US 2141722 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
w. L. MORGAN 2,141,722
CONTAINER CLOSURE Filed Oct. l0, 1934y 'Im Il. m
APatented Dec. 27, 1938 UNITED STATES l PATENT OFFICE CONTAINER CLOSURE l Application october 1o, 1934, serial No. r'147,804
'I'his invention relates to a method for the manufacture of shrinkable closures for containers and to the article produced thereby. More particularly, it relates to shrinkable caps and 5 bands for containers carrying an indicia-bearing label, such as a Government tax stamp, over the closure, to correlated improvements directed to enhancing the appearance of the same, and to the process of preparing them.
In the packaging of alcoholic liquors such as wines, whiskeys, etc., in bottles, it is frequently the practice to affix identifying labels and sometimes necessary to apply a Government tax stamp over or adjacent the mouth oi the bottle. Such stamps are usually in the form of a narrow strip which is adhesively attached to the closure and extends over the top of the closure cap and down the side of the bottle neck. The stamp must be aixed in such a manner that the whole of the stamp is visible and also that the bottle cannot be opened and the contents removed without mutilating the stamp.
It is frequently the practice to place over the bottle closure a shrinkable cap or band such, for
example', as one of the so-called viscose caps.
To enhance the appearance of the closure, the cap or band is made or rendered opaque. When such an opaque cap or band is placed over the strip stamp to hold the same in place and to effectively seal the container, the cap or band will obscure a part of the stamp in violation oi the Government regulations. o
It is a general object of the invention to provide an improved shrinkable container closure of the cap or band type which is provided with a transparent section, so that when the cap or band is properly applied over a container'mouth having an indicia-bearing label adjacent thereto or thereon,` the label will be clearly legible in 40 its entirety, and a readily producing such a closure.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a process for providing shrinkable container closures comprising non-brous and colloidal material swelling in water, with marked areas and transparent areas, the marked areas, if de'- sired, comprising opaqued areas which may form backgrounds upon which may be applied a novel marking contrasting therewith as regards color and/or transparency and characterized by being resistant to damage by handling or abrasion and difilcult to alter or remove.
A more speciiic object of the invention is to provide a shrinkable container closure compracticable process of prising a colloidal material swelling in water with opaque areas by impregnating the closure with an opaque, insoluble, inorganic substance after the formation of the closure.
Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter. 5 The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the article possessing the features, properties and the relation of elements which are exemplil0 lied in the following detailed disclosure and the scope of the application of which will be indi cated in the claims.
For a. more complete understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference l5 should be had to the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatical representation of a simple means for carrying out one modication of the processlof the invention; 20
v Fig. 2 is a detailed view oi the rollers i3 and I3' of the apparatus of Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a view of a section oi endless tubing after treatment in the apparatus of Fig. 1 and in accordance with one embodiment of the process 251 of the invention; y
Fig. 4 is a representation of a closure band prepared in accordance with one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 5 is a representation of a bottle closure 3l) comprising the closure band or Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a representation of a simple means for carrying out one step of another modiicatlon of the process of the invention as applied to bottle caps; 35
Fig. '7 is a representation of a bottle closure comprising the closure cap of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a representation oi a bottle closure comprising a closure cap prepared according to another embodiment of the invention Fig. 9 is a view in section of a material prepared in accordance with one embodiment of the invention; and
Fig. 10 is a view in section oi' a material prepared in accordance with another embodiment c5 of the invention.
Generally speaking, the present method comprises treating a colloidal material swelling in water by impregnating it' in predetermined areas with an opaque inorganic substance insoluble in 50 water. More particularly, a shrinkable container closure, such as a cap or band, is treated in succession with substances reacting to form within the material an opaque, insoluble inorganic substance in predetermined areas so positioned that when the band or cap has been shrunk into place over the mouth of a container having an indiciabearing label applied over the stopper or adjacent the mouth, the indicia will be visible through the transparent section of the material.
The present process is particularly applicable to treating caps, bands, tubes or hollow bodies comprising a non-fibrous, colloidal material swelling in water such, for example, as cellulose ond solution diffuses within the areas treated with the first solution, the insoluble, opaque product is produced within the body of the material, as shown in Fig. 8.
By way of illustrating the steps of the process of the invention, but not by way of limitation, there may be given the following examples of inorganic reactants and products thereof suitable for use in the process:
Reactant A Reactant B Product Color 1 Sodium dichromate--- Lead acetate Lead dichromate.-. Orange. V 2 Sodium ierrocyauide Ferrie ierrocyanidc. Blue. 3 Sodium silicate Cobalt silicate-- Very light blue. 4 Sodium su1ph1de--. Ferrie sulphide Black. 5 .do Lead sulphide Brown. 6 .do. Cadimum su hide. Light yellow. 7 ..--.do Silver sulphate Silver sulphide Black. 8 Lead acetate Sodium sulphate.. Lead sulphate White. 9 Calcium chloride Sodium carbonate Calcium carbonate Do.
hydrate, hydroxy-alkyl derivatives o f cellulose, gelatine, casein and the like. Such materials when utilized in this process may be transparent or translucent, colorless or slightly tinted, dyed or'otherwise colored as may be desired for the purpose for which they are to be employed.
In the preferred practice. the reactants used to produce the opaque, insoluble, inorganic product are applied to the material in solution in a suitable solvent, preferably one having a swelling action on the respective colloidal material to be treated. Suitable solvents for use with and adapted to swell the colloidal material of the class described herein comprise water or substances miscible therewith such, for example, as the lower monohydric aliphatic alcohols such, for example, as ethyl alcohol; the polyhydric aliphatic alcohols such, for example, as glycerine and dior tri-ethylene glycol; t ethanolamine and the like, or mixtures of one o more of the'se solvents.
In its simplest embodiment, the process requires the use of two reactants which shall be referred to hereinafter as reactants A and B, and the solutions thereof will be designated respectively as solutions A and B. In general, insofar as the chemical nature of the reactants A and B is concerned, it is not material in which order the solutions containing the reactants A and B are applied to the material.
In the now preferred procedure, the rst applied solution, for example solution A, consists of a, relatively dilute solution and the second applied solution, for example solution B, consists of a relatively concentrated and preferably saturated solution. It has been found desirable, after treating the material with the rst solution, to allow sufficient time for the solvent to diffuse through the surface and carry the reactant into the body of the material. On the other hand, it is desirable to limit the diffusion of the second solution in order to prevent the bleeding of the deposit beyond predetermined areas. This may be efected by removing the surface liquid resulting from treating the material with the first solution so that the reaction occurs only with the absorbed liquid, and thereafter applying the second liquid in predetermined areas. The surplus of the first solution may be removed by the use of suitable blotting felts, doctor blades, squeegee rolls or other suitable means, as by passing a blast of gas or air thereover, and the second roller or engraved plate or the like. As the sec- Referring now to Fig. 1, a shrinkable closure band may be produced of a material of the class described such, for example, as endless tubing of cellulose hydrate, by passing the tubing I through a solution A contained in a suitable vat II, the solution consisting of 1.5 parts sodium dichromate in 98.5 parts of water, the traverse being suiiicient for a one minute immersion. From the solution A, the tubing I0 is passed between squeegee rollers I2, I2 which remove the surplus surface liquid, and then between a pair of rollers I3, I3', these rollers being provided on their arcuate surfaces with suitable raised areas I4, I4 of rubber or other suitable material, for example, as shown in Fig. 2. The areas I4, I4 are wetted by a roller I which dips into a second solution B, comprising a saturated solution of lead acetate in a suitable solvent such, for example, as 20 parts water and 80 parts glycerine, held in a suitable trough I6. Thereafter the tubing is passed into a vat I1 containing a solvent C, e. g. water, wherein the unreacted portions of reactants A and B are Washed out oi' the material.
The endless tubing I0 coming from the solvent C is characterized by having an opaque area I8 running in a stripe lengthwise of the tubing, the remaining portion of the tubing constituting a longitudinal transparent area I9, as shown in Fig. 3. It is obvious that in treating an endless tubing Ill as shown in Fig. luopaque areas may be formed on both sides of the tubing by providing a second roller I5! and bath I6 (not shown) to apply the solution to the opposing roller I3 and thus to the tubing.' The opaque areas I8 contain a deep orange precipitate of lead dichromate, which contrasts` well with the transparent areas I9. The tubing I0 coming from the solvent C may be severed transversely of its length, along the lines 2U- 20 into suitable' sections 2I-2I such as are employed for closure bands, as shown in Fig. 4. The band 2| thus produced may be slipped over the bottle closure 22 bearing a label 23 such as a Government stamp, the band being so positioned on the bottle neck that the label shows through the transparent areas I9 and the unsightly portions of the bottle closure are covered by the opaque areas I8. Thus the label or Government stamp is legible in its entirety and. the unattractive closure elements of the botle are hidden from view by the opaque areas of the closure band.
The process above described is equally applicable for the preparation of shrinkable bottle caps having a transparent ywindow section. For example, a bottle cap 24 may be formed by dipping a mandrel 25 into a suitable gelatine solution and subsequently hardening the gelatine by treatment with formaldehyde or otherwise. The cap 24 (shown in Fig. 6) is dipped, while on the mandrel 25, into a solution A consisting of 9 parts of sodium sulphide and 91 parts of water.
The surplus surface liquid is removed by suitable means and the cap 24 is then stamped on each side in predetermined areas, for example, by means of a felt pad 26 having the generals'urface contour of the bottle cap 24 as shown in Fig. 6, the surface of the pad being wetted with a saturated solution of silver nitrate in water. Thereafter the cap 24 is washed in water to remove the unused reagent and may be glycerinated or otherwise softened and' then stripped from the mandrel 25 and trimmed along the line 2 at the lower edge of the opaque areas. The dense deposit of black silver sulphide forms the opposing opaque areas I8 leaving therebetween the transparent area.- I9'.
'Ihe finished cap 24 may be applied to a container closure bearing a label 23, such as a Government stamp, in a lmanner as shown in Fig. 7 so that the label is enclosed by the cap but is legible in its entirety through the transparent area I9. while the opaque areas I8 on either side of the label obscure the unsightly parts of the bottle closure.
A novel decorativeeffect may'be obtained by coloring the. shrinkable closuresV such, for example, as by dyeing them with suitable dyes to give a transparent color. The dyeing of the closure may take place before and/or after the formation of the opaque inorganic precipitates in the material. An interesting two-tone color effect is obtained by dyeing the closure with a. dye of color complementary to the color of the opaque insoluble deposit. For example, a precipitate of-r yellow leadfchromate is deposited in the areas to be rendered opaque and the closure then is dyed blue, whereupony the opaque areas will appear light green in color. Other color combinations will occur to one skilled in the art Without transcending the scopeof the invention.
The invention further contemplates a cap inwhich the opaque area comprises a top portion. For example, as shown in Fig. 8, the unsightly cork stopper of a bottle may be covered by a cap 28 having an opaque area I8" on the top and extending, if desired, down the sides to the edge of the mouth of the bottle. The skirt or remainder of the cap may comprise a transparent area I9" and this will be advantageous where .an indicia-bearing band is positioned around the neck of the bottle as shown in Fig. 8.
The container closures of the invention may be marked by any suitable process with indicia of a decorative or informative character, and such indicia may be applied in transparent or opaque colors or pigments to the opaque areas and/or to the transparent window section of the closure. If desired, the indicia may be applied to the caps or bands simultaneously 'with the formation of the opaque areas therein. For example, referring to Fig. 1, one or both of the rolls I3 and I3' may carry a raised design positioned on the arcuate surface so as to imprint solution B adjacent the side of the tubing l0 within the areas which will later comprise the transparent sections I9, I9. The tubing is then led into the washing .solution C and the nished product will have in the transparent sections indicia of the same color as the opaque area.
To apply the indicia directly to the opaque areas, the tubing may be run first through a solution A; then a solution B is applied by means of a suitable raised plate to give an opaque area. 'Ihe tubing is then run into a second bath containing solution A and a solution B differing from the rst applied solution B is then applied by meansof a suitable raised design. The product of this latter process is such as is illustrated in Fig. 4 and comprises a closure having opaque areas I8, I8 of one color forming a background for the indicia 29 having another and preferably darker color contrasting with the background. For example. the opaque areas I8, I8 may comprise a deposit of light yellow cadmium sulphide and the indicia a deposit of black silver sulphide.
As shown in Fig. 10, the marked closure in any of its physical forms may be subsequently coated over on the outside or design side with a suitable transparent composition 30 for the purpose `0f protecting the design against attempts at rnechanical or chemical alteration or to provide a coating which is adhesive, lustrous, waterproof or resistant to atmospheric or other conditions. If desired, the coating may comprise a superimposed layer of the material itself.
It will be observed that by the present invention there is provided a novel shrinkable closure for bottles having a Government tax stamp or other indicia-bearing label over the stopper or cap thereof, the closure having transparent window sections through which the stamp or label is legible in its entirety and opaque sectionsV which serve to 4enhance the appearance of the bottle.
The present invention further provides that there may be applied to the window sections and/or the opaque sections of the novel closure markings which are diicult to duplicate and resistant to removal by chemical or mechanical means without damaging the base material to such an extent that the attempted removal or alteration may be easily detected. The difficulty of removal or alteration of the marking serves to discourage the pirating of valuable trade-marks, slogans, etc., and inhibits adulteration of the contents of the container or substitution of inferior products therefor.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above process, and certain modifications in the article which embodies the invention may be made without departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween. i
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. As an article of manufacture, a shrinkable closure for bottles and the like having an indiciapregnated with an opaque, insoluble inorganic compound.
2. As an article of manufacture, a shrinkable closure for bottles and the like having an indiciabearing label applied over or adjacent the mouth thereof, said shrinkable closure being formed in one piece from cellulosic material and having a transparent area through which the indicia on said label are legible and having another area impregnated with an opaque, insoluble inorganic compound.
3. As an article of manufacture, a shrinkable' closure for bottles and the like having an indiciabearing label applied over or adjacent the mouth thereof, said shrinkable closure being formed in one piece from cellulosic material and having a transparent area through which the indicia on said label are legible and having another area,
impregnated with an opaque, insoluble inorganic compound, the opaque area bearing indicia contrasting therewith in color.
.4. As an article of manufacture, a shrinkable closure for bottles and the like having an indiciabearing label applied over or adjacent the mouth' thereof, said .shrinkable closure being formed in one piece from cellulosic material and having a transparent area through which the indicia on said label are legible and having another area impregnated with an opaque, insoluble inorganic compound, the opaque area bearing indicia comprising predetermined areas impregnated with a substance insoluble in Water and contrasting in color with said opaque area.
5. As an article of manufacture,v a shrinkable closure for bottles and the like having an indicium-bearing label applied over or adjacent the mouth thereof, said shrinkable closure being formed in one piece from a non-fibrous colloidal material swelling in water, and having a transparent area through which the indicium on said label is legible, and having another area impregnated with an opaque insoluble inorganic compound.
WILLARD L. MORGAN.