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Publication numberUS2144144 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 17, 1939
Filing dateOct 5, 1935
Priority dateOct 5, 1935
Publication numberUS 2144144 A, US 2144144A, US-A-2144144, US2144144 A, US2144144A
InventorsCrickmer Charles S
Original AssigneeMeria Tool Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for elevating liquids from wells
US 2144144 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 17,- 1939.

c. s. CRICKMER MEANS FOR ELEVATING LIQUIDS FROM WELLS Filed Oct. 5, 1935 4 5 Shee'ts-Sheet 1 u v lllllll fi a Jan, 17, 1939.

Filed Oct. 5, 1935 C, S. CRICKMER MEANS FOR ELEVATTNG LIQUTDS FROM WELLS 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 1811- 1721939 c. s. CRICKMER 2,144,144

MEANS FOR ELEVATING LIQUIDS FROM WELLS Filed Oct. 5, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Jan. 17, 1939. cs. CRICKMER 4 MEANS FOR ELEVATING LIQUIDS FROM WELLS Filed Oct. 5, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Cl/HELEJ J." (war/vie Jan. 17, 1939.

C. S. CRICKMER MEANS FOR ELEVATING LTQUIQS FROM-WELLS Filed Oct. 5, 1.935

was

5 Sheets-Sheet 5 fyJ i Z 0mm; J." fe/clr/vie Patented Jan. 17, 1939 UNITED STATES 2,144,144 Means FOR nmvuma mourns r'aou Charles S. Crlckmer, Dallas, Ten, to Merla Tool Company, Dallas, Ten, a fll'lll of Texas Application ottom- 5, 1935, Serial m. 43,048

This invention relates to new and useful improvements in means for elevating liquids from wells. 1

One object of the invention is to provide improved means for utilizing auxiliary fluidpressure which is introduced into the well casing to raise the liquid within the well tubing to the surface and wherein the lifting fluid is metered in direct proportion to the flow conditions of the well liquid- An important object of the invention isto v provide an improved flow valve, which is mounted in the well tubing for controlling the flow of the lifting fluid, from the well casing into the well 45 tubing, said valve being so constructed that the flow of fluid is automatically metered, or controlled by the velocity of the liquid flowing a well tubing'which consists in, introducing a lifting fluidwithin the well casing, and automatically controlling the flow of such fluid from 1 thejcasing according to the velocity of the liquid flowing through the tubing;

' A further object of the invention is to provide a plurality of flow valves which are mounted at various" stages within the well tubing for controlling the flow of lifting fluid from the well casing into the -well tubing, each valve having nieans for metering the lifting fluid, said means being actuated by the differentiallin pressure between the wellliquid within the tubing and the pressure of the lifting fluid in the well casing, I whereby when the pressure within'the tubing drops due to 'the increased velocity of the liquid passing therethrough, the lifting fluid will be metered to reduce the volume entering the tubing,

and similarly, as the liquid pressure increases,

' the valve will be opened wider to permit an increased amount of lifting fluid to enter the tubing.

5 ,Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved flow valve having a metering pin for controlling the flow of lifting fluid through the valve and means movable with relation to the pin to restrict thefflow of fluid thereby, said means 50 being actuated by the velocity .of the fluid, whei sby as said velocity increases, the volume of t? ve fluid passing the valve is automatically metered.

A still further object of the invention is to 1 1-: Claims. (01. ion-232).

well tubing, said device having means actuated by the velocity of the flow of fluid through the device for metering the volume 'of fluid passing into the well tubing, and also having means for completely shutting off the flow of lifting fluid into the tubing when the differential between the liquid pressure in the tubing and the pressure of the lifting fluid'in the casing rises to a predetermined point. I

Still another object of the invention is to pro- 10 vide-an improved metering pin for a flow device which is so constructed that the restriction of. volume of flow thereby is constant in direct proportion to the movement of the-pin, whereby pulsations in the volume stream and surging of 16 the fluid as the pin meters the flow is eliminated.

, A construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features of the invention. I

The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:

Figure 1 is a view, partly in elevation and partly 25 in section of a well casing and tubing and showing a plurality of flow devices, constructed in accordance with the invention, mounted at stages in the tubing, 1

Figure 2 is a transverse vertical, sectional vie 30 of the flow device attached to the tubing which is in elevation, the valve being open, 7

Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 showing the valve partially closed with the volume of the lifting fluid metered, 5 I

Figure 4 isa similar view, with the valve closed, 3 Figure 5 is a view, similar to Figure 2, showing a modified form of the invention,

Figures 6 to 10 are views showing the various positions of the metering pin and associate parts 40 in operation,

Figure 11 is a. transverse, vertical sectional view of another form. of the invention and showing the valve open, I

Figure 12 is a view similar to Figure 11 with the valve closed, V i

Figures 13 and 14 are views partly in elevation and partly in section of other forms of the invention,

Figure 15 is a view, similar to Figure 2 of still another form of the invention, a v

Figure 1615 an enlarged view of the meterin pin, and i Figure 17 is an enlarged view of another form of metering pin.

an inlet i2, whereby gas, or other lifting fluid may be introduced into the casing.

Suspended axially from the casing head is the tubing string I! having the usual screen H at its lower end. The lower end of the casing is packed off from the tubing by a suitable packer I5, whereby gas introduced into the casing at the .surface of the well cannot pass downwardly thereby. All of the above parts are of the usual construction and are, therefore, subject to variation.

In carrying out the invention, a plurality of flow valves A are mounted at various stages in the tubing string i2. The valves control the flow of the gas, or other lifting fluid, from the well casing-into thetubing. Since the well liquid enters the tubingthrough the screen I4 at the bottom of the hole below the packer, it is obvious that the gas introduced into the tubing will aid in lifting the liquid to the surface.

Each valve A (Figure 2) comprises an upper cylinder l6 and a lower cylinder II. The former has a threaded nipple II at its lower end while the latter has a threaded socket is at its upper end for receiving said nipple whereby the cylinders are connected together to form an integral structure. The provisionof the nipple and socketmake for easy assembling and dismantling of the device.

Theupperendofthecylinder itisclosedbya cap 2| which is threaded therein and which has an axial recess in its top, while the lower end of the cylinder I1 is closed by a similar'cap. When assembled, the cylinders are arranged to be positioned vertically at the side of the tubing is, be-

"ing disposed between outwardly extending lugs 2|. Cap screws 22 are threaded through the lugs and have their inner ends engaging in recesses 2| in the caps 20, whereby the cylinders are held in position. It is noted that the lugs have their outer edges beveled so that, as the device is lowered or raised within the well casing,

the lugs will not hang on the couplings, or other vprojections within the casing.

' which leads from the terior of the cylinder H to the interior of 'the tubing. whereby communica-' tion is established therebetween.

The bore of the lower cylinder i1 is reduced at its upper end whereby an annular shoulder 26 is formed within the cylinder. The reduced portion il' has a tubular piston 21 or velocity tube mounted to reciprocate vertically therein. P The piston has a plurality of labyrinth grooves 28 in its outer surface and is also provided with-an annular shoulder at approximately mid-height thereof. The lovierend'of the piston is formed with a conical valve II which is arranged to enuse an annular seat 2i which is formed at the PM end of the cap 2| in the lower end of the cylinder II. The valve is normally held on the a coiiedspringu which surrounds the is raised from its seat, gas or other fluid within the well casing ill passes through the ports 34 in the cap 20, through the opening 32, through the ports 35 in the valve and upwardly through the tubular piston 21 then through the inclined port 25 in the nipple 23, into the tubing I3. Therefore, when the piston 21 is raised, gas, or other lifting fluid, in the well casing, may pass from said casing to the tubing.

.Itwill be seen that the liftingfluid acting ainst the bottom of the valve II will raise the tubular piston when the pressure of the fluid overcomes the pressure of the well liquid plus the pressure of the spring 22. As soon as this occurs, the gas flows through the tubular piston which acts as a velocity tube. As thegas enters the tubing and increases the upward flow of the well liquid therein, it will be obvious that the increased rate of flow of such well liquid will relieve the back pressure thereof on the piston 21. As this pressure is relieved due to the increased velocity of the well liquid, the velocity of the gas flowing through the tubular piston is proportionately increased. This increased velocity serves to further raise the piston because of skin friction and thus the gas is flowing into the tubing at a high velocity. The velocity of the gas continues to raise the piston until the shoulder 28 on the piston .strikes the annular, internal shoulder 26 within the cylinder at which time further up ward movement of the piston is prevented. As the velocity of the flow of the gas increases, it is necessary to reduce the volume thereof because the velocity of well liquid has beenincreased and less gas is necessary to maintain the flow of well liquid. If the gas volume were not decreased, too much gas would enter the tubing whichwould kill the well and stop the flow of well fluid.

For metering the volume of gas as the velocity of well liquid and gas-increases so that only the amount of gas necessary to maintain the well liquid flowing, passes into the casing, a metering pin is provided. This pin is mounted on the lower end of a piston ll which is slidable vertically in a reduced portion IQ of the boreof the upper cylinder. The pistonhas a head 42 at its upper end and this head is arranged to engage an axial stop lug 42 which spaces the upper flat side of the head from the underside of the upper cap 20.

The piston and pin are normally held in a raised position with the head engaging the-stop lug by a coiled spring 44 which is confined within,

the cylinder between the head and the annular shoulder 45 formed by the reduced portion of the. bore of said cylinder. It is noted that this spring is heavier and stronger than the spring 22 which surrounds the lower tubular piston. The upper cylinder ii is provided with inclined radial ports 48 which extend through the wall'thereof and communicate with the interior of the cylinder above the reduced portion it of the bore It is obvious that the lower tubular piston, or.

velocity tube 21 is movable upwardly with relation to the metering pin 4|) which is carried by the lower end of the upper piston 4|. Also the metering pin is movable with relation to the velocity tube. Therefore, as the tube moves upwardly, it

will be obvious that the metering pin 40 enters the upper end'of said tube to meter the volume of the gas passing thereby. The upwardmovement 1 -of the tube is, of course, limited by the'shoulder 29 striking the shoulder 26, and when said tube has moved to this position, the volume has been cut'downlconsiderably but the flow is not out 01f as shown in Figure 3. To completely cut oil? the flow of the gas, the upper piston 4| must move downwardly to move the metering pin 40 downof this liquid standing within the well tubing wardly'until an annular shoulder 41 above said pin engages the upper end of the bore of the tube 21 to close said bore. and prevent further flow of the gas therethrough. In operation, assuming the parts to be in "the position shown in Figure 2, with the lower piston 21 in its lo'wered position and the upper piston 41 in its raised position, it will be seen that the gas within the well casing cannot enter the well tubing l3. Further assuming the well liquid level to be at the dotted line B (Figure 2) above .the inlet port 25, it will be seen that the back pressure will be exerted against the upper end of the piston 21 and also against the lower end of the piston 4|. This back pressure will, of course, enter the bore of the lower piston or velocity tube 21 and will serve to keep'the valve 3]! engaging the seat '3l whereby a flow of gas from the well casing into the tubular piston 21 will be prevented. The gas within the well casing-will, of course, enter the radial ports 46 in the wall of the upper cylinder 16 and therefore the static pressure of the gas within the well casing will be constantly exerted against the upper piston 4|, tending to lower this piston against the tension .of the spring 44. However, it is noted that the against the bottom of the valve 30 will raise the lower tubular piston or velocity tube 21 to permit the gas to flow upwardly through said tube and then through the inlet 25 into the well tubing- I3. It is noted that due to the fact that the spring 32 is comparatively weak, the tube 21 is moved upwardly by the gas'pressure before the piston 4| begins its downward movement due to the static pressure of {the gas within the well casing acting against the tension of the stronger spring 44. As soon as the gas flows through the inlet port 25 into the well tubing l3, itwill be seen that such gas will raise the well liquid within said tubing. As the well liquid begins to move between said liquid and the pressure of the gas.

within the well casing is increased, and thereby I the velocity of the gas passing through the tube 'will be increased. As the velocity of the gas through the tube 21 increases, it will be seen that due to skin friction, the tube will be raised further within the lower cylinder l1. This will move the upper end of the tube 21 toward the metering pin 4 0,-which during all this time has been maintained in a stationary position by the spring 44. As clearly shown in Figure 16, the lower end of the pin is reduced, the outer surface of said pin being plotted on a curve from its upper end to its reduced lower end. Theretore, as the tube 21 moves upwardly toward this pin it will be obvious that said pin will enter the upper end of the bore of said tube. As this occurs, this upper end of the bore will be closed,

whereby the volume of fluid flowing from the upper end thereof will be reduced. This decrease in the volume of lifting fluid is necessary at this time because the flow of the well liquid has increased and therefore a lesser amount of lifting fluid is necessary to continue the upward flow. If the volume were not reduced more fluid would be introduced into the tubing than is necessary to maintain the flow of the well liquid and therefore this increased amount of gas would vserve to kill the well.

Continued flowing of the gas through the tube 21 will eventually raise said tube until the shoulder 29 strikes the annular shoulder 26 within the cylinder l1. At this point, as clearly shown in Figure 3 the'upper end of the tube 21 has moved to the point where the entire lowerend of the metering pin 40 is within the bore of said tube. The velocity of the gas passing upwardly through the tube is not decreased but the volume of the gas escaping from the upper end of said tube has been metered in proportion to the rate of flow of the well liquid within the tubing. With the ports in this position, it will be seen that only a limited amount of gas can pass from the upper end of the tube 21, but it is pointed out that the gas is not completely shut ofi.

. As the well liquid within the tubing continues -to flow upwardly through said tubing at a faster "to overcome the tension of l the spring and the back pressure of the well liquid, then the piston 4! will begin to move downwardly within th upper cylinder l6.

Downward movement of the pin 40 causes said pin to move further into the bore of the tube 21. As the pressure differential continues to increase the downward movement of the upper piston 4| continues until the shoulder" at the-upper end of the pin 40 comes to rest on the upper end of the liquid upwardly in the well tubing. It is noted that this velocity must be suihcient to raise such liquid, otherwise the pressure lit-'- ferential between the well liquid and the gas in the well casing would be insuflicient to move the metering pin downwardly until the shoulder might be termed a logarithmic pin for it is plotted on a curve from its upper end, which is its greatest diameter, to its lower reduced end or along the lines of a logarithmic curve. By curving the surface of the pin as clearly shown in Figure 16, it is possible to maintain the volume of flow from the upper end of the tube 21 in direct proportion to the movement of the pin with relation thereto. In other words, each time the pin moves one-eighth of an inch into the bore of the tube, the volume of flow will be reduced a predetermined amount. Thus, throughout the movement of the pin and tube with relation to each other a constant volumetric area of the flowing gas is maintained whereby pulsation or surging of the volume stream is eliminated and a smoother and less violent action is had. By providing the logarithmic pin, the flow of the gas into the well tubing I1 is smooth and passes. into said tubing in a stream. This eliminates the possibility of the gas entering the tubing in "slugs" which would cause surging of the well liquid as it is raised in the well tubing it.

However, it is pointed out that it would be possible to use a conical pin as shown in Figure 17. This type of pin is not as desirable as the pin having the curved surface because the surface of said pin is a straight line. Due to this fact, when the conical pin enters the bore of the velocity tube 21 it will be seen that the reduction of the volumetric area of the gas will not be constant. That is, when the pin moves down .one-eighth of an inch the flow will be reduced a predetermined amount. Then when the pin 'moves into the bore another eighth bf an inch the reduction in flow will be greater than that caused by the first movement oi'the pin. Similarly, each subsequent eighth of an inch move- .ment of the pin will continue to reduce the volusirable to use the'logarithmic pin but it is to be understood that a conical pin such as is shown in Figure 1'1 may be employed.

It is'noted that the description of the operation of the device has been such as to bring the three fixed positions of the various parts of the various parts ofthe valve as shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4 so as to make for clarity. During actual operation, however, it might be that only the lower piston or tube 21 will be operated for the diiferential in pressure may never increase to the amount where the upper piston 4| will move. Thus under certain conditions the lower piston 11 will be operated to meter the volume ofilow of the gas and due to the fact that the well liquid will never reach a velocity sufficient to increase the differential to the point whereflzd upper piston ll will come into action, the lower piston will control the operation. It is noted that small changes in the differential will cause the lower piston 21 to fluctuate with relation to the metering pin ll, wherebyjthe volume of gas is positively and automatically controlled with re-" lation to the rate of flow of the well liquid. Therefore under all conditions, only the amount of gas necessary to maintain the flow of the well liquid is introduced into the tubing sults in smooth and efllcient lifting of the well liquid within the tubing I3.

In Figures 5 to 10, a modified form of the invention is shown. In this form the upper end of the metering pin 40 has a diameter substantially equal to the bore of the lower piston, or velocity tube 21. Thus, when the velocity tube. moves upwardly so that the metering pin enters the bore thereof, the flow from the upper end of said tube is prevented. In this form the annular shoulder 25 on the tube 21 is eliminated so that said tube may move upwardly until its upper end strikes the shoulder 41 at the upper end of the metering pin. When said tube has moved to this position (Figure 9) flow of gas from the tube takes place through radial ports 5| formed at the upper end of said tube. The ports are so located that when the upper end of said tube is engaging the shoulder 41 of the pin said ports are opposite the reduced lower endof said tube whereby the flow of gas through the ports is unobstructed. The operation of this form is exactly the same as that of the form shown in Figures 2 to 4 and the various positions of both the upper and lower piston is clearly shown in Figures 6 to 10. Therefore, a detailed description is deemed unnecessary as it would merely be repetition.

In Figures 11 and 12, still another the invention is shown. In this form the lower piston 21 or velocity tube is eliminated. In place and this reform of Q of said tube'a ball check valve 52 is provided.

This valve seats at the upper end of the opening II in the lower cap 20. The operation of this form is the same as that of the form shown in Figures 2 to 4', the gas entering the bore of the lower cylinder l1 and passing through the inlet port 25 to the well tubing. The gas pressure in the well casing must overcome the back pressure of the well liquid acting against the top of the ball valve, plus the weight of said ball valve be- -fore it can enter the bore of the lower cylinder. Therefore, the pressure differential between the well liquid within the tubing and the gas within the well casing controls the inlet of the gas. The construction and the operation of the upper cylinder H is exactly the same. The pressure differential between the well liquid and the gas must reach a predetermined point before the piston ll is actuated to lower the metering pin 40 to the position shown in Figure 12, whereby the flow of gas into the well tubing is completely shut oif. v

In Figure 13, still anotherform of the invention is shown. In this form the lower cylinder "an axial vertical bore 51 which extends throughout the length thereof. A conical metering pin II is made integral with the.lower end of the piston ll and. is substituted for the metering pin ll. As clearly shown in Figure 13 the bore 51 of the piston continues downwardly through. the metering pin 58, whereby the lower end of'said pin is open. As the piston moves downwardly due to the gas pressure against the valve 3|! at the upper end thereof, the metering pin 58 will move downwardly into a reduced portion 55' of the bore 55 in the plug-to reduce theflow of gas. It will be obvious that the gas passing the valve 30 will flow downwardly through the bore 51 oi the piston 4|, whereby said piston will serve as a velocity tube. As the velocity of the gas passing through said bore increases, said piston ismoveddownwardly, whereby the flow of gas passing from the bore 55 to the inlet port 25 and then to the tubing i3-is metered. It is noted that this form eliminates entirely the lower piston or velocity tube 21 and provides only the piston 4| which serves two purposes, that of the velocity tube which meters the volume of gas entering the tubing and also as a shut oif valve for completely closing the bore 55 when the pressure differential between the liquid in the tubing and the gas in the casing reaches a predetermined point.

In Figure 14, still another form of the invention is shown. This form is similar to that shown in Figure 13 except that the metering pin 58 is eliminated and a metering pin having the same shape as, the pin 40 in the other form is suitably mounted in the bottom of the plug 54 and extends upwardly therefrom. Inoperation, the gas flows through the bore 51 of the piston 4| and the velocity of said gas moves said piston downwardly whereby the pin 40 enters the bore .51 to meter the volume of the gas escaping from said bore.

When the piston 4| has moved downwardly to the point where its lower end engages a shoulder 41' at the lower end of the metering pin 40', then the flow of gas through the piston 4| is completely shut off.

Figure 15 shows stillanother form of the invention. This form is substantially the same as "that shown in Figures 2 to 4, the only change being in the spring 44 which resists the movement of the upper piston 4|. Instead of providing the strong spring 44 a double spring is provided. This double spring includes a stronger lower spring 60 which-is confined between the shoulder 45 in the cylinder l6 and the lower end of a collar 6| which isslidable on said piston. An upper spring 62 which is comparatively weak is confined between the head 42 of said piston and the sliding collar 6| as clearly shown in Figure 15. In operation, when the lower piston or velocity tube 21 has moved to its highest position, that is with the shoulder 29 engaging the annular shoulder 26 in the lower cylinder ll, then'an increase in the pressure difierential between the liquid in the tubing and the gas in the.

casing will bring the-upper piston 4| into operation. When the piston 4| first becomes operative, the weakness of the spring 62 permits said ,piston to be sensitive to low pressure differential.

Thus, the piston will move downwardly comparatively quickly at first and thenafter the upper spring 62 has been compressed will then act against the tension of the stronger spring 60 whereby its movement is retarded by said stronger spring. The provision 'ofthe double spring permits the upper piston 4| to be more sensitive to the diflerential pressure. the operation is exactly the same as that of the form shown in Figures 2 to 4.

It is pointed out that inall the forms the actuation of the piston is ,controlled by the differential of the pressure between the well liquid in the tubing l3 and the gas in the well Otherwise casing. when the velocity of the well liquid travelling upwardly in the tubing I3 is reduced there is an increased back pressure upon the piston. This causes the di lerential of pressure between said liquid and the gas in the casing to decrease whereby the lower piston is raised to permit gas to enter thewelltubing. As soon as such gas is introduced into the tubing the liquid therein is raised, thereby increasing the rate of flow or velocity of said liquid. As this velocity increases the diiferential pressure between the liquid and the gas in the casing is increased, and

at such increase in pressure the velocity of the .gas flowing through lower piston 11 increases in proportion. The increasedvelocity of the gas raises the lower piston 21 to its highest position thereby metering the volume of gas escaping from the upper end of the piston. Should the pressure differential continue to increase due to an increase in the velocity of the well liquid then the upper piston 4| is actuated to completely shut oil the flow of gas because at such time the velocity of the well liquid is suflicient to raise the same and therefore the introduction of gas,

or other lifting fluid is not necessary. It is noted that the spring 44 which controls the movement oi? the piston 4| is of such strength that it will permit the piston 4| to move downwardly only when the movement of the well liquid is of such speed that no more gas is necessary to keep it in motion. The strength of this spring will, of

which the device is applied. Thus, it will be seen that a device is provided wherein the gas, or other lifting fluid is automatically metered according to the velocity or rate of flow of the well liquid passing upwardly in the well tubing I3. Therefore the gas is supplied only as needed and in direct proportion to the velocity of the flowing liquid. The action is automatic at all times and once the springs have been adjusted so as to adapt the device to a particular'well condition,

no further adjustments are necessary. The gas,

or lilting fluid, is introduced into the tubing exactly as needed and is automatically shutoff when the velocity of the fluid is such that it course, vary according to the particular well to may travel upwardly within the tubing without any assistance from auxiliary lifting fluid.

What I claim,and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: v 1. A well flow device including in combination with well 'tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well casliquid passing through the tubing.

2. A-well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing, and lowered therewith into the well casing, said body being provided with a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the passage and so located that the flow of the lifting fluid from the casing to the tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the passage and piston and actuated by the differential in pressure between the well liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, means for automatically metering the volume of fluid flowing through said passage according to the velocity of the well liquid passing through the tubing, and means for completely cutting off the flow of fluid through said passage when the well liquid reaches a predetermined velocity.

3; A well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well casing, said body being provided with a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the passage and so located that the flow of the lifting fluid from the well casing to the tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the passage and piston to prevent flow of fluid through the piston, said valve being actuated by the differential in pressure between the well liquid in the. tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, and a metering pin within the passage above the piston and adapted to move into the upper end of the piston when said piston moves upwardly, the movement of the piston being controlled by the velocity of the lifting fluid which is flowing through said piston, such velocity depending on the difl'erential in pressure between arranged to be connected with the well tubin and lowered therewith into the well casing, said body being provided with a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the passage and so located that the flow of the lifting fluid from the well casing to the tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the passage and piston to prevent flow of fluid through the piston, said valve being actuated by the diflerential in pressure between the well liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, a metering pin within the passage above the piston'and adapted to move into the upper end of the piston when said piston moves upwardly, the movement of the piston being controlled by the velocity of the lifting fluid which is flowing through said piston, such velocity depending on the difl'erential pressure between the well liquid within the. tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, whereby the volume of fluid flowing through the passage is automatically metered according to such pressure differential,

and means for completely cutting off the flow of fluid through the tubular piston when the well liquid within the tubing reaches a predetermined velocity.

5. A well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubingand lowered therewith into the well'casing, said body being provided with a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the passage and so 10- cated that the flow of the lifting fluid from the the passage and piston to prevent flow of fluid through the piston, said valve being actuated by the differential in pressure between the well liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, and a metering pin within the passage above the piston and adapted to move into the upper end of the piston when said piston moves upwardly, the movement of the piston beingcontrolled by the velocity of the lifting fluid which is flowing through said piston, such velocity depending on the dlfi'erential in pressure between the well liquid within the tubing and the lifting fluid within vthe casi g, whereby the volume of fluid flowing through the passage is automatically metered according to such pressure differential, said metering pin having a curved surface which is reduced toward its lower end along the lines of a logarithmic curve to provide a constant reduction of the volumetric flow of the fluid, whereby pulsations or surging in the volume stream is eliminated.

6. A well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well casing, said .body being provided with a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the passage and so located that the flow of the lifting fluid from the well casing to the tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the passage and piston to prevent flow of fluid through the piston, said valve being actuated by the differential in pressure between the well liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid within the casing, a metering pin within the passage above the piston and adapted to move a into the upper end of the piston when said piston mbves upwardly, the movement of the piston being controlled by the velocity of the lifting fluid which is flowing through said piston, such velocity depending on the differential in pressure between the well'liquid within the" tubing and the liftin fluid within the casing, whereby the volume of fluid flowing through the passage is automatically metered according to such pressure differential, and means for cutting off the flow of fluid through the piston when the well liquid reaches a predetermined velocity.

7. A well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing a cylinder arranged to' be mounted on the well tubing and having its bore communicating with said tubing, said cylinder having an opening in its lower end for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the lower end of the bore of said cylindq and so located that the flow of lifting fluid from the casing to the ,tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the opening to prevent flow of fluid through the piston to the tubin said valve being actuated by the pressure differential between the well liquid-in thetubing and the fluid within the casing, a second piston slidable within the cylinder above the tubular piston, a metering pin carried by the second piston and adapted to enter the upper end of the tubular piston to meter the flow of fluid therethrough when said piston moves upwardly, such movement of the piston being automatically controlled by the velocity of the fluid flowing through the piston, the velocity depending on the differential between the liquid within the tubing and the fluid within the casing, whereby the metering is controlled by such pressure differential, a valve at the upper end of the metering pin and carried I r by the second piston, arranged'to seat on the upper end of the tubular piston to cut of! the flow of fluid therethrough, and means for moving the for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, 'a tubular piston slidable in the lower end oi the bore of said cylinder and so 10- cated that the flow'of lifting fluid from the casing to the tubing passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the\ opening.to prevent flow oi fluid through the piston to the tubing; said valve being actuated by the pressure diiferential between the well liquid in the tubingand the fluid within thecasing, a second piston slidable within the cylinder above the tubular piston,-a metering pin carried by the second piston and adapted to enter the upper end of the tubular piston to meter the flow of fluid therethrough when said piston moves upwardly, such movement of the piston being automatically controlled by the velocity of the fluid flowing through the piston, the velocity depending on the dif-' ferential between the liquid within the tubing and the fluid within the casing, whereby the metering is controlled by such pressure differential, said metering pin having its surface curved and reduced toward its lower end to provide a constant volumetric reduction of 'the flow of the fluid through the piston in direct proportion to the movement of the piston, a valve at the upper end of the metering pin and carried by the second piston, arranged to seat on the upper end of the tubular piston to cut oil the flow of fluid therethrough, and means for moving the second piston downwardly to seat said valve when the flow of the well liquid within the tubing has reached a predetermined velocity.

9. A well flow device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing a cylinder arranged to be mounted on the well tubing and having its bore communicating with said tubing, saidcylinder having an opening in its' lower end for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston slidable in the lower end of the bore of said cylinder and so located that the flow of lifting fluid from the casing to the tubing'passes therethrough, a valve carried by the piston arranged to close the opening to prevent flow of fluid through the piston to the tubing, said valve being actuated by the pressure diherential between the well liquid in the tubing and the fluid within the casing, a second piston slidable Within the cylinder above the tubular piston, anda metering pin carried by the second piston and adapted to enter the upper endof the tubular piston to meter the flow of fluid 'therethrough when said piston moves up wardly, such movement of the piston being auto-.

'matically controlled by the velocity of the fluid flowing through the piston, the velocity depending on the difierential betweenthe liquid within the tubing and the fluid within the casing, whereby the metering is controlled by such pressuredifferential.

10. A well flowing device including, a body arranged to be connected with a well tubing, and lowered therewith into a well casing, said body having a passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, a tubular piston having a fluid tight sliding fit in the pastubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well casing, said body having a passage for establishing communication between the casing and the tubing, and means for regulating the volume of fluid flowing through the passage; said means in cluding a valve member adapted to close 01f flow of fluid through the passage and displaceable by gas pressure in the well casing to admit gas into said passage and having a velocity flow passage rendering the valve member movable in proportion to the velocity of. flow through the flow passage and means actuated by differential in pressure between the liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid in-the casing and having a gas metering member associated therewith movable into and from said flow passage, said gas metering member and flow passage having a cooperating construction such as will provide a continuous and gradual non-pulsating reduction of v the volumetric flow through the first named passage v bination with well tubing and a well casing, a.

during the initial and subsequent stages of such 12. A well flowing device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected -with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well cas ing, said body having a passage for establishing communication between the casing and the tubing, and means for regulating the volume of fluid flowing through the passage; said means including a valve member adapted to close oiT flow of sage and means actuated by dilferential in pressure between the liquid in the tubing 'and the lifting flu d in the casing and having a gas metering member associated therewith and movable a substantial distance into and from said flow I passage, the construction of the gas metering member with respect to said flow passage being such as to initiate a regulating action immediately upon relative movement therebetween and provide a gradual reduction of volumetric flow which eliminates pulsations or surging in the volume stream.

13. A well flowing device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubing and lowered therewith into the well cas ing, said body having a passage for establishing communication between the casing and the tubing, and means for regulating the volume of fluid flowing throughthe passa e; said means including a valve-member adapted to close ofi' flow of fluid through the passage and displaceable by gas pressure in the well casing to admit gas into said passage and having a velocity flow passage rendering the valve member movable in proportion to the velocity of flow through the flow passage and means actuated by differential in pressure between the liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid in the casing including a gas metering member movable a substantial distance into and irom said flow passage, the shape of said gas metering member with respect to the flow passage being such as to initiate a regulating action gradually and at a constant rate throughout the range of movement of the metering member 1 the tubing, and means for regulating the volume of fluid flowing through said passage; said means including a valve unit having means adapted to close off flow of fluid through the passage and displaceable by gas pressure in the well casing to admit gas from the well casing into said passage and having a velocity flow' passage therein rendering the valve member movable in proportion to the velocity of flow through the flow passage and means coacting with said valve member and actuated by differential in pressure between the liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid in the casing and carrying a gas metering member movable a substantial distance into and from said flow passage, said gas metering member being constructed to initiate a regulating ,action gradually and at a constant rate throughout its range of movement in the flow passage, whereby a gradual and continuous reduction of the volumetric flow of fluid is produced which eliminates pulsations or surging in the volume stream, andmeans associated with the metering member for completely cutting off the flow of fluid through the velocity flow passage when the well liquid reaches a predetermined velocity.

, 15. A well flowing device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body arranged to be connected with the well tubingand lowered therewith into the well casin said body being provided witha passage for establishing communication between the casing and tubing, means arranged to close said passage actuated by the differential in pressure between the well liquid in the tubing and the lifting fluid in the casing, said means comprising a pair of members movable towards each other and independently responsive to the pressure differential and means for automatically metering the volume of fluid flowing through said passage according to the velocity of the well liquid passing through the tubing, said latter means including a metering member carried by one of said members and movable a substantial distance into and from a velocity flow passage associated with the other member, the construction of said metering member with respect to the flow passage in which said latter member has movement being such as to initiate a non-pulsating gradual regulating action immediately upon and throughout relative movement therebetween.

16. A well flowing device including in combination with well tubing and a well casing, a tubular body having both an inlet port for admitting a lifting fluid from the well casing and a fluid outlet for supplying the admitted lifting fluid to the well tubing, a restricted flow passage communicating said port with said outlet, a valve member coacting with said port and displaceable through pressure of the lifting fluid to admit said latter fluid into said flow passage, means rendered operable through diflerential in pressure between the lifting fluid and fluid in the well tubing for metering-the volume of fluid flowing through the flow passage, said metering means being constructed and arranged to provide a continuous non-pulsating and gradual metering action throughout .the metering range, and means operating to completely close the flow passage when a predetermined differential in pressure is obtained. a

17. A well flowing device including in combination with welltubing and a well casing, a tubular body having an inlet port for admitting a liftin fluid from the well casing and a fluid outlet for supplying 'the' admitted lifting fluid to the well tubing, a restricted flow passage communicating said port with said outlet, a valve member coacting with said port and displaceable through pressure of the lifting fluid to admit said latter fluid into said flow passage, a gas-metering member arrangedto telescope said flow passage, and means operating through difl'erential in pressure between the lifting fluid and fluid in the well tubing to cause the gas-metering member and flow passage to telescope varying degrees into and from one another, said gas-metering member being contoured with respect to the flow passage as to continuously and gradually meter the volume of fluid flowing through the flow passage throughout its range of telescoping movement, said metering member being provided with means acting to completely close the flow passage when a predetermined pressure difierential is obtained.

CHARLES S. CRICKMER.

Referenced by
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US7931086Apr 18, 2008Apr 26, 2011Shell Oil CompanyHeating systems for heating subsurface formations
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US8230927May 16, 2011Jul 31, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US8631866Apr 8, 2011Jan 21, 2014Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9022109Jan 21, 2014May 5, 2015Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
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Classifications
U.S. Classification417/115, 166/320, 137/504, 137/155, 417/189
International ClassificationE21B43/12
Cooperative ClassificationE21B43/123
European ClassificationE21B43/12B2C