US 2144630 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 24, 1939. G, T Y 2,144,630
BUILDING UNIT AND ELEMENT Original Filed April 22, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l FIE. 2 101 INVENTOR ATTORNEY Jan. 24, 1939. G. KOTRBATY 2,144,630.-
BUILDING UNIT AND ELEMENIf Original Filed April 22, 1835 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Guy/I liofrbafg ATTORN EY Patented Jan. 24, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BUILDING UNIT AND ELEIWENT Original application April 22, 1935, Serial No. 17,591. Divided and this application December 7, 1937, Serial No. 178,492
This invention relates to improvements in building construction systems and units and elements therefor. This application is a division of my application Ser. No. 17,591, filed. April 22,
1935, now matured into Patent No. 2,101,074, of
Dec. 7, 1937.
The improvements of the present invention relate more in detail to generally prefabricated unitary and composite wall members and wall units and to improvements in methods and means for assembling the same into completed structures.
The present invention includes as additional features of novelty, improved wall joint-locking and/or decorative members, and associated wall panel features. In addition, the novel improvements of the present invention include provisions for the utilization of skeletal or partlyskeletal structural features in prefabricated elements and structures, including preformed materials and panels thereof, and the erection and assembly of the same into completed units and structures, with or without associated suitable hardenable structural plastic materials therewith.
It is a feature of the present invention to provide a building construction system formed of self-supporting units mutually abutted and interlocked by novel structural locking members.
It is another feature of this invention to provide improved structural elements, including stud members adapted to receive structural locking and keying members and form composite supporting members therewith.
It is also a feature of novelty of the present invention to provide preformed, self-supporting wall sections having substantially completely finished surfacings and adapted to be mutually associated in completed walls by a variety of integral and composite locking and/ or keying means.
Special features of novelty also include novel keying and locking means with wall structural features, with or without integral or separate furnishing and ornamental and protective elements for wall panel or element joints.
Particular features of novelty include the preparation and utilization of preformed, self-supporting wall panel sections of room height or building height, mutually associated in complete wall. structures with vertical supporting and locking members incorporated therein or adapted to be structurally associated therewith.
An exceptional feature of novelty of the present invention is the provision of mechanically interlocked skeletal building structures provided either with preformed structural wall, floor, ceiling and roof members adapted to be assembled into complete structures or provided with means for receiving structural plastics to form composite, reinforced structures It is a feature of the present invention to provide an improved building construction of steel and structural plastic materials in which wall and floor joints are mechanically formed.
It is also a feature of novelty of the present invention to provide a steel building with the several parts mechanically interlocked and adapted to receive plastic surfacings.
These and other desirable features and advantages will be described in the accompanying specification and illustrated in the drawings, certain preferred forms being shown by way of illustration only, for, since the underlying features may be incorporated inother specific structural assemblies, it is not intended to be limited to the ones here shown, except as such limitations are 20 clearly imposed by the appended claims.
In the drawings, like numerals refer to similar parts throughout the several views, of which Figs. 1, 2, and 3 are horizontal sections of selfsupporting structural units of reinforced hard- 25 ened cementitious plastic material;
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section of a reinforcing and keying panel section as shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of a keyway member shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 4; 30
Fig. 6 is a horizontal section of an interior reinforcing panel-spacing and -supporting structural member;
Fig. 7 is a horizontal, section of angle joint keyway members shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 8 is a detail, in horizontal section, of a corner wall joint as formed by the use of structures shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 9 is a horizontal section of a corner wall unit assembly showing trapezoidal units and nov- 40 el keying means;
Fig. 10 is a horizontal section of a corner wall construction using preformed units and angular keyway sections;
Fig. 11 is a horizontal section of abutted unit 45 reinforcing members as shown in Fig. 10, and
Figs. 12 and 13 are views similar to Figs. 10 and 11 showing modified keyways and keys.
Referring now to the constructions shown in Figs. 1 to 8, inclusive, there are disclosed struc- 50 tural building panel members, including end keying sections, I30, and provided with structural cementitious plastic body portions adhered toand reinforced by structural metal hollow units and the like. A building member, designated gener- 55 ally by the numeral 60, and including a cementitious body or mass, 8| of concrete or other structural plastic aggregate, is disposed and secured, in precast formation, about a multipartite unit member or skeleton. These members may comprise spaced panel sections, 82, of foraminous or solid sheet metal, including expanded metal lath, and the like, secured to and held in end sections, 83, having semi-circular portions 84 formed at a side thereof and terminating in end-protecting and -aligning members, 85, having inturned aligning and stiffening edges, 86. The members 83 are provided with securing sections, 81, which secure the ends of the panels or supporting members 82 in any desired manner,as by crimping, welding, riveting, or equivalent means.
In the fabrication of unit supporting and structural sections, a pair of the panel sections, 82, are abutted and secured, as by means of rivets, 88, to form a self-supporting metallic grid structure. These structures include keyway sections, I30, formed by the opposed and mutually interlocked semicircular end sections, 84. The screed or end sections, 85, and associated stiffening flange, 86, serve as alignments and guides for the cast structural cementitious plastic, 8 I which is cast over the central unit section to form a completed composite unit. Where central longitudinal stiffening of the members 80 is desired, the panel sections 82 may be relatively shorter in width than the central supporting section disposed between the ends. The member 90 includes a pair of opposed. and abutting sections 9 I, each having a flat, central portion, 92, adapted to be abutted against a like section and secured thereto by rivets or bolts and spot or seam welds, 93, or in any other manner. The members 9I are further provided with angle web sections, 94, on either side thereof, terminating in end-clipping and gripping sections for panels, and designated generally by the numeral 95. The clip sections are secured over the panels 92 and form a bridge therewith. The sections 94 and 95 further form, between themselves, plastic keying channels, 98, adapted to receive and retain plastic structural materials of the concrete or other mass, 8 I, and serve as reinforced, central post members.
Where it is desired to form angularly-ended structural members, novel end sections may be made use of. These members include opposed sections, and are designated generally by the numerals 95 and 96. Section 95 includes the usual arcuate central portion 91 with an exterior angle guide and end section 98, terminating in an interior stiffening and plastic-receiving guide 99. The other side of this member is extended at I00 to terminate in a clipping or securing flange section IOI, forming a plastic-receiving channel I02. The complementary member 98 also has the central semi-circular section 91 with an exterior web section, I 03, extending at an angle therefrom, and terminating in an end flange, I04, set at an obtuse angle thereto. The other side of the member 96 includes a substantially straightline web member, I05, extended outwardly at its edge, as indicated at I00, and terminating in an inturned clip-flange edging, I01.
The sections I05 and I01 form a plastic-receiving angle, I08, debouching into an enclosed, plastic-receiving space, I09, formed between the surfaces I03, I05 and 91 of the member. This construction, it will be seen, forms a substantially hollow, metallic post, with a structural plastic embedment therein. The panel sections, 82, are respectively secured by and between the securing sections HM and I01, the members 95, 96, being reversely positioned or alternated at opposite ends of the structural unit. For purposes of convenience, and to differentiate the structure from the preformed, precast members already noted and others to be described hereinafter, this particular angular unit member will be designated generally by the numeral I08.
The units shown and described in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 are each hollow, the unit in Fig. 3 having two central, hollow compartments. These structural members may be used as such, or the interior may be provided with any suitable insulating packing, all as noted hereinabove. The members I08 may be aligned and held by keys, I38, disposed in keyways, I30, a straight-line wall arrangement being obtained by so assembling and abutting the end sections as to have the web sections 95 and 98 at the end of a unit in abutting relation with a like reversed end of a juxtaposed unit, the web sections on said units being respectively reversed. As shown more particularly in Fig. 8, where the ends of the two units I08 are so abutted as to have web sections 85 and web sections 96 severally abutted against like members of adjacent and abutting units, an angular corner construction results, which is permanently held in fixed abutment and operative position by means of the spring key members, I36, disposed in the keyways, I30. The ends or points of juncture of sections 99 with the web sections 95, serve as corner-protecting beads and plasterers screeds. The joint between such members may be grouted, if desired, although substantially water-tight and air-tight joints between the abutted web sections may be obtained by properly conforming and adjusting the key members 36.
While the self-supporting construction units I93 have been shown and described as substantially rhomboidal in cross-section, to form a complete perimetral building construction with such members requires a modification of certain of them to be presented as trapeziums in cross-section. To form the complete unit I08 as a trapezium in cross-section, the end sections I05 and I06 will have to be disposed on the same side of the unit with like members, so as to present all the outer web faces on one side of the longitudinal center of the unit, and the cooperating faces 96 on the other side of said axis.
While these structural unit members I08 and 80 have been described as preformed and selfsupporting, the improvements of the present invention comprehend the application of finish plastic surfacings, or the like, to the same when erected and assembled in building and wall assemblies. The invention, however, further comprehends the utilization of the said several skeleton metallic portions of these members as skeletons for a completely monolithic construction wherein the skeleton members are assembled in position and structural plastic materials are applied therein and thereover in any desired manner to secure a substantially complete monolithic construction having a novel multiple unit structural metallic reinforcing throughout.
In the construction shown in Figs. 10 and 11, a panel or unit member 200 is provided with panel sections 20I joined to and spaced apart by end members 202. ways 203 having web sections 204 of substantially equal width disposed on either side thereof. On one side, the web 20 is continued inwardly, as indicated at 205, at an obtuse angle, to form a These end members comprise keyshelf or keyway section, and this, in turn, is pro- 75 vided with an angularly extending web portion 206, generally parallel to the section 20 3, and terminating in a securing section 201 adapted to receive and secure panel sections 20!. The opposite Web section 204 is continued inwardly at right angles, as indicated at 208, the latter flange or panel section being provided with panel-receiving and -securing edge 2l9. The members or sections 205, 206, and 201, form a plastic-receiving channel 2!! adapted to form a cooperating auxiliary keyway and plastic-receiving channel With the section 250. The angular disposition of these parts permits the aligned units, having cooperating auxiliary keyway sections 2 in mutual engagement, to form a straight-line Wall construction with the keys I35 securing and locking abutted keyways 203 together. Where channel or auxiliary keyway sections 2 of adjacent members are mutually abutted and the sections 2I0 are likewise mutually abutted in the same construction, the result is an angular, corner wall construction, as indicated in Fig. 10. Where corner walls are intended to be formed, the securing sections 207 and 200 of the end or web sections 202 may severally be provided with an acuteangled guide and web member 2l3, respectively. These members are adapted to serve as plasterers screeds and guides, abutted sections 2l3 forming corner beading and protecting members. Any suitable plastic embedment or structural plastic material 2M may be applied to the surfaces of the panels 20l to form structural surfacings. Where continuous wall surfacings of plastics are to be applied to the surfaces of the panels 200, auxiliary joint covers 215 may be fitted into the pies tic-keying channels 2H}. These may comprise cover plate and keying member i i5 provided with a surfacing 255 of expanded metal lath, or the like, adapted toreceive and key plastic material disposed therearound and thereover. The trapezium unit construction, indicated in half-sec tion in Fig. 10, will, as above noted, permit the utmost flexibility in structural use of the novel, composite stud members, 2&2.
The construction shown in Fig. 8 comprises a skeleton wall construction member 2%, including the usual opposed panels 20! having end sections 2 l i secured to and spaced by end keying and locking members 2H3. These members comprise a generally triangular-shaped member having an inner side 2 I 9 and an outer leg portion 220 having securing section 22E adapted to receive and secure an end of a panel to sections 2H. The leg 259, in its turn, is provided, directly at its end, with inwardly extending securing section 222, to and by which an edge of a panel member 2W may be secured. The sections 222 and 22:] are bent inwardly at acute angles toward themselves to form segments of a triangle base, each segment being designated generally by the numeral 223. These segments are, in turn,'bent backward to form pleats or bends, 220, Which, in their turn, are joined in an arcuate section 225 integrally therewith and disposed in the right angle formed between the sections or panels 250 and 22d. Abutment of like parts together gives a substantially rectangular section, the fingers 225 being adapted to engage in diametrically opposed keying channels or grooves 22'! formed in a substantially circular keying member 220. This member may be a continuous tube, with the channels 22? formed therein, or it may have a continuous slot in one side, as indicated at 228, to provide an improved spring-grip between its perimeter and the cooperating surface of section 220 of the panel end members. In this construction likewise, straight wall assemblies may be prepared by aligning the wall units'in such a manner that a securing section 222 of one member abuts a securing section 220 of another member in aligned relation on the same side of the wall unit. Where angles 'or corners are to be formed, the securing sections 222 of adjacent units should be in immediate juxtaposition, as are the sections 220 of such units. These members, as indicated, are generally rhomboidal in cross-section, and may be converted into trapezia by reversing an end section during the formation of the structural unit member. The panel members 2| 1, may, as is true with the other constructions herein, serve as structural cementitious plastic-receiving and -supporting members in which surfacings are applied or cast to make preformed or precast units, or the units may be assembled in a building without surfacings and structural plastics applied thereover'in the ordinary manner. In addition, the supporting panels 2 l 7 may have a variety of finishes and surfacings, including linoleum, asbestos products, gypsum products, wood-base materials, organic condensation and polymerization products generally, and a variety of sheet materials including metal sheets, secured thereto and thereon, either in the prefabricated, preformed units, or secured thereto and applied thereon after the basic units have been assembled and erected in building structures and parts thereof.
It is to be noted that the ability to be preformed with desired surfacings and to be assembled into suitable building structures, or to be assembled in a building structure as a skeleton therefor and have suitable surfaces applied thereto, is a distinctive and novel feature of the several types of so-called self -supporting structural building units of the present invention, and particularly those in which spaced panel sections are secured to and spaced by a variety of composite structural studs and supporting members.
These structures as disclosed in Figs. 12 and 13 include the circular key members, 22 6, above noted, adapted for use with the end or web sections shown in Figs. 10 and 11. These parts will be designated by common numera s, the semi-circular section members 225, and the. keying members 224 being formed as continuations of the members 205 and 208 of the construction shown in Figs. 10 and 11. The usual plastic surfacings and other surfacings 2 l4 may be utilized, and the composite structure so formed will be found to combine the desirable structural advantageous features of both systemsv in an efficient composite stud or stanchion system and units. For purposes of convenience, the panel or structural members formed will be designated generally by the numeral 229, the end sections being designated generally by the numeral 230. The panel members may be designated, for convenience, by the numeral 20!. In this instance, as in the other cases involved, the cross-section of the members may be varied at will by reversing or alternating the end sections.
The panel members, 201, in the several selfsupporting units may be varied in lateral extent or width, as among themselves, to provide and permit any desired angular variation in the end members. This permits the formation of wall angle sections of any desired angularity, without involving the redesign of structuralparts.
It will now be appreciated that there have been provided improved structural building systems, including wall members adapted to be interlocked to form wall sections, the angle of the wall sections being varied by differential unit panel sizes. Various omissions, substitutions and changes in the forms and details illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art Without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the annexed claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A self-supporting, hollow structural unit for building construction units of generally rectangular cross-section, comprising, in combination, a reinforced unit including a metallic skeleton comprising metal lath panels joined to and spaced apart by two-part, composite end-keying and guiding sections, and a cementitious aggregate cast over said two-part reinforcing unit.
2. In a construction of the type described in claim 1, the improvements comprising an intermediate two-part composite spacer member formed in the reinforcing unit member.
3. A structural member for use as a half-keyway section in self-supporting cementitious aggregate building units, comprising a semi-cylindrical body portion having a uni-lateral edge member terminating in a keying flange, the other edge of said member being angularly disposed and provided at its edge with a panel-receiving portion adapted to receive reinforcing panel sections.
4. An intermediate supporting and composite spacing section for structural building members, comprising a central channel section, angular flaring flange sections at the top and bottom of the said central section, the said angle sections forming complementary structures, and panelreceiving and securing sections formed at the edges of the said angular sections.
5. An angular-ended, hollow structural unit comprising a reinforcing hollow frame including a pair of metal panel sections secured to and spaced apart by elements of composite end keyway members, the said keyway members including alternately disposed web sections terminating in arcuate key-receiving portions and having a continuous external slot, and continuous angular edge sections serving as metallic ends for the complete unit, the said slots being substantially centrally disposed in the said angular edges.
6. An angular keyway construction for composite keyways including a pair of opposed keyway sections, one of said sections being of generally flattened V-shape having an inturned flange edge on one leg, the other leg being provided with an arcuate section near the bottom of the V and continued outwardly at its outer edge to form a structural panel-receiving and securing section; the other part of the composite angular keyway section including an arouate section adapted to coact with the first said arcuate section to form a substantially cylindrical slotted keyway: an outer web section at one side of the last-named arcuate section and terminating in a fiat-angled, inturned edge portion, the other side of the said section including a web portion disposed at an acute angle to the first said web section, and being provided in its edge portion with an outwardly extending flange having panel-receiving and -securing means formed therein.
'7. A corner wall joint construction for buildings formed of self-supporting hollow units, comprising spaced panel portions, angularly disposed keyway sections secured to and spacing the panel portions and forming a substantially centrally disposed longitudinal slot, the end portions being so abutted and keyed to other like portions as to form a corner Wall joint.
8. A continuous wall-joint construction for buildings formed of self-supporting hollow units, comprising spaced panel portions, angularly disposed multi-partite keyway sections secured to and spacing the panel portions and forming a substantially centrally disposed longitudinal slot, the end portions being so abutted and keyed to other like portions as to form a continuous wall joint.
9. A structural building construction for selfsupporting building units adapted for universal use in aligned and corner wall constructions, including opposed panel sections held apart and spaced by end keyway sections, the said keyway sections being reversely disposed with respect to each other at the ends of the building unit, and each comprising a transverse web portion terminating in a short, panel edge-supporting and -securing section, one of said sections being turned inwardly of the unit a short distance, and being provided with a return flange extended angularly inward to form a composite keying edge, the said edge being developed further to form a semi-circular keyway section terminating in diametrically opposed keying edges, the last said edge being reversely bent to form a continuation of an outer panel section, the said several keyway sections being adapted to form substantially rectangular composite post members with like abutted members in which tubular keys having key-receiving channels are fitted in and grip the keying flanges, the said. keying flanges being disposed in substantially the diagonal of the rectangle whereby to secure maximum distributed strength when the wall units are abutted in aligned relation or in reversed corner joint construction.
10. In self-supporting structural building units having spaced panel sections secured to and spaced apart by end keying sections, the improvements comprising angularly disposed keying sections at the ends of the units, circular keyways in the keying sections, web portions extending on either side of the keying sections and of substantially equal width, one web port on terminating in a short auxiliary key section including edge means adapted to receive and. secure wall panel sections, the other said web portion having an auxiliary keyway section of extended length likewise terminating in an edge section including panel securing means, said sections adapted to be abutted in inverted order with like sections and keyed thereto whereby to form aligned wall sections and being further adapted when abutted against and keyed to other like sections in normal order to form corner wall sections.
11. In a self-supporting unit structure of the type described in claim 10, and having a generally rhomboidal cross-section, the improvements comprising structural surfacings on the surfaces of the panel members, and keying and edgeprotecting sections associated therewith and formed as continuations of the end sections of the units.
GUY F. KOTRBATY.