|Publication number||US214043 A|
|Publication date||Apr 8, 1879|
|Filing date||Feb 8, 1878|
|Publication number||US 214043 A, US 214043A, US-A-214043, US214043 A, US214043A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
E. H. JAN-NEY.
s Sheets-Sh Car-Buffer.
No. 214,043. Patented April 8,1879.
(Vfl llNEESEE! INVENTDR'. ELI H. JANNEY,
ATTYS 3 Sheets-sheet 2.
E. H. JANNEY.
No. 214,043. Patented April 8,1879.
W ELI HJANNEY MW BY AT TYEI;
8 Sheets-Sheet 3.
E. H. JANNEY.
Patented April 8, 1879.
INVENT'UR. ELI H. JANNEY cjf/fiflmwfi ATTYS.
WITNESSES! 0,. WASHI name, or ALEXANDRIA, mama.
VS'peoification of I Jettcrs Patent No. dated April 8, 1879; application filed February 8, 1878.
To all ahmzi ma biims.
. e it knownthatL ELI-11., JANNEY, of AL,
enandria, county of Alexandria, and State of Yirginia,,have;invented a new and Improved Bufi'er for Railroad Oars; and I-do hereby declare: that the following is a full and exact des'cription'of the same, reference being had to the accompalnying drawings, and to theletters of reference marked thereon.
, This intention consi ts, mainly, in the comhination of the followin g elements: certain suitalole coupling mechanism, certain suitable huifer' mechanism, and certain intermediate lever mechanism, the construction being such that the niover'nents of the coupling mechanisin are communicated through the intermediate' lever tnechanisinto the spring of the huffin g r n"e :hanisni,'in such mannerthat the latter,
in forward nioyel iientsof the couplin g, is caused to move atilts rearend a greater distance forward than thecoupling, and in rearwardmovemerits of the coupling in a forward direction also, in con sequ'enceofwhich the bufl'er-spri n gs,
when the earsare coupled, are caused always to exert a pressure against each, other, and thus prevent the'shocks which. ordinarily result in the running oftrains fromlthe independent movement of individual. cars.
.Itconsists, further-, rcerliaih details of colistru'ctionf, all of which will be fully described hereinafter...
r In the drawings, Figure lrepresents a side elevation of my. invention; Fig. 2, a sectional view through ,tlielineav at, Fig. 3; Fig. 3, a topplan .view ,QFig. 4.,a bottom-plan view; Fig. 5, a bottom-plan view of two coupled platforms; Figs. 6 and 7.,sideand'frontsectional elevations of one modification of the lever mechanisin, and} Fig. 8, a, plan view of another inedifieation, in whicha single buffer is employed.
Toenahle others skilled in the art to make andluse my invention," I will now proceed to eseribe fullv its construction and manner of o 'ieration H l I y A I p A,'Figs.'l and3, representsthe car-p1at form, which may lg econstructed in any proper manner, lilrepresehts the coupling, of any suity. paems r 1873 and. $874, which is secured to flie'pl'a'tforiii in any proper manner and ,provided with any suitable arrangemen ts of springs at its rear end. v
O, Figs. 2, 3, and 3, represents aJever-yolre,
consisting of a nearly oval ring of metal en circling the shank e,Fig. 3, of the draw-head,
and terminating above in the vertical ears or standards 0 c, Figs. 2 and 3', as shown.
D, Figs. 1,2, and 3, represents a transverse shaft, extending through the sides of the yoke above the draw-head, and also through the platform 1 beams, as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 3', which serves to support the yoke properly in place, and also to furnish a pivot or fulcrum for the same to turn upon, as will be hereinafter explained. v
,E, Figs. 2 and ,2, represents a bar or red of any suitable construction, and proper size and length, which isprovided atitsrcar end. with an elongatedslot, c, Fig. 2, by means of which and-aproper pin, e it is loosely connected to the lever-yoke above the pivot-shaft, as shown c, Fig. 3 represents a vertical recess formed in, the front end of the rod E,.in which is pivoted the upperend of a stud, 12, Figs. 2
and 3?, rising froni the coupling, as shown.
- b, Fig. 3", represents a proper slot extending vertically through the coupling, in which the stud b is secured by a fasten ing-pin or other proper means.
b Figs,'1 and 2,, represents an extension of the studb, projecting through the. slot b 'on the lower side of the coupling, the purpose of which; will be hereinafter explained.
F, Figs. 2 and 3, represents a fork-piece, the shank or front end of h which is pivoted between the ears cc of the lever yoke, near their upperends, as shown.
Gr, Figs. 2 and 3, represents .an equalizingbar, pivoted in the recess of the rear end of the fork piece, which extends laterally across the platform-frame through proper openings in the same, as shown.
H Hrepresent guide-pieces located on the inner sides of the central platform -bean1s, which serve toproperly direct the fork-piece in its longitudinal movement, and also to hold p I h the eqlializing-har against lateral movement. able. con notion, but, preferably,..that co'v- I1, Figs. land 3,1fepresent buiTer-rods extending through proper openings in the butfer-beam, which are provided at their front wage-ps '2 1 ends with the buffer-heads i i, one of which is provided with a flat face and the other with a convex one, as shown in Fig. 3.
g 9, Figs. 1 and 3, represent eyes formed in the ends of the equalizing-bar G, which have proper openings, through which passthe rear ends of the bulfer-rods, as shown.
11' i, Fig. 1, represent pins or other fastening devices, by means of which the rods are properly connected to the equalizing-bar without being rigidly attached to the same.
i 0' represent washers located upon each rod, one of which is limited in its movement in a rearward direction by the equalizing-bar, and the other in a forward direction by the rear face of the bufier-beam.
i represents a spiral spriug located upon each rod, between the washers, as shown.
The operation will now be described.
A general statement may be made, as follows: The parts hereinbefore described are preferably so arranged relatively to each other that when the yoke-levers are in the position shown in full lines, Fig. 2, the bufl'er-heads on each car, before a coupling is effected, are caused to project beyond the transverse line Y Y, Fig. 5, which is reached by them when the cars are coupled and standing still, the distance of about one inch, as indicated in Fig. 4. When, therefore, the cars come together to effect a coupling, each pair of bufferrods will be carried backward the distance of one inch, as shown in Fig. 5, by the projection of the rear ends of the buffer-rods I through the equalizing bar, and be caused. consequently, to exert upon each other that amount of pressure which results from the compression of the bufl'er-springs to that extent, the quantity, of course, depending upon the power of the springs employed. When, however. the train is set in motion, and the traction-springs of the couplings yield under the strain and permit the cars to separate to a certain extent, the pressure of the bufier-heads, instead of being diminished by the greater distance between the cars, is increased in a ratio exceeding that which would compensate simply for the movement of the coupling. For example, the pressure upon the buffer-heads when the cars are coupled and standing still is that which is produced by the compression of the springs upon each car the distance of one inch. When, however, the train is started and each coupling moves forward from the car, say, the distance of two inches, the equalizing-bar will not only be moved this distance to compensate for this movement, but also will be carried forward, according to the preferrl'fd proportion, the further distance of one inc In consequence of this movement of the equalizing-bar, the normal pressure upon the bufl'er-heads will not only be retained as the platforms separate, but an increase of p essure will be given by the additional compression of the springs resulting from the continued movement of the equalizing-bar.
The construction is such it will be understood, that the bufler-hemls always exert a pressure upon each other wheh the cars are coupled, this action resulting from the compression of the springs i as shown in Fig. 5. which is eli'ected in coupling theca'rs by forcing the buffer rods or shanks through the eyes of the relatively-fixed equalizingbar, the latter being held from movement at this time by the contact of the yoke-lever with the stud b of the coupling, and by the stud b, as will be hereinafter described.
The pressure, it will be understood, is least when the cars are standing still, and is increased in definite proportions when the cars are separated by draftestraimor are brought together in buffiug, the pressure in the latter case being the greatest, as will'be hereinafter described.
The operation in bufliug however,-is substantially the same, the ratio of pressure being increased in the same manner by the am tion of an intermediate lever, but by different mechanism upon the coupling, when the latter moves backward, as will be hereinafter described.
The operation, having been set forth in general terms, will now be described in detail. Before the coupling is efiected, the bufl'erheads, as before stated, project forward beyond the position occupied by them when the cars are coupled and standing still about the distance of one inch, as indicated in Fig. 4. When the coupling is efi'ected, consequently, the bud'er-heads and the rods attached thereto are forced backward the distance of one inch, as indicated in Fig. 5, the springs i being compressed to this extent to permit the movement. The buffer-heads then, when the cars are coupled and standing still, exert against each other that amount of pressure which results from the tendency of the compressed springs i to react. As this amount is never diminished while the cars are coupled, itv may be termed the normal pressure. When the train is set in motion, the traction-springs of the couplings yield under the strain and permit the couplings to move independently of the platform to a certain extent, in the usual well-known manner. This movement of the coupling is communicated, by means of the intermediate rod, E,-Fig. 2, to the yoke-lever 0, and from it by means of the fork-piece F to the equalizing-bar G.
The movement of thecoupling, it will be observed, is communicated to the lever C at a point, 0', between the pivot-shaft D and the point f, from which latter the power is trans-- ferred to the equalizing-bar. From this arrangement of parts it necessarily follows that the fork-piece and equalizing-bar will move at a greater speed than the coupling and rod E, because the former, being farther from the pivot-point than the latter, necessarily moves in the arc of a larger circle. This will appear clear from the diagram, Fig. 6", in which the movement of the pointse' f of the lever to is indicated in dotted lines.
It will be observed that the pointf neceswliich'the'rod E' and fork-piece are attached sarily travels in the same period of time a pivot-shaft the greater will be the movement of the fork-piece relative thereto; When'the cars come together inbufling, the rod-E becomes inoperative as f&1" 3.$ its action on the yoke-lever is concerned, because, in conse. quence of the slot e, its movement is not communicated thereto. The stud b however,on' the lower face of the coupling,now comes in contact with the lowerportion of the yokelever and rocks the same on its" shaft to give movement to 'the fork-piece and equalizingbar, in the manner previously described.
The relative movement of the equalizingbar andthe coupling in buffing wilhdepend, of course, upon the position of the acting parts relatively to'eachother, and these may be varied at will, according tot-he necessities of disease.
The arrangement preferred inbufiing is to maliethe upper and lower arms-of the yokelever equal; When thus arranged,-if the coupling,when the cars are standing still, is-forced backward one inch, the equalizing-bar consequently will be moved forward one inch, so that the buflers' will receive the pressure resulting from compressionof the springs two inches, and if'the normal pressure before bufiing was oneinch the entire pressure will be three inches.
Itshould be understood that the bufferheads, when the cars are coupled, are always in close contact, and hence no movement can take place on theirpart, excepting that which coincides with the movement of the coupling, the excess of movement of the equalizing-bar over that of the coupling being taken up by the springs i and by them transferred to the buffer as increased pressure.
It should be understood, also, that although the coupling and the buffer mechanism are united by the intermediate lever mechanism, yet, nevertheless, the draft-spring of the coupling is entirely independent of the buflin-gsprings, and is wholly uuaflected by the pressure which they exert. This independence of the draft-s 'irin-g results from the interposed lever mechanism, which, when the coupling iseffected, acts to look, as it were, the coupling in such manner that none of the bufling-strain is communicated to the draft-spring.
The locking action may be understood by inspecting Figs.- 1 and 2.
\Vhen the :buflers are forced in a rearward direction in the act of coupling, the pressure resulting from the compression of the springs i will be exerted upon the equalizing bar G, the fork-piece F, connected thereto, and the upper end of the lever G, to which the forkpiece F is attached, as shown.
From the lever the pressure'willthcn be transmitted to the coupling to which it s connected. This pressure, however, is divided by the lever, andis transmitted to the couplln g in two distinct portions-eone through the bar E and stud b, which tends to move the coupling in a rearward'direction, and one through the stud 11 which tends to move the couplm g in a forward direction. By the action of the lever E, then, it will be understood that the pressure resulting from the compression of the buflingrsprings is transmitted to the coupling both in-a forward an d rearward direction, and hence that no movement of the same is possible. If no movement ot the coupling takes place, it follows that the draft-spun g is not aflected at all by the tension of the buffing-springs, but simply remains in its normal position.
When the coupling is drawn out lll startin gthetrain, the buifer-sprin gs are still further. compressed; but the draft-sprin g is notaffected thereby, it receiving. only that normal strain which is incidental to starting. the train.
When the coupling is forced backward m buffing, the buiiersprings are stillmoved in a forward direction and compressed. beyond their normal. condition; but the draft-spring is not aii'ected' thereby, it receiving only-that normal strain which is incidental to buffing.
By means of the employment of lever mechanism, also,.the bufl'er-springs i serve, in fact, as draft-springs-that is, their tendency in action is to return the coupling to its normal position when the same has been drawn out, while the ordinary buffer-sprin gs, on the other hand, tend to draw out the coupling from its normal position.
The coupling, it should be understood, owing to its peculiar construction, is without lost motion, and hence all its movements, whether in a forward or backward direction, are directly communicated to the lever mechanism.
The coupling has no lost motion, as have those hook-couplings which are capable of slipping by each other when the cars are broughttogetherinbufflng,because such move ment past one another is absolutely prevented by the encircling draw-head, which serves also as a buffer, as described in my former patents before referred to.
Some of the advantages of the described construction are as follows:
The individual cars are held apart by elastic connections, which are always under tension, and hence lost motion is impossible under any circumstances, and the. violent contact of one car with another cannot occur.
By means of this combination, also, the
parts of the train are so united together as to form a single structure,'which, when runnm g at uniform speed, is rigidly connected together vso= far as lateral and longitudinal movement is concerned.
By the interposition of the lever mechanism,
also, the draft-spring is wholly unafl'ected by the tension upon the butler-springs, and hence the same may be perfectly adapted to resist the normal pulling and buffing strain.
By making the draft-spring independent of the bufling-sprin gs, also, it is not necessary to compress the draft-spring in coupling, as is usually done, and hence the cars may be brought together in the act of coupling with much less violence than is otherwise necessary.
I do not limit myself to the precise construction before described.
IuFigs. 6 and 7 is represented a modification of the intermediate lever in hanism.
X represents the lever, provid above with the fork-piece, by means of which connection is made with the equalizing-bar, near its cen ter and at its lower end, with pivot studs or shatts :0 m, as shown. :r" represents an elongated slot in the frame-beams of the platform, in wbichis held the pivot-shaft :0, as shown. :1." represents any proper projection extending from any fixed part of the platform, by means of which the movement of the lower end of the lever in a forward direction is limited. :r" a. represent lugs upon the coupling, located one in front and the other in rear of the lever, and one above the coupling-shank, and the other below the same as shown.
The operation is as follows: When the con pling is drawn out under draft-strain, its movement is communicated to the lever X by means of the upper lug, w, the lower pivot-shaft, .r, bearing against the fixed projection a", and forming the fulcrum, and the slot or permitting the necessary play.
When the coupling is moved backward in buifiug, movement is communicated to the lever by the lower lug, a), the upper shaft, :r', forming the fulcrum upon which the lever turns.
In Fig. 8 is represented another modification, in which a single central'butfer is employed instead of two side butlers.
Y represents the lever-end, which is actuated in asimilar man ner to those previously described. 3 represents a washer interposed between the lever end and the spring, as shown. 3 represents the buifer-rod, having the head 3 the spring y", surrounding the rod, and washer y, arranged in a similar manner to the corresponding parts (buffer-rods) previously described.
The operation is similar to the construction first described, with the exception that the movement of the lever, instead of being communicated through the equalizing-bar to two side bulfers is communicated direct to a single central butler.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. Thecombination ofthe followingelements: coupling mechanism, substantially as de scribed, bufler mechanism, substantially as described, and intermediate lever mechanism, substantially as described, the construction being such that the movements of the coupling mechanism are communicated through the intermediate lever mechanism to the spnn g of the bufiug mechanism in such manner that the latter in rearward movements of the coupling is caused to move in afiorward direction.
2. In combination with coupling and bufiing mechanism, substantially as described, a single lever, substantially as described, adapted to give a forward movementto the equalizingbar when the coupling moves either in a forward or backward direction.
3. The combination of the following elements: coupling mechanism, substantially as described, bnfling mechanism, substantially as described, an equalizing-bar having bnfl'ershanks connected thereto, and lever mechanism, substantially as described.
4. In combination with a coupler and elas- -tic bufl'er, an intermediate lever, C, substantially as described, having connecting-pieces E and F, substantially as described, the points 0 f of which are adapted to move in arcs of different circles, one of which pieces is united to the buffer by an elastic connection, substantially as described.
5. In combination with the coupling B and the connecting-rod E, attached thereto, the lever-yoke Cfsubstautially as described.
6. In combmation with the coupling B, the connecting-rod E, and lever-yoke O, the forkpiece F and equalizing-bar G, substantially as described.
7. In combination with the lever yoke C and fork-piece F, the coupling having the studs (2 b, as described.
8. In combination with a coupling which is itself provided with a bufling-surface, independent bufling mechanism, and independent lever mechanism, substantially as described. uniting the two together.
This specification signed and witnessed this 6th day of February, 1878.
ELI H. JANNEY.
H. W. BEADLE, JOHN TYLER.