|Publication number||US2140316 A|
|Publication date||Dec 13, 1938|
|Filing date||Feb 12, 1936|
|Priority date||Feb 12, 1936|
|Publication number||US 2140316 A, US 2140316A, US-A-2140316, US2140316 A, US2140316A|
|Inventors||Joseph P Furlong|
|Original Assignee||Amarel Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 13, 1938. J. P4 FURLONG APPARATUS FOR CONVERTING HYDROCARBONS Original Filed Feb. 12, 1936 ATTORNEYS.
Patented Dec. 13, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS. FOR. CONVERTING HYDRO-I OARBONS Joseph P. Furlong, Pawtucket, R. 1., assignor to Amarel Corporation, Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application February 12, 1936, Serial No. 63,475
Renewed July 9, 1938 g 4 Claims. (01. 196104)' width defining a zone into which the hydrocarbon is introduced either in liquid or vapor form. Combustion gases are provided by burning a stoichiometrical mixture of air and fuel supplied to the combustion chamber and the gases thus formed are directed through openings in said partitions of substantially less area than the area of the combustion chamber. As the combustion gases enter and depart'from the zone between the partitions, a great deal of turbulences is eifected with the result that the combustion gases are immediately, intimately and uniformly mixed with the hydrocarbon vapors, thus facilitating the heat absorption by the hydrocarbons from the gases.
Other objects, novel features and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following specification and accompanying drawing, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a vertical section through an apparatus embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2--2 of Fig.- 1, and
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
The converter comprises a tubular steel casing I within which is arranged a highly refractory tube II, the right hand end of which may be of smaller diameter than the remainder, this tube preferably being composed of material known commercially as alundum. The tube II which forms the wall of a reaction chamber C-is supported centrally of the casing III by a cylinder I2 of heat insulating material, such for example, as heat insulating brick, although any other suitable heat insulating material may be used. The left hand end of the tube II and cylinder I2 abut against a plate I3 fastened to the shell II) and having a central aperture I4. Fastened to the plate I3 is a closure I5 containing an interiorly threaded boss I 6. Also, a cap I1 carried by a plate I8 is connected to the closure I5 by bolts I9, the plate I8 being provided with a central aperture I81: and a plurality of smaller apertures I8b leading into the chamber Ilia. The cap I! is provided with an interiorly threaded boss 20 in which is arranged and exteriorly threaded pipe H which extends through the central aperture I8 a, a slight clearance being provided between the pipe and the periphery of the aperture. A bushing 22 is threaded into the boss I6 and has its bore in axial alinement with the pipe 2I. The pipe 24 leads into'the chamber I'Ia and a pipe 25 is in communication with the pipe 24. A metal tube 26 is threaded into the shell I0 and extends through the insulator I2 and refractory tube near the left hand end of the shell. A spark gap .21 is mounted in the lower end of the tube 26 and a pipe 28 leads from the chamber Ilia to the upper end of the tube 26.
' A disk 29 of steel wool or the like may be arranged in the chamber Ilia when gas is used as a fuel. A'plate 30 provided with a discharge conduit 3| is attached by bolts to the right hand end of the shell I0.
'A pipe 32 for supplying hydrocarbon to the conthe hydrocarbon is defined by two partitions 33 and 34 of refractory material in which are provided alined cylindrical passages of approximately one-half the diameter of the tube I I. Around the periphery of each end of each passageway is provided a series of pockets 35 so that the effective area-of the two passages is greater at each end than in the middle. Thesepockets open toward the ends of the passageway and toward the interior thereof and are effective to create substantial turbulence in the gases passing therethrough.
Fuel is supplied through the pipe 2| to the chamber I61; and air is supplied to the chamber IIa through the pipe 24 and passes through apertures IIla and I8b into the chamber Ilia in which the air and fuel are thoroughly and intimately admixed. If desired, steam maybe introduced into the air by means of the pipe 25. The fuel mixture is then discharged through the bushing 22 into the combustion chamber through the aperture I4. The tube 28 by-passos a small stream of the combustible mixture from the chamber I6a and this stream is ignited at the spark gap 21 with resultant ignition therein of the fuel mixture passing through the orifice I 4 into the chamber 0. The hydrocarbon to be con verted is introduced through the pipe 32 either in the form. of liquid or vapor and is discharged into the receiving zone between the partitions 33 and 34 where it mixes with the combustion gases entering this zone through the opening in partition 33. The mixed combustion gases and hydrocarbon vapors flow through the passage in the partition 34 into the chamber C. The turbulence given the combustion gases by passage through the partition 33 and the turbulence given the mixture of gases and vapors by passagev through the partition 34 immediately eflect intimate and uniform admixture of the gases and vapors so that the heat absorption by the hydrocarbon vapors is at a. maximum. This condition promotes the desired reactions and facilitates the conversion of the hydrocarbons. After the desired conversion has been effected, the combined gases and vapors are discharged through the pipe 3| and if desired are cooled by vapors or liquid introduced through the pipe 36.
The temperatures to be maintained in the chamber. C depend upon the reactions desired. The amount of steam added to the combustible mixture is dependent upon the hydrocarbon which is to be converted and is limited to the amount required to prevent deposition of free carbon in the tube II. The combustion of both the fuel and oxygen in the combustible mixture is complete by reason oi the stoichiometrical proportions and thorough mixing so that there is no free oxygen in the combustion gases and there is, therefore, no possibility-of high temperature reactions involving free oxygen in the reaction. The temperature at which the combustion gases contact with the hydrocarbon is substantially the flame temperature of the combustible mixture inasmuch as no quenching of the gases is effected before contact. The heat absorption by the hydrocarbons is maximum by reason of the high temperature of contact and the immediate intimate and uniform admixture of the combustion gases with the hydrocarbons.
While the invention has been described as embodied in apparatus provided merely with a pair of partitions forming a single zone, it is to be understood that the invention contemplates as well an apparatus equipped with several partitions defining a plurality of receiving zones to any one of which or to all of which hydrocarbons may be supplied as described.
The combustion gases are introduced into the receiving zone without substantial temperature change and the maximum temperature attained by the mixture of hydrocarbons and combustion gases is of the order of 2500 F. depending upon the type of hydrocarbons and the ratio of hydrocarbons to combustion gases. Throughout the mixture of combustion gases and hydrocarbons in the reaction zone, there is a very decided temperature gradient. As typical of this temperature gradient, the temperature registered by a thermocouple T1 in one run was approximately 1400 F.
while the temperature registered by a thermocouple T2 was approximately 1000 F. However, this temperature difference is'not the full measure of the temperature gradient since both thermocouples are spaced from the ends of the reaction zone.
1. A device of the character described comprising an elongated chamber, means for introducing combustible mixture into said chamber at one end thereof, .an outlet at the other end of said chamber, a pair of partitions in said chamber defining a receiving zone of the same cross-section as said chamber, and means for introducing hydrocarbons into said receiving zone, each partition having a single passageway of substantially less cross-section than said zone and of greater length in the direction of flow through said chamber. than the distance between said partitions.
2. A device of the character described comprising an elongated chamber, means for introducing combustible mixture into said chamber at one end thereof, an outlet at the other end of said chamber, a pair of partitions in said chamber defining a receiving zone, and means for introducing hydrocarbons into said receiving zone, said partitions having cylindrical passages leading to and from said zone and being of larger effective diameter at their ends than intermediate the same.
3. A device of the character described comprising an elongated chamber, means for introducing combustible mixture into said chamber at one end thereof, an outlet at the other end of said chamber, a pair of partitions in said chamber defining a receiving zone, and means for introducing hydrocarbons into said receiving zone, said partitions having cylindrical passages leading to' and from said zone and'having a series of peripheral pockets opening endwise and inwardly to effect variation inthe effective area of said passageways throughout their length.
4. A device of the character described comprising an elongated chamber, means for introducing combustible mixture into said chamber at one end thereof, an outlet at the other end of said chamber, a pair of partitions in said chamber defining a receiving zone, and means for introducing hydrocarbons into said receiving zone, said partitions having cylindrical passages leading to and from said zone and having a series of short peripheral channels extending inwardly from each face of the partitions.
JOSEPH P. FURLONG.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2440423 *||May 4, 1944||Apr 27, 1948||Columbian Carbon||Apparatus for manufacture of carbon black|
|US2499437 *||Sep 12, 1944||Mar 7, 1950||Columbian Carbon||Apparatus for manufacture of carbon black|
|US2519696 *||Jul 29, 1949||Aug 22, 1950||Jr John B Orr||Tube cracking furnace|
|US2769692 *||May 6, 1952||Nov 6, 1956||Columbian Carbon||Carbon black process and apparatus|
|US2781251 *||Jan 15, 1951||Feb 12, 1957||Phillips Petroleum Co||Quench for furnace type reactors|
|US2805981 *||Mar 20, 1953||Sep 10, 1957||Phillips Petroleum Co||Process and apparatus for flash distillation|
|US2813012 *||Mar 31, 1955||Nov 12, 1957||United Gas Improvement Co||Method of making combustible gas|
|US2851337 *||Aug 22, 1951||Sep 9, 1958||Columbian Carbon||Carbon black process|
|US2926077 *||Apr 30, 1956||Feb 23, 1960||Totzek Friedrich||Process of thermally cracking liquid hydrocarbons|
|US3222136 *||Nov 13, 1962||Dec 7, 1965||Ashland Oil Inc||Carbon black apparatus|
|US3523770 *||Nov 9, 1967||Aug 11, 1970||Howe Baker Eng||Flame splitting arrangement|
|US3615213 *||May 1, 1969||Oct 26, 1971||Air Reduction||Method and apparatus for the production of carbon black|
|US4002431 *||Dec 19, 1975||Jan 11, 1977||United Technologies Corporation||Nitrous oxide decomposition reactor|
|DE974763C *||Dec 23, 1950||Apr 20, 1961||Didier Werke Ag||Verfahren zur Herstellung von Wasserstoff oder Wasserstoff enthaltenden Gasen aus Methan oder aehnlichen Kohlenwasserstoffen|
|DE1238005B *||May 2, 1955||Apr 6, 1967||Koppers Gmbh Heinrich||Verfahren zur Erzeugung von niedermolekularen, insbesondere aethylenreichen Kohlenwasserstoffen|
|U.S. Classification||196/104, 208/129, 423/450, 48/213, 196/111, 422/198|
|International Classification||C01B3/24, C09C1/50|
|Cooperative Classification||C10G9/36, C09C1/50, C01B3/24, C10G9/38|
|European Classification||C10G9/36, C10G9/38, C09C1/50, C01B3/24|