US 2142859 A
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Jan. 3, 1939. T. E. M MAHAN 2,142,859
WELL BORE DEFLECTING TOOL Filed Sept. 50, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet l JWUQ/YIM Z/OMSf/ZfiZZ/M/V 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 T. E. MCMAHAN WELL BORE DEFLECTING TOOL Filed Sept. so, 1937 Jan. 3
Patented Jan. 3, 1 939 UNITED STATES amass v WELL-BORE DEFLECTING TOOL Thomas E. McMalian, Long Beach, Calil'., assignor to Lane-Wells Company, Los Angela, Call! a corporation of Delaware Application September 30, 1937, Serial No. 166,593
My invention relates to well bore deflecting tools, and among the objects of my invention are: First, to provide a tool of this class which, when properly oriented and released for operation, may
be caused to urge a rat-hole bit or pilot bit in any predetermined angular deflection, with respect to the well bore;
Second, to provide a. toolof this class which incorporates a deflecting shoe adapted to bear, under spring tension, against the side of the well bore and remain fixed while the pilot bit rotates andadvances;
Third, to provide a tool of this class wherein the deflecting shoe is readily held in an inoperative position contiguous to the side of the' bit during descent, and is quickly released by engagement with the bottom of the well bore.
Fourth, to provide a tool of this class whereby the spring tension against the deflecting shoe may be released at the will of the operator;
Fifth, to provide a deflecting tool which is particularly advantageous when it is desired to drill off of a cement plug previously set in the bottom of the well bore, the deflecting tool tending to counteract any tendency of the pilot bit to gyrate around the periphery of the cement plug and thereby fail to deflect in the desired direction; and
Sixth, to provide, on the whole, a novelly constructed deflecting tool which is durable, efllcient in its action, and which may be run with safety into or withdrawn from a well bore.
With the above and other objects in view, as may hereinafter appear, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is an elevational view of my deflecting tool shown in association with a rat-hole bit or pilot bit;
Figure 2 is an elevational view at right angles to'Figure 1 illustrating the deflecting shoe only;
Figure 3'is a longitudinal sectional view of the deflecting tool shown in its operating position, holding a pilot bit at adeflected angle;
Figure 4 is an elevational view of the deflecting tool in the position assumed when the pilot bit hascompleted its drilling operation and the tension spring has been released; and
Figures 5, 6 and '7 are enlarged, transverse sectional views of the deflecting tool taken through 5-5, 8-6 and 1-1 of Figure 1.
My deflecting tool incorporates a pilot bit I of any suitable design. The pilot bit I is smaller than the well bore from which it is to be deflected, as shown best in Figures 3 and 5. The bit I is. attached to a drilling stem Z- Q f agmentar- 10 Claims. (01. 255-1 ilywhich, in turn, is connected with drill pipenot shown.
A sleeve 3 slidably flts the stem 2. The lower end of the sleeve. 3 is provided with coarse screw threads and receives a retainer nut 4. A collar 5 is rotatably mounted on the sleeve 3 above the nut l. The collar 5 is provided with laterally directed hinge lugs 8 which extend into slots 1 provided in a deflecting shoe 8. A hinge pin 9 trayerses the deflecting shoe'8 and lugs 6,
The deflecting shoe 8 is relatively broad, as well as long, and is curved both transversely and longitudinally in such a manner as to'conform substantially to the side of the bit I and protrude below the bit. The lower extremity of the shoe is preferably capable of assuming a position in substantial axial alinement with the bit, as shown in Figure 1. In order to clear the cutting ribs III of the bit I, the shoe 8 may be provided with longitudinal slot II which fits over one of the ribs III. Near its lower end, the shoe 8 is provided with longitudinally extending ridges I2 which are adapted to anchor into the formation and prevent rotation of the shoe, as will be brought out in more detail hereinafter. The shoe is initially secured against the side of the bit I- by means of a shear pin I3 which extends transversely through the slot II and the cutting.
rib I8 fitted therein, as shown best in the transverse sectional view,-Flgure 6.
The upper endof the shoe 8 terminates in a yoke I4 which extends angularly with respect to the body of the shoe and embraces the sleeve 3 above the collar 5. A ring I5 rests upon the yoke I 4 and is urged downwardly thereagainst by means of a heavy spring I6. The upper end of the sleeve 3 is provided with an enlargement I'I against which the spring I6 bears. The tendency of the spring I6 is to force downwardly on the yoke I 4 and thereby urge the extremity of the shoe laterally away from the bit I, so as to assume the position shown in Figure 3. Initially, however, thistendency is restrained by the shear pin I3.
The upper end oi the bit I is provided with an axially directed clutch element I8 which is adapted to engage a corresponding clutch element I9 formed in the lower end of the retaine nut 4.
Operation 01' my deflecting tool is as follows: The tool is made up as shown in Figure 1, with theshear pin I8 restraining the shoe against the side of the bit I, so that its lower end projects ahead of the bit. The tool is set against the bottom of the well bore with suiflcient force to shear the pin I3, the tool first being oriented. When the pin i3 is sheared the spring l6 urges the shoe outwardly, as shown in Figure 3. The drill string is then raised and lowered several times to 1 spud in the bit I and permit the ridges I2 to work themselves into the formation. The bit I is then rotated but the sleeve 3 and shoe 8 remain flxed. As the bit advances in the rat-hole or pilot-hole, the sleeve 3 permits the drill stem 2 to advance. After completing the pilot-hole the bit is withdrawn and the frictional engagement of the shoe retains the sleeve 3 against upward movement until the clutch elements l8 and I9 engage. Thereupon the'bit is rotated in a direction to unscrew the nut 4. For this purpose, the collar 5 is keyed by means of a key pin 20 to the sleeve 3 in such a manner that upon release of the retainer nut 4, the collar 5 is free to drop downwardly from the sleeve 3, or more accurately, the spring I6 is free to urge the sleeve upwardly from within the collar 5, all as shown best in Figure 4. When the tension of the spring I6 is released, the shoe hangs loosely along the side of the bit, either between the ribs In or straddle one of them,.
whereby the tool may be readily withdrawn from the well bore. It should be borne in mind, however, that even though the tension against the shoe were not released, the tool may still be withdrawn from the well, for the reason that the shoe engages the well bore at a point below its fulcrum. During the drilling operations, the lateral thrust of the shoe 8 urges the drill at an angle with respect to the bore hole, so that the pilot hole is deflected in the direction determined by orientation of the deflecting shoe. A relatively large pilot hole may be formed so that the subsequent reaming operation may be minimized.
Usually it is desired to deflect only a very few degrees from the well bore, and consequently the drill stem and drilling string thereabove will bend sufflciently. when, however, it is desired to deflect at greater angles, it is, of course, contemplated that a conventional universal joint may be employed above the stem 2, that is, between the stem 2 and the drilling string. Universal or knuckle joints for this purpose are well known in the art and need not be'here shown.
Though I have shown and described a particular embodiment of my invention, I do not wish to be limited thereto, but desire to include in the scope of my invention the constructions, combinations and arrangements substantially as embraced in the appended claims.
1. In a well bore deflecting tool, the combination with a drilling string and bit, of: a deflecting shoe slidably mounted on said drilling string above said bit; yieldable means urging said shoe laterally with respect to said drilling string into engagement with the side wall of the well bore,
said deflecting shoe tending to remain fixed against rotation and longitudinal movement when I g in engagement with the well bore, whereby said drilling string may advance therethrough as said for initially restrainbit is operated; and means ing said yieldable means.
2. In a well bore deflecting tool, the combination with a drilling string and bit, of 'a deflecting member slidably and revolvably mounteg above said bit; yieldable means for urging said deflecting member laterally with respect to said drillin St i g against one side of the well bore; whereby said'deflecting member bears against one wall of a well bore and said bit is urged toward the opposite wall; said deflecting shoe tending to remain flxed against rotation and longitudinal movement when in engagement with the well bore, whereby said drilling string may advance therethrough as said bit is operated; and means for initially restraining said deflecting member against the action of said yieldable means.
3. In a well bore deflecting tool, the combination with a drilling string and bit, of a deflecting member; yieldable means for urging said deflecting member laterally into engagement with one wall of the well bore thereby to urge the bit toward the opposite wall; a sleeve slidably and revolvably mounted above said bit and carrying said yieldable means and deflecting member; and a restraining means releasable by manipulation of the drilling string for initially restraining said sleeve, yieldable means and deflecting member.
4. A well bore deflecting tool comprising: a drilling string; a pilot bit attached thereto; a deflecting member journaled above said bit transversely to the axis of said drilling string and adapted to extend downwardly along one side of and terminating beyond said bit; yieldable means tending to urge the deflecting member laterally; and means for restraining said deflectingv member against lateral movement, releasable by engagement of said deflecting member with the bottom of the well bore.
5. A well bore deflecting tool comprising: a drilling string; a pilot bit attached thereto; a sleeve on said drilling string; a deflecting arm transversely hinged to said sleeve and initially depending along the side of said bit and extending therebeyond; yieldable means on said sleeve for urging said deflecting arm laterally; and means for restraining said deflecting arm against lateral movement, releasable by engagement of said deflecting arm with the bottom of the well bore.
6. A well bore deflecting tool comprising: a drilling stem; 9. pilot bit attached thereto; and a deflecting device slidably and revolvably mounted on said stem and engageable with one wall of a well bore to urge the bit toward the opposite wall of said well bore and positioned free and clear of said bit when in operation, and means incorporated on said deflecting device and engageable with the side wall of the well bore to restrain said device against rotation or longitudinal movement during the drilling with said bit.
'7. A well bore deflecting tool comprising: a drilling string; a pilot bit attached thereto; a sleeve on said drilling string; a deflecting arm. transversely hinged to said sleeve and initially depending along the side of said bit and extending therebeyond; yieldable means on said sleeve for urging said deflecting arm' laterally; means for restraining said deflecting arm against lateral movement, releasable by engagement of said deflecting arm with the bottom of the well bore; and means operable by the pilot bit to disengage said deflecting arm from said yieldable means, whereby the deflecting arm hangs freely for withdrawal of the tool. A
8. The combination with a drilling string from which depends a stem and drilling bit, of a deflecting tool comprising: a yieldable laterally' Vance through said holding structure as the bit progresses.
9. The combination with a drilling string from which depends a stem and drilling bit, of a deflecting tool comprising: a yieldable laterally thrusting means for deflecting said bit; said means adapted to engage the side wall of a well bore and tending to be restrained in its position of engagement therewith; a mounting structure slidably and revolvably supporting said means on said drilling stem whereby, when said means is in engagement with the side wall of the well bore and the bit is rotated, the stem may advance through said holding structure as the bit progresses; and a device initially holding said means inoperative during insertion of the drilling string and releasable upon manipulation of the drilling string. a 1
10. The combination with a drilling string from which depends a stem and drilling bit, of a defleeting tool comprising: a yieldabie laterally thrusting means for deflecting said bit, said engagement with the side wall of the well bore and the bit is rotated, the stem may advance through said holding structure as the bit prograsses; a device initially holding said means inoperative during insertion of the drilling string and releasable upon manipulation of the drilling string; and another device adapted to render said means inoperative for withdrawal of said drilling string.
THOMAS E. YMCMAHAN.