.
Fig. 3 is an end view, on an enlarged scale, of a portion of the construction illustrated in Figure 1.
Fig; 4 is a side elevation of the'motor anddrive connections at one side of the supporting frame.
Fig. 5 is an end view of' the-upper portion of the frame and theupper stationary roof portion.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the construction illustratedin Figure 5.
Fig. 7 is a detail plan view of the connected upper portions of two of the rafters and showing a portion of the shaft for the'cable sheaves.
Fig. 8. is a section on approximately the line 8-8 of' Figure 2lookingin the direction of thearrows, with parts shown in side elevation- Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the lower end portion of one of the rafters with portions ofad joining sections of the fabric covering.
Fig. 10 is a section on the line l0'l0 of Figure 8.
Fig. 11 is a longitudinal section of on'eof the fabric covering receivingrollers and endportions: of adjoining rollers, with associated partsshown in section and side elevation.
Fig. 12 is a side elevation with parts broken away of an end portion of'one of the'guiderollers and one of the rollers for receivingthe' fabric covering.
Fig. 13 is a section on'the line l3'-i3 of Figure 11 looking in" the direction of the'arrows.-
Fig. 14 is a magnifiedview of a portion'of the woven fabric covering.
Fig. 15 is a greatly magnified view of aportion of one of the composite metal and textile fiber threads of the fabriccovering.
Fig. 16 is a magnified view of an outer end portion of onset the'sections of the fabric cov ering with one of the metal eyelets attachedthereto.
Fig. 17 is a fragmentary top plan View of an outer end portion of one' of the'sections-of' thefabric covering and illustrating how thegroupsof the wire cores of the threads are-connectedat their ends andfolded back.
Fig; 18 is a section on the line i8-=l8'-of:Figure 17.
Fig. 19 is a View illustrating diagrammatically the independent heating units formed-by'the wire cores of threads of the several sections of the fabric covering, and the electrical connections of said heating units with the feed wires.
Fig. 20 is a diagrammatic view showing the grouping and connections of the wire cores; of the threads that form one of the heating units.
Fig. 21 is-a diagrammatic view of a modified: grouping of the wire cores of the threads. forming the heating unit with unconnected strength ening wire core threads between some of the same and providing areas at intervals between the wire cores of the heating unit for the passageof fastening members.
Fig. 22 is a fragmentary top plan view of a fabric covering having wire core threads" grouped and connected as illustrated in Figure 2-1 and secured to supporting members by bolts or equiva-- lent fastening members.
Fig. 23 is an end view of the construction illustrated in Fig. 22.
While specific embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the drawings; it will be'understood that changes and modifications maybe snarl when used in a weaving machine.
made in the particular constructions shown, and the invention may be embodied in other forms as will appeal to those skilled in the art and falling within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Referring to a detailed description of the particular embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figures 1 to 20 of the drawings, the construction shown includes a supporting frame and a fabric covering composed of a plurality of sections connected to rollers extending along either side of the frame and adapted to be rolled around the same and to be unrolled therefrom to extend over the frame. The supporting frame is shown as comprising columns I and trusses each consisting of a lower horizontal member 2 and rafters 3 with the bracing 4, the lower horizontal member 2 of each truss resting upon two of the columns, and the end portions of the trusses extending outwardly beyond the columns. The rafters are formed of channel iron members arranged with their channels facing laterally to receive within the same side marginal portions of the sections of the covering, and are provided with pairs of oppositely disposed guide rollers 5 for the same. The rafters at the ends of the frame are each formed of single channel iron members and are united at their inner ends by gusset plates 6, I. The intermediate rafters each consist of two channel iron members 8, 9, arranged back to back and are connected at their inner end portions by a gusset plate l0 interposed therebetween. The spaces between the vertical flanges of said channel members at either side of the gusset plate H! are closed by plates i I, [2. The columns I at the sides of the frame are suitably connected by longitudinal members (not shown).
In providing my improved roof, I employ woven fabric of the general structure disclosed in my Patent No. 1,965,542 dated July 3, 1934, formed in substantial part of thread composed partially of wire and partially of textile fibers but having to a substantial degree the characteristics of softness and flexibility of a fabric of similar'weave composed wholly of textile threads, the fabric constituting a covering, and the wire cores of some of the composite threads of the fabric being connected and utilized as electrical heating means for the roof.
Referring to Figure 14 of the drawings, in this particular embodiment of the invention, the fabric shown has the entire warp thereof composed of wire reinforced threads l3 and the weft is composed partially of wire reinforced threads l4 and partially of textile threads IS. The reinforced threads of the warp and the weft each comprise a fine easily flexible metal wire core I6 having a flexible insulating coating of enamel l! and enclosed in two layers of wrappings l8, [9 of fibrous material such as threads of silk, wool, cotton or the like, the wrappings of thread being relatively disposed on the core so as to overcome any tendency of the composite thread to kink or The wire cores of the warp threads [3 and the reinforced threads M of the weft may be made of copper, irons, low carbon steels or any other suitable metal or metal alloys. The reinforced threads M of the weft, in this particular embodiment of the invention, are provided for strengthening the fabric, and the cores of these threads are preferably constructed of steel, metal alloy or any other suitable metal that will afford the desired strength. The fabric may be treated with any suitable composition that will tend to make the same fire and water resistant.
Referring to Figure 2 of the drawings, the sections of the fabric covering and heating means are designated generally by the numeral 20. In the drawings by way of example several covering sections at either side of the frame are shown. It will be understood that as many covering sections may be employed as found desirable, that the extent of the supporting frame and the'number of covering sections may be varied to meet different requirements, the invention contemplating a supporting frame of sufficient size with a sufficient number of covering sections to form a roof for outdoor arenas and similar purposes. The
wire cores of the warp threads l3 of each of the sections of the fabric covering are connected as illustrated in Figure 20 to form an electrical heating unit, the wire cores of series of adjacent threads being connected together at their ends, and the adjacent series of the connected wire cores being in turn connected with each other at their ends. The number of wire cores connected in multiple may be varied to best accomplish the desired results depending upon the size of the wire of the cores, the size of the sections of fabric and the amount of heat required. In connecting the series of wire cores the fiber wrappings l8, l9, and the enamel coatings are removed from the end portions thereof, and the bared end portions twisted together and solder applied. The connected end portions of the wire cores are enclosed in bindings 2|, 22 secured by stitching to the end portions of the covering section, the connected end portions of the wire cores at one end of the covering section being bent back upon the covering as illustrated in Figures 17 and 18 before the binding is applied. As shown, eyelets 23 are provided at intervals along this end portion of each of the covering sections.
At the sides of the frame supported for rotation in hangers 24 on the trusses are longitudinally extending shafts 25, 26 each of which has fixed thereon a plurality of rollers 21, 28 for receiving the sections 20 of the fabric covering. Saidrollers are shown formed of spaced slats or longitudinal members 29 secured on rims 30 connected to one of said shafts by spokes 3|. Each of the fabric covering sections 28 at the end portion thereof at which the terminals 32, 33 of its heating unit are located, is secured to one of the rollers 21, 28, the Warp threads l3 of the covering sections extending in the direction of the arrow in Figure 2. The end portion of the section of fabric is attached by screws 34 or other suitable fastening means to one of the slats 29 of the roller, the end of the covering section being folded back and disposed in the space between two of the slats of the roller as shown in Figure 13 of the drawings.
Supported for rotation in suitable bearings on the trusses at either side of the frame are longitudinally extending shafts 35, 36, and 31, 38. The shafts 35, 36 are located at the under side of the trusses at the outer ends thereof and each of the same has fixed thereon a plurality of rollers 39, 43, said rollers being arranged to guide the fabric covering sections 20 from their receiving rollers 27, 28 into the channels of the frame. On shafts 37, 38 which are shown disposed above the covering receiving rollers 27, 28, are fixed cable rollers 4i, 42. Fixedly mounted in the upper portion of the frame in bearings on the gusset plates 6, 1
v and I0 is a longitudinally extending shaft 43, on
which are rotatably mounted a plurality of sheaves 44.
To the free end portion of each of the covering sections 20 are connected a plurality of cables 45, said cables being attached thereto by engagement with the eyelets 23. The two sets of cables connected with the covering sections at opposite sides of the frame extend upwardly from the covering section over the sheaves 44 and thence downwardly, one set of cables being connected to the cable rollers 4| and the other set of cables to the cable rollers 42.
An electric motor is provided at each side of the frame for alternately driving the covering receiving roller shaft and the associated cable roller shaft to unroll the covering sections from their receiving rollers over the frame and to roll up the same. The motors designated 46 are mounted on supports 41 secured to the lower horizontal member 2 of the adjacent end truss. The driving connections of each motor with the covering receiving roller shaft and the cable shaft at one side of the frame include a countershaft 48 connected to the drive shaft 49 of the motor by a belt 55 engaging pulleys 5!, 52 on said shafts, and electric clutches 53, 54 for coupling said shafts with the covering receiving roller shaft and cable shaft respectively. In operation, with the switch of the motor set so that the direction of rotation of the same is clockwise and the clutch 54 operated to connect the countershaft 48 and cable roller shaft, the cable roller shaft will be driven and the covering sections 20 at one side of the frame will be unrolled over the frame. When the clutch 54 is thrown out and the clutch 53 thrown in, and the switch set to change the direction of rotation of the motor, the covering receiving roller shaft will be driven and the covering sections rolled up on the covering receiving rollers.
55 designates an upper roof portion of metal or other suitable material suitably secured to the supporting frame, said upper roof portion forming a covering for the sheaves 44, and the inner end portions of the fabric covering sections 25 extending beneath the same when they are unrolled over the frame. Suitably secured to the upper roof portion and depending from the sides thereof are flexible longitudinally extending strip portions 5? adapted to contact with the upper stretches of the cables and with the fabric covering sections 20, said strip portions being formed of rubber or other suitable material.
Referring to Figure 19 of the drawings, 58 and 59 designate main conductors leading from any suitable source of electrical energy. As shown, the independent heating units 2l of the several covering sections 20 are connected in parallel with the main conductors 58, 59, and each heating unit is provided with a switch 60. As shown in Figure 11, main conductors 58, 59 are arranged to extend along each side of the frame. The branch conductors 6 l 62 leading to each of the heating units are electrically connected to spring contacts 63, 64 mounted on the shaft hangers 24 within the ends of each of the fabric covering receiving rollers 21, 2B.
The spring contacts 63, B4 engage with ring contact members 65, 56 supported on insulating sleeves 61, 68 fixed on the covering receiving roller shafts 25, 26. 69, H3 designate conductors leading from the ring contact members 65, 66 to the terminals 32, 33 of the heating unit.
In the diagrammatic showing of the circuit connections in Figure 19, for the sake of clearness, the switches 60 of the heating units are shown located adjacent the same, but it will be understood that these switches and a control switch in the main circuit (not shown) are arranged together with the control switches for the motors 46 and the electric clutches 53, 54, in a control box located at some convenient point at the lower part of the frame.
The invention in its broader aspect comprehends the connection of the fabric covering to a supporting frame by bolts, rivets, or other similar fastening means, and in the grouping of the wire core threads forming the heating unit so that at intervals some of said threads are spaced from each other, and groups of unconnected strengthening wire core threads arranged therebetween providing areas between the wire core threads that form the heating unit for the passage of fastening members. The invention also conternplates the grouping of the wire core threads of the heating unit and unconnected strengthening wire core threads so that single unconnected strengthening wire core threads alternate with wire core threads of the heating unit, the size, number and spacing of the unconnected strengthening wire cores woven in the fabric, depending upon the strengthening required. Sucha modified construction of the fabric is illustrated in Figures 21, 22 and 23. In Figure 21, ll designates groups of unconnected strengthening wire core threads arranged in areas between the wire cores of the threads that are connected, as shown, to form the heating unit, and 12 designates holes at intervals along said areas for the passage of bolts, rivets or the like.
13 designates other single unconnected strengthening wire core threads arranged between wire core threads of the heating unit. In Figures 22 and 23, i4 designates a portion of fabric constructed with the wire core threads grouped as illustrated in Figure 21, and secured by bolts E5 to frame members 16.
It will be noted that by the particular construction and arrangement of parts hereinbefore set forth, a roof is provided with heating means of a simple, compact construction. The invention provides in a simple, practical way for heating means throughout substantially the entire roof surface, and for employing the heating means as a whole or selected areas thereof at will. As will be appreciated the heating elements are so associated with the roof surface as to efficiently heat the same to prevent the accumulation of snow, ice, or sleet thereon. The roof covering with the heating means is of a character that permits of the same being readily rolled up and unrolled over a supporting frame to be quickly brought into use and removed as desired, and is of a strong durable nature, the wire cores of the composite threads that form the heating means in addition to acting as heating elements lending strength to the covering, and the covering also being strengthened and reinforced by the other composite threads provided for this purpose.
What I claim is:
1. A roofing for stadiums, outdoor arenas, or the like, comprising a supporting structure, a roofing sheet adapted to be adjusted on said structure, the same being of flexible character to permit rolling thereof, a roller with which one edge of the sheet is connected. whereby the relatively free edge thereof may be withdrawn or retracted relatively thereto, the sheet being provided as a part thereof with electrical heating means to prevent accumulations of ice, snow, or the like, when the sheet is withdrawn and functioning as a roof, and means for effecting supply of electrical energy to said electrical heating means in any position of adjustment of the sheet, said means for effecting supply of electrical energy to said heating means being connected with the same at the edge portion of the sheet that is connected with said roller.
2. A roofing for stadiums, outdoor arenas, or the like, comprising a supporting structure, a roofing sheet adapted to be adjusted on said structure, the same being of flexible character to permit rolling thereof, a roller with which one edge of the sheet is connected whereby the relatively free edge thereof may be withdrawn or retracted relatively thereto, the sheet being provided as a part thereof with electrical heating means to prevent accumulations of ice, snow, or the like, when the sheet is withdrawn and functioning as a roof, and means for effecting supply of electrical energy to said electrical heating means in any position of adjustment of the sheet, said means for effecting supply of electrical energy to said heating means being connected with the same at the edge portion of the sheet that is connected with said roller, and a part of said last mentioned means being enclosed within the roller whereby to maintain the source of supply of electrical energy to the heating means during rotation of the roll.
3. A storm protector for stadiums, outdoor arenas, or the like, comprising a supporting structure, and a roofing sheet adapted to be supported on said structure, said sheet being of flexible character and being provided as a part thereof with electrical heating means distributed throughout the area thereof to prevent accumulations of ice, snow, or the like, said electrical heating means comprising a multitude of relatively fine wires, and relatively stronger wires distributed throughout the sheet to reinforce and strengthen the same and affording attaching elements where desired, said electrical heating means being connectable to a supply of electrical energy.
4. In combination with a roofing sheet, means for shifting the same, a roof member under which the sheet may be projected, and a flexible strip portion associated with said roof member adapted to engage the outer surface of the sheet.
5. In combination with a roofing sheet, means for shifting the same, a roof member under which the sheet may be projected, and a flexible strip portion associated with said roof member adapted to engage the outer surface of the sheet, the shifting means including cables attached to an edge of the sheet and also adapted to project beneath said roof member so that when the sheet is removed relatively to the roof member, said flexible strip portion will engage the cables.
WILLIAM COLVIN, JR.