|Publication number||US2146265 A|
|Publication date||Feb 7, 1939|
|Filing date||Jun 28, 1935|
|Priority date||Jun 28, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2146265 A, US 2146265A, US-A-2146265, US2146265 A, US2146265A|
|Inventors||Jr Charles Chilton Moore|
|Original Assignee||Union Oil Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (22), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 7, 1939- c. c. MOORE. JR 2,146,265
IGNITION LAG CONTROL Filed June 28/1935 Ozone I zlCfiezzerafo Exhaust Az'r In Zaire Uzazzz'ze 2* IN V EN TOR. Charles C. Moore Jr BY M h ATTORNEY.
Patented Feb. 1939 IGNITION LAG CONTROL Charles Chilton Moore, Jr., Palos Verdes Estates,
Calif., assignor to Union Oil Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Application June 28, 1935, Serial No. 28,893
This invention relates to control of the combustion rates of liquid fuels in internal combustion engines and particularly to ignition lag control in solid injection, compression ignition, in-
5 ternal combustion engines such as Diesel engines burning hydrocarbon oil fuels.
Fuel ignition in a compression ignition engine never occurs simultaneously with the first appearance of the injected fuel in the combustion i chamber, but at some time interval thereafter.
This time interval between the initial appearance of the injected fuel in the combustion chamber and its initial spontaneous ignition is termed the ignition delay or ignition lag, and its dural tion is a measure of the ignition qualities of the fuel oil. Different fuels manifest diflerent qualities in this respect.
The ignition delay has been conveniently expressed by the term delay number which is the number of degrees that the crankshaft rotates in the interval between the beginning of fuel injection and the instant of fuel ignition.
Until recently, the rotational speeds of compression ignition engines were relatively low as compared with the actual ignition delay of the injected fuels, hence the ignition lag did not materially affect engine performance even* with fuels having poor ignition characteristics. However, in the recently developed high speed Diesel engines since the actual ignition lag time interval remains substantially constant on any given fuel for all engine speed, the same ignition lag time interval occupies a greater interval of time relative to the engine cycle, and hence the delay number becomes here proportionally greater. It is apparent, therefore, that the ignition lag characteristics of fuels become of more. and more significance with the increase of Diesel engine speeds.
unburned fuel accumulates in the combustion chamber during the early portion of each injection cycle until spontaneous ignition'flnally occurs. A long ignition delay relative to the rota! tional displacement of the crank shaft, or, in other words, fuel ignition characteristics and relative engine speeds resulting in a high ignition delay number will allow, therefore, an excessive "amount of unburned fuel to accumulate during 5 injection, so that when ignition finally occurs the pressure rise in the combustion chamber due to the sudden combustion of the accumulated fuel willreach undesirable or even unsafe limits, and, additionally, the pressure rise will be of such suddenness as to produce what is known as Diesel As a, result of ignition delay or ignition lag,
knock; This Diesel knock may be even more detrimental to good operation in a Diesel engine than is detonation in a gasoline engine. Fuels which have poor ignition qualities are, therefore, the most common cause of knocking or rough-running 5' high speed compression ignition engines. It may also be said that nearly all difficulties that apparently result from improper fuel combustion, such as knocking, rough running, loss of power, smoky exhaust and difficulty in cold starting, are 10 primarily caused by poor ignition resulting from fuel having poor ignition qualities or high delay numbers. I
Objects of this invention are, therefore, to re- .duce the objectionable ignition lag of compression is ignition engine fuels, particularly those having poor ignition qualities.
A further object of this invention is to reduce the delay number of fuels, particularly fuels employed in high speed compression ignition internal 2o combustion engines.
The objects of this invention are attained in general by employing ozone as an ignition accelerator.
It has been found that the addition of low con-- 5 centrations of ozone to the combustion air in to. whichit has been previously added. Ozone may also be supplied to the combustion zone through an auxiliary valve in the cylinder head '40 either during the air intake portion of the cycle or just prior to or during injection of the fuel. The ozone may also be dissolved in the Diesel fuel .01! prior to the injection and thus be carried. into the combustion chamber upon injection in 45 solution with the oil.
The ozone may be generated by any of the well known methods. For example, ozone can be generated by subjecting a stream of air or oxygen to a silent electric discharge or corona 5o discharge between electrodes charged to a high potential differences or the air or oxygen may be subjected to the action of ultra violet light resulting in the formation of ozone. Ozone may also be generated chemically. The chemical reaction between nitric acid (HNOs) and ammonium persulfate (NH4)2S2Oa in an atmosphere the oxygen and ozone thus chemically produced fed to the Diesel engine cylinderinthe manner hereinabove described or the whole gaseous mixture including the carbon dioxide as a carrier, may be conveyed to the engine.
Fuels employed for compression ignition internal combustion engines such as Diesel engine fuels are generally hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and may cover a wide range of gravities and viscosities varying from light hydrocarbons in the gasoline range down to petroleum residues or waxes. Diesel engine fuels which are commonly used, however, range in viscosity from 35 to 125 Saybolt seconds at-100 F. and in gravity from 22 to 35 A. P. I. In general, the ignition qualities of these hydrocarbon fractions appear to vary as a function of their parafiinicity, those fractions which are most highly parafiinic having the lowest delay number, and those fractions which are most highly aromatic having the highest delay number. p
The employment of ozone as an ignition accelerator is, thus, particularly advantageous with the-hydrocarbon fuel oils which are least parafllnic in nature.
Ozone is therefore particularly effective in reducing the delay number of hydrocarbon fuels which contain appreciable quantities of cracked material.
Other types of fuels with which ozone may also be employed as an "accelerator are alcohols, vegetable oils such as palm, cottonseed, corn, and soy bean oils, and animal oils such as sperm-and lard oils. a
The ozone may be used in 'quantities of the order of a thousandth of one percentup to much larger quantities of the order of several hundredths of one per centfby volume of the intake air, depending upon thedegree of ignition lag .control desired and the character of the fuel bustion zone, or through the compressed fuelinjection air, or two or more of these combined.
The invention also. includes a compression ignition ermine fuel product such as Diesel engine fuel comprising a mixture or solution of ozone in oil.
The drawing, which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the apparatus of the invention, shows a cross-sectional elevation of a conventional compression ignition internal combustion engine of the Diesel type with its associated valve mechanism, fuel injection nozzle and air intake manifolding'. The air intake manifolding departs from the conventionalarrangement in comprising an air inlet Il'and an ozonizer both coupled to a common manifold pipe I2 which leads to the intake port I3 of the power; cylinder I4.
.The ozonizer comprises a cylindrical tubing section II containing a coaxial rod electrode 20 which is supported andelectrically insulated from the tubing II at the flanged head 2|. An
' alternating current generator G, a high tension transformer T and suitable interconnecting conductors 23 and 24 are provided for maintaining a high electric potential between the electrode 20 and the inside surface of the ozonizer cylinder II. The generator G'and transformer T are preferably adapted to supply a high frequency alternating electric potential to. the ozonizer. Butterfly valves 25 and 26 are provided as suitable pivots in the branches of the manifolding for controlling the proportion of air drawn through intake I0 and through the ozonizer II exhaust valve I8 is therefore closed and intake valve I9 open to allow passage of air from the manifold I2 into the cylinder IE.
As the crank I5 continues in rotation as shown by arrow 30 the air-ozone mixture is drawn into the cylinder and upon completion of the intake portion of the cycle, valve I9 closes and the airozone mixture is compressed until, at the top of the stroke of the piston II, the temperature of the mixture ,in the combustion chamber is sufficiently highto spontaneously ignite the oil fuel which is then introduced through line 32 and into the cylinder through the injector 3|. The Diesel cycle is thus initiated and repeated in rapid succession with each revolution of the engine.
In an optionable method of operation of this invention the ozone instead of being mixed with the intake air may be introduced into the cylinder together with the fuel and when this operation is desired the ozone may be introduced into the combustion chamber through the fuel injector 3 I, alongwith injection air. In this case the ozone from a suitable generator is mixed with the injection air in line 33 at suitable pressure by means of pipe 34 and the quantity regulated by v valve 35.
. the invention.
I claim: I
1. In a compression ignition internal combustion engine cycle the steps comprising compressing ozone-containing gas and corningling fuel to be burned with said compressed gas.
2. In a compression ignition internal combustion engine cycle, the steps comprising compressing ozone-containing gas to the ignition temperature of the fuel to be burned and injecting the fuel into the thus compressed gas.
I 3. In a compression ignition internal combustion engine cycle the steps comprising injecting ozone-containing gas into a combustion chamber, compressing the mixture to the ignition temperature of the fuel to be burned and subsequently injecting the said fuel into the said compressed mixture.
4. In a compression ignition internal combustion engine cycle the steps comprising compressing gas containing oxygen in a combustion chamber to the ignition temperature of the fuel to be burned and subsequently injecting ozone-containing gas and the said fuel into the combustion chamber.
5. In a compression ignition internal combustion engine cycle the steps comprising compressing gas containing oxygen in a combustion chamber to the ignition temperature of the fuel to be burned, intermingling ozone and a quantity of injection air, and injecting fuel together with the i said injection air into the said compressed gas in the combustion chamber.
6. In a compression ignition internal combustion cycle where the fuel is a normally liquid hydrocarbon fraction, heavier than gasoline, the steps comprising compressing a mixture of ozone and air in the combustion chamber to the ignition temperature of said hydrocarbon fuel and subsequently injecting a quantity of said fuel into said compressed ozone-air mixture in said combustion chamber, whereby combustion takes place and power is developed.
7. A compression ignition internal combustion engine apparatus comprising in combination a combustion chamber, an ozone generator, means to introduce ozone from said ozone generator into said combustion chamber, means to compress gases in said combustion chamber to the ignition temperature of fuel to be burned and means to commingle combustible fuel with said ozone in said chamber.
8. A compression ignition internal combustion engine apparatus comprising in combination a combustion chamber, means to commingle air, ozone and a combustible fuel in said combustion chamber and means to compress gases in said combustion chamber to the ignition temperature of fuel to be burned.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8 in which the means to commingle air, ozone and combustible fuel comprises an air injection fuel nozzle and means to introduce ozone into the injection air.
CHARLES CHILTON MOORE, JR.
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|U.S. Classification||123/294, 123/539, 123/531, 44/457|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02T10/32, F02B43/10|