US 2143044 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
jam. i9, E39. J. D.. WICKSl ET'AL gym@ FILTER APPLIANCE Filed oct. 5, v193e.
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Patented Jan. 10, 1939 pnnEp STATES PATENT OFFICE FILTER APPLANCE Application Gctober 3, 1936, Serial No. 103,860
This application is a continuation in part of our application, Serial No. 654,646, flied February 1, 1933. The invention pertains to an oil iilter, and more particularly to a lter intended for use on internal combustion engines, such as automobile, aeroplane, motor boat engines and the like, for :filtering the lubricating oils employed in such engines.
It isthe usual practice in engines of this character to enclose the crank shaft and its associated moving parts in a crank case and to place a quantity of oil in this case for lubricating such parts, various means being utilized to convey the oil to the dierent parts, although usually such is accomplished by a pump-operated pressure flow lubricating system. The principal dimculty encountered in this form of lubrication is that the oils rapidly become contaminated With various materials which are injurious to the engine. These consist chiefly of dust and dirt which find their way into the engine by devious routes, small pieces of metal which are chipped or worn from the engine and solid carbonaceous particles produced by faulty combustion. In the most part such materials are oi an abrasive character, and when entrapped in the oil rapidly wear and injure the surfaces of the moving parts with which the oil comes in contact. In addition, the carbon particles foul the spark plugs and other parts of the engine and unite with other materials in plugging the oil lines, etc. Consequently, unless these materials are removed as fast as they are collected the oil soon becomes unt for use and has to be replaced with new oil to protect the engine, which adds materially to the cost of operation.
Various kinds of lters have been devised in the past for overcoming this diiiculty. However, none of these are capable of any appreciable measure of accomplishing the results which we are able to accomplish with this invention. True, these prior iilters are capable of removing the larger particles which collect in the oils, but invariably after they have been in use for a short time the oils show an appreciable discoloration. This discoloration is produced by the presence in the oils of the finer injurious particles which the i'llters do not remove and which in reality are the most injurious to the engine as they are of such a small size that they readily work their Way between the closely tting moving parts of the engine Where the larger particles cannot go.
Our invention is predicated upon our discovery oi a ltering medium which has an aflinity for carbon and which is capable of completely removing from the lubricating oils of an engine all of the injurious solids contained therein when such oils are passed through it, and of the discovery oi a Way of so using this material in a filter of the aforementioned character that the oils can be continuously and uniformly passed through it in a convenient manner and at a suiicient rate to insure the injurious materials being removed as.
fast as they are collected. The medium in question is an impalpable inert earthy material, more specically such as a clay or argillaceous material or diatomaceous earth, which latter contains about of silica (SiOz) in combination with smaller percentages of various other ingredients such as oxides of iron, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, etc., deposits of which are found in the State of California, and which after being mined is processed by a Well-known calcining method and only the finer grades thereof used in the filter. By incorporating it in a filter in the manner which is hereinafter described, we have found that we cannot only completely remove the injurious solids which collect in lubricating oils, including even the very finest particles, but that the lubricating qualities oi the oils when so ltered improve with use, and that the necessity for adding oil to the lubricating system is eliminated except for the replacement of such oils as are burned or dissipated by the engine.
Generally speaking, the primary object oi the invention is to provide an improved filter adapted for use more particularly for ltering the lubricating oils of internal combustion engines.
A more particular object is to provide an improved lter of this character which is so constructed as to permit it to be conveniently and readily mounted on, and connected in, the lubrieating system of one of these engines, and'whieh is capable of removing all of the injurious solids, including even the very finest, from the lubricating oils of such system, as fast as they are formed and in a considerably more complete and efficient, as Well as effective, manner than any lters heretofore used for the purpose are capable oi doing.
Another object is to provide a filter of this nature which is of simple and sturdy construction, easy to install, and in which a removable filter element is employed which may be readily replaced to thereby maintain the filter in perfect operative condition for an indefinite period.
Another object of the invention is to provide a, removable cartridge having a bottom Wall strengthened by reason of the shape which it assumes.
It is also an object to provide a lter utilizing a able to the tradeand maintained in perfect oper-n ative condition for an indefinite period at a material saving in cost as compared to the prior filters of this type now in use.
A still further object is to provide an improved method of makinga filter for this purpose.n
These and numerous other objects, as well as the various'other novel features and advantages of the invention, will be apparent when the following detailed description is read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, of which F18. 1 is a side elevational view of an embodiment of the invention, showing it attached tojLhe engine of an automobile, and Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the same to enlarged scale. l'
According tthe invention, a filter element is provided in which a quantity ofl'impalpable inertY earthy material; such as an argillaceous material or a fine gradediatomaceous earth, as referredY to hereinabove, is used as an active part of the filter medium, such having been found to have an afiinity for carbon and superior filtering gualities. To obtain the most efficient and effective results with this material, it is supported by a suitable fibrous matrix winch functions notpnly as a separator for 'the grains of the earth to thereby prevent their forming a cake when the oil is passedthroughrit, but also to assist in the filtering of the liquids and to facilitate the flow of the nitrate. The matrix employed for this purpose may consist of any 'suitable vegetable fiber or like material, such as cotton waste, which is arranged in a suitable casing through which the oil to be filtered is passed, being so positioned in such casing that the oil in passing therethroughmust all pass through the filtering matrix. While various other methods may be employed in the formation of the filter we have found a most effective method for this purpose which comprises first mixing a quantity of the earth in a suitable oil which will hold it in suspension and then distributing it on the fibers. While the quantity of earth included in the matrix may vary somewhat, an amount is preferably used which will give the most effective results over along period of use.
After being processed in the manner described above, this impregnated mass is placed in a suitable container, adapted to receive the oil or liquid to be filtered. in a sufiicient quantity to insure the complete filtration of the oil each time it is passed through it and to function properly for a considerable length of time To prevent any of the earth from being carried away by the filtrate, as well as to assist in controlling the flow of the liquid so that the lter will function most effectively, a quantity of waste or other suitable material is placed adjacent to the matrix to receive and further lter the filtrate as it leaves the matrix. Also, to assist the matrix in performing its functions most effectively, a relatively thin layer of waste or other fibrous material is placed on the side thereof at which the oil to be filtered is fed into the matrix. This iayer operates primarily as a protective` covering for the matrix.
By way of illustrating the invention referen will be had to the embodiment illustrated in the drawing, which comprise a container I or housing proper for the filter and which may be made 'u of any suitable material and in any suitable shape.
although as shown it is formed out of pressed steel somewhat in the shape of a cup. This casing is mounted in a suitable place on the engine 2, with which it is used, or: on thevehicle in which the engine is installed, being heid in place by means of abracket 3, or other suitable means, and is connected in the flow line of the lubricating system of the engine byY an inlet connection ntting 4 joined to the conduit T and an outlet connection fittingl joined to the conduit 9. 'I'he pump 6 serves to draw the oil from the crank case 8 and pass it through the filter.
Inside of the casing I there is provided a removable filter cartridge I! which Yis enclosed in a sealed cylindrical casing I2. This casing is made somewhat smaller than the interior dimensions of thenouter casing I to allow the oil tofiow freely through the space between the two and is equipped with perforated end walls I3 and I4. Adjacent the uppenwall I3 there is arranged a relatively thin protective layer I5 of vegetable or other suitable fibrous material such as cotton waste. Next to this there is arrangedwhat constitutes the main filter section of the cartridge i and which comprises a relatively thick layer I6 of cotton wasteor a similar form of fibrous ma'- terial treated byndepositing thereon some impalpable inert earthy material having an affinity for carbon. or in some other suitable way, assembling on the waste a fine' grade of the material *in such for example as diatomaceous earth. This material is so distributed in the waste as to be Y largely separated; in factfmost every particle is separated from the other so as not to form a cake and obstruct the fow of the oil therethrough. Belew such section there is placed another layer I1 of fibrous material of the character referred to which is of sufficient thickness to insure the proper filtrate flow, and which is adapted to prevent any of the earthy material in the upper layer I 6 being carried out of the lter by the ltrate.
To facilitate the assembly and removal of the cartridge II, the outer casing I is provided with a detachable iid I8 which is secured by bolts I8 to a flange 2I provided about the top oi the casing I, although any other suitable means may be employed for this purpose. To insure all of the oil entering the outer casing I passing through the cartridge, the cartridge is seated on a gasket 22 placed on the bottom of the outer casing and urged into engagement therewith by the pressure of the oil which is forced through the cartridge from the tcp. For assisting the oil pressure in maintaining this seat a flexible looped spring 2l is attached to the top of the cartridge and adapted to yieldably bear against the cover I8 of the outer casing l, when the cover is in place. I'his spring also forms a bail or a handle for the cartridge, as well as assists in holding the cartridge centralized in the outer casing I which is of importance since it is sufiiciently smaller than the inside dimensions of the outer casing I to permit the free fiow thereabout of the oil and because the filter is subjected to considerable agitation when in use.
To further aid it in maintaining the cartridge in position, the outer edge 24 of the bottom wall of the outer casing I beyond the cartridge is tapered as shown to form a self-centering seat for the bottom of the cartridge. Adjacent this inclined outer portion the bottom wall of the casing I is provided with a flat portion 25 which forms a seat for the outer edge of the bottom of the cartridge while inside such fiatsection the center portion 2l of the bottom wall of the casing I is curved downwardly to form a cavity 21 below the cartridge to permit the oil to flow freely from the bottom of the cartridge into the outlet fitting 5.
To prevent the pressure of the oil passing through the cartridgev from forcing its bottom wall I4 against the bottom of the outer casing I so that it will obstruct the flow of the oil to the outlet fitting 5 and to also assist in maintaining the cartridge centralized in the casing, the central portion 28 of such lower wall I4 of the cartridge is pressed upwardly somewhat in the shape of a dome which alone strengthens it, and a hollow inverted cone-shaped support 29 is mounted in the bottom of the outer casing I to fit in this depression. In order to utilize the maximum area of the lower cartridge wall I4 this support 29 is made so that only a relatively smallsportion of its top surface engages the corresponding surface of the depression 28, and its sides are provided with such a pitch that there is sufficient space between them and the tapered sides of the depression 28 to permit the filtrate to flow freely through the central portion of the wall I4. To allow the oil to flow freely into the outlet fitting 5, from which it is conveyed back to the engine by way of the conduit 9 connecting it to the crank case, a plurality of openings 3I are provided in the sides of the dome-shaped support 29. Although not essential, as stated hereinbefore, the cartridge is completely sealed after its parts are assembled so that there is no possibility of its contents getting out of position. Also, as described and illustrated, it is so shaped that there is also no possibility of its being mounted in the filter improperly.
In practice, the filter assembly is preferably built in. sizes which are convenient for installation, and the cartridges are provided with a sufcient quantity of the earthy lter medium, which determines the life of the filter, to render them capable of functioning without alteration over an extended period of time.
A filter similar in construction to the embodiment illustrated in the drawing and described hereinbefore has been found to function perfectly. This particular filter employs an outer casing l which has a length of six inches and a diameter of six inches. The cartridge in turn has a height of four inches and a diameter of four and onequarter inches. The first layer of cotton waste in the cartridge'is one-half an inch thick and the lower layer two inches thick, and weighed eight ounces and 3.2 ounces, respectively, when installed, while the layer which is treated with the diatomaceous earth is 1 and one-half inches thick and weighs two ounces when installed, free of the earth, while the earth used weighs considerably less. At the average pressure at which the oil is supplied to the filter by that automobile, which is twenty-five pounds per square inch, the oil is filtered at the rate of thirty quarts per hour. This particular filter has a filtering capacity whichl is adapted to enable it to remove the injurious solids from the lubricating oil considerably faster than they are normally formed, and is constructed in what is now considered to be the most desirable size for general universal use.
As will be appreciated it is intended that the cartridges will be replaced as often as may be required to maintain the filter in perfect operating condition and for the purpose of replacement cartridges are provided for refills. A particularly advantageous feature of the cartridges is that they are relatively inexpensive and are so constructed that they may be installed with ease by any unskilled laborer and with perfect safety.
According to the provisions of the patent statutes we have explained the principle and mode of operation of our invention. and have illustrated and described what we now consider to represent its best embodiment. However, we desire to have it understood, that, within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically illustrated and described.
1. A filter cartridge comprising a casing having in it an inlet opening and an outlet opening, a body of fibrous material of substantial thickness, a substantial quantity of activated earthy material diffused through said fibrous material, substantially all of said particles of material being separated one from the other.
2. A filter cartridge comprising a casing provided with perforated inlet and outlet end walls, a mass of fibrous material of substantial thickness treated with an impalpable inert earthy materi-al distributed therethroughwith the fibrous material separating substantially all of the particles of the earthy material one from the other, and a mass of fibrous materi-al arranged between said treated mass and said outlet wall for preventing the earthy material being carried through the cartridge by the filtrate.
3. A filter for filtering the lubricating oils used in an internal combustion engine comprising a casing provided with an inlet-and an outlet opening, a relatively loosely disposed layer of substantial thickness of fibrous materi-al with diatomaceous earth distributed therethrough with the fibrous material separating substantially all of the particles of the earth one from the other, said material being arranged adjacent said inlet opening and through which the oil must pass, and a second lever of fibrous material of sufficient thickness to prevent said earth being carried off by the filtrate mounted between said impregnated layer and said outlet opening.
4. An oil lter for use in the lubricating system of an internal combustion engine comprising a casing having in it an inlet opening and an outlet opening for connecting it in the flow line of such a system, a removable filter cartridge provided with perforate end walls mounted in said casing between said inlet and outlet openings, a cover detach-ably mounted on said casing to facilitate the assembly and replacement of said cartridge, and a central support in the base of said casing and the bottom wall of said cartridge being provided with a central recessV for reinforcing the bottom of the cartridge and receiving said support for holding the cartridge centralized in the casing.
5. An oil filter for use in the lubricating system of an internal combustion engine comprising a casing having an inlet opening in its side wall, an outlet opening in its bottom wall and a. detachable cover forming its top wall, a removable filter cartridge provided with perforate end walls mounted in said casing in spaced relation with the side wall thereof and so seated on the bottom of the casing that Iall the-oil entering the casing must pass downwardly through said cartridge, and a hollow dome-shaped support mounted on the bottom wall of the casing, the bottom wall of the cartridge having an inverse depression to receive said support.
b'. A filter cartridge comprising a shell provided with perforated end portions, filtering material in said shell, said shell being of a size substantially less than the interior diameter of a casing therefor to permit liquid to be passed longitudinally along the outer surface of the niter cartridge and also having a`at surface at one end over an extended area. to form a sealed seat in the casing, the lower end wall'oi.' said shell being provided with a sharply inwardly extending portion providing a recess for the reception of 'a generally complemental projection in seid casing, the wall of said recess being et en angle to said lower end wall to prevent rocking of the cartridge on its complementa! projection.
JOHN D. WICKS.
JAMES D. CONDON.
FREDERICK H. FRANKLIN.