|Publication number||US2146614 A|
|Publication date||Feb 7, 1939|
|Filing date||Jul 31, 1936|
|Priority date||Jul 31, 1936|
|Publication number||US 2146614 A, US 2146614A, US-A-2146614, US2146614 A, US2146614A|
|Inventors||John G Bergdoll|
|Original Assignee||York Ice Machinery Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (12), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 7, 1939. J. G. BERGDOLL CONDENSER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed July 31, 1936 Tm Hm fl'themethodof 10 withone endthereofappearing .Pstented Feb. 7, 193a UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE mammalian-ragga mom I John G. Bergdoll, York.
Machinery corpora tion of Delaware Pa, asslgnor to York lee York, Pa, amora- "Appl cation July $1.1m, Serial no". asses '7 claims. (i. til-157.3) This invention relates to condensers, particularly of the shell and tube in -refrigerating systems, and to manufacturing such condensers. I The primary purpose of the present invention is to provide a very compact and highly eill'cient condenser adapted to be produced at low cost by a simple, practical method of manufacture. An important feature is the combination of matelll rials used for the severaiparts, and the manner of securing the parts togethen'so as to insure efiicient operaflon of the device.
Another object is to provide a condenser the various parts of which may be readily assembled i and secured in place to form a rigid, unitary structure having strong, fluid-tight'joints.
A further important object isto provide a condenser having a maximum extent oi cooling surface and capacity for a given size, whereby to type intended for use a method of tube sheets and shell. Simple and eillcient means for supporting the water tubes and properly spacing them between the tube sheets. and effective means fordistrib lilutingthegastobecondensedasitentersthe cooling chamber, arealso features of the con-' struction.
Other objects and purposes will be apparent from the following detailed description, taken in :6 connection with the-aeeompanyina drawing'il lustrating apreferred fonnoithe condenser. and in which:
l'lgure'i is a the improved. completely .tion:
1"lg.2isanend iromtheleftinl 'lg.
broken awaytoshowtbe onlinea-loi'l'ig.l.showelevation viewing the condenser lrthe water box head being ooling water distriblns the mnwrt'na. tubes and the inlet bale for meansfottheheatofwater.
fragmentary perspective of the reinlet baiile means and filler piece.
the drawing, it will'beseen that the completely assembled condenser comprises an elongated steel shell I of relatively small di 5 meter as compared with its length. The ends of the shell are closed by main or outer heads I and I removably secured thereto by bolts and nuts ll extending through suitable openings in the-heads and in cooperating flange rings il, 10
ii threaded onto the shell. Gaskets are located between-the outer heads and flanges II, II to insure ti t :Ioints.
Located in shell I are spaced copper water tube sheets l2, I! which form the usual cooling l5 s I! between the\tube sheets and water boxes M, it between' the tube sheets and the shell heads 8 and I. e condenser head 8 is provided with a cooling water inlet i5 and 'a cooling water outlet in also an inlet" for the so 'condensable refrigerant 'gas entering cooling chamber II and a refrigerant liquid outlet ll leading therefrom. Pads I8, II are adapted for mounting the condenser in the position of Fig. 1.
Each copper tubesheet or head i2, i2 is provided with a peripheral flange II which, as
. shown in lull lines in Fig. 4, proiects into an annular groove Ii formed in the inner surface of shell I. The copper flange it is welded aroimd Fig. 6 is a frigera'nt gas Referring to its edle to the steel shell as indicated at ll, thus fluid-tight joint between the shell. Although not;limited the copper tube headers are welded to the steel shell by means of the method I set forth in an application Serial No. 194.218, flied March 9, 1938, by Albert '1. Light. This method 'hasbeenutilised with ked'success in constructing the present condenser and has aided materially in the practicability andhigh efliercial use.
forming a strong. tube sheet and the thereto, preferably cooling capacity in a condenser of given size, the copper water tubes 23 are each provided with a multiplicity of closely arranged, copper fins 25. These fins, which are in the form of annular disks secured to the tubes 23 by soldering, brazing, or in any other suitable manner, extend into close proximity to the tube sheets i2, id, as
shown in Figs. 1 and 4.
Sincethe present condenser is an elongated device of small diameter, the span between tube sheets l2, i2 is considerable. Mean: are necessary therefore to support the water tubes 23 in the shell it between the tube sheets and to hold them in spaced relation so that the tubes will be securely retained in properly assembled position at all times. The tube spacing means used for this purpose comprise individual copper sleeves 27 mounted on the fins 28 of the several Water tubes. The sleeves it are elongated so as to engage a number of the fins and are secured thereto by soldering, or otherwise. Sleeves 2'! are arranged in a. plurality of transversely disposed groups, preferably three, suitably spaced from each other on the tubes, as shown in Figs. l and 3. As appears from Fig. 3, the sleeves of each group bear against h other and thus maintain the water tubes in the desired spaced relation illustrated.
A combined clamping and supporting device encircles the nest of water tubes around each group of tube sleeves 2? and engages the shell i. This device comprises a pair of duplicate, arclike members 28, 28 having lower cars 29 and upper ears 3t. Extending between the lower ears 29 of the three supporting devices, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, is a horizontal fillerand connecting bar 3 9. Registering openings in ears 2% and bar 3i receive bolts 32 which securely connect the bar and the several supporting devices together. A rigid, bar-like extension 88 on connecting bar 3i (Fig. 3) projects upwardly between the water tubes at each group of sleeves 2? so as to engage certain of the sleeves and further aid in maintaining the tubes in proper position.
A filler and connecting bar 34, similar to bar 39, extends between the upper sets of cars 80 of the tube clamping devices. Alined openings in bar 34 and cars 30 receive bolts 35 to secure these parts. Welded to the opposite faces of bar 36 are pairs of angle strips or baiiles 36. The construction described provides a rigid assembly which serves properly to space and support the intermediate portions of the water tubes in the shell, while baflles 36 serve to spread the condensable gas entering at inlet l1 and thus assures its distribution throughout cooling chamber l3:
Located in water box i4 is an upright partition plate 31 which divides the water box into a waterreceiving compartment 38 into which water inlet l opens, and water discharge compartment 39 from which leads water outlet I 6. Plate 31, which closely fits the interior of shell 1 and against tube sheet I2, is welded at its top and bottom edges to the interior of the shell, while the remainder of the Joint is made fluid-tight with plastic cement.
A supplemental plate 42 serves to complete separation of the two compartments 38, 39 into which water box M is divided. Plate 42 is mounted on plate 31 by means of bolts and nuts 63 located in registering openings i4, 45 in plates 31 and 42, respectively. A grooved, rubber gasket strip 46 on the outer edge of plate 42 seals against shell head 8. Plate 42 has a lateral extension 51 formed with a number oi perforations t8. Ex-
The construction described provides a con-- denser of the two-pass type, in that the cooling water in. travelling from inlet IE to outlet l6 passes through the tube nest twice. The water from inlet I5 first flows through half of the water tubes in parallel, through water box l4, and
' thence back through the other half of the water tubes in parallel. However, insofar as certain features of the invention are concerned, the condenser may be'of the single-pass type in which the cooling water flows through all of the tubes in one direction. In this case, the water inlet would be at one end of the condenser and the outlet at the other end. The partition in water box H, of course, would be omitted.
An important feature of the invention is the novel method employed in assembling the tubes, tube sheets and shell of the condenser and in permanently securing these parts together. The tube nest, comprising copper tube sheets 22, i2 and copper finned tubes 23. is assembled first to form a separate unit adapted to be inserted in the steel shell i. To accomplish this, the flanged tube sheets l2, it are temporarily mounted in suitable holding means so that they are arranged relatively to each other exactly as they will be in the completely assembled condenser. The finned tubes 28, which are longer than the distance between the spaced tube sheets, are mounted, one
at a time, in their proper openings 26 in the tube sheets by first placing one end of the tube in its opening in one tube sheet and then flexing the tube to shorten the distance between its ends and thus permit passage of the tube between the tube sheets and insertion of the opposite end of the tube in its opening in the other tube sheet. After all of the tubes are mounted in the tube sheets in this manner, each tube is secured to the tube sheet at 25 by brazing or soldering.
The supporting devices for the tube nest and their connecting bars 3i and 34 are now mounted on the tubes to complete the assembled unit which is slid into proper position in the shell 7. The outside diameter of the tube sheet flanges v2|], 20 at this time (as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 4) and the outside measurements of the pipe supporting means, are such as to permit ready passage of the tube nest through the shell during this operation. Each copper flange 20 is now expanded, by hammering or rolling, into its groove 2| in shell 1 and securely bonded to the steel shell by a. continuous line of welding 22. The remaining parts of the condenser are now put in place, as already described, and the device is ready for use.
The construction described, together with the particular combination of materials used, affords a sturdy, compact condenser having a. considera- I hence, it is common practice in the art to refer to the cooling medium as water, and to water boxes, water tubes", etc. In using such terms in the specification and claims, the terminology of the art is adopted merely for convenience, but no necessary limitation to water is implied, since any suitable fluid medium may be used. While the example illustrated and described refers to a condenser, it is obvious that the invention is applicable to other types of heat exchangers and it is intended that the appended claims define apparatus of this generalnature.
What is claimed is:
l. A condenser comprising an elongated, cylindrical steel shell of relatively small diameter; removable heads on the ends of the shell; and an elongated, water tube nest located in the shell to form water boxes between the shell heads and the tube nest, said nest comprising a pair of rela tlvely widely spaced, perforated, copper tube sheets having peripheral flanges, a multiplicity of closely-nested, open-ended, copper tubes having their ends located in the perforations in said tube sheets and secured thereto, as by brazing or soldering, to form fluid-tight joints between the tubes and the tube sheets, a series of closelyarranged, annular copper iins secured on each of the tubes, and coacting means on several tubes to maintain the tubes in properly spaced relation, the water tube nest constituting a separate, unitary structure assembled and inserted in the shell and secured thereto by expanding said tube sheet flanges against the interior of the shell and welding the flanges to the shell to form fluid-tight joints between the shell and the tube sheets.
- and a cooling space 2. The combination in apparatus of the class described of an elongated, one-piece shell of relatively small diameter; spaced tube sheets arranged in said shell inwardly of the ends thereof to provide water box space at each end thereof between the sheets, said shell having an inlet and an outlet for said cooling space to permit entry and discharge of the fluid under treatment; heads closing the ends of the shell; a multiplicity of closely-arranged, elongated water tubes connected at their ends to said tube sheets; a plurality of spaced tube supporting devices mounted on the tubes between said tube sheets and engaging the shell; and rigid means connecting said supporting devicestogether to maintain them rigidly in proper supporting position at all times, said rigid connecting means for the supporting devices arranged directly in line with said fluid inlet to intercept and spread the stream of incoming fluid in all lateral directions and thereby increase the distribution and circulation of the fluid in said cooling space.
3. The combination in apparatus of the class described of a shell having an open end; a re- 'movable head closing said end of the shell; a
water tube sheet in the shell forming a water box between said sheet and said head; a series of water tubes having their ends connected to acterized the fins on the opposite end of including baffle means soldering, to form a separate,
the tube sheet; a main partition plate dividing said water box longitudinally into water-receiving and water discharge compartments and havin fluid-tight joints with the shell and the tube sheet, said head having a cooling water inlet for the water-receiving compartment and a cooling water outlet for the water discharge compartment; a supplemental partition plate adjustably and removably mounted on the main partition plate; and packing means between said supplemental plate and the shell head.
4. The combination of claim 3 further charin that said supplemental partition plate has a perforated extension projecting therefrom into line distribute the incoming water uniformly to the watertubes.
5. The method of making separate, unitary water tube nests for usein apparatus of the class described which comprises securing a pair of corwater tube sheets in in desired spacedrelarespondingly perforated temporary holding means tion to each other; locating in a perforation in 6. The method of making separate, unitarywater tube nests for use in condensers which comprises securing a. pair of correspondingly perforated tube sheets in temporary holding means in desired spaced relation to each other;
' locating in a perforation in one of said sheets one end of an open-ended,
flnned water tube of a length greater than the tube sheets; flexing the tube transversely to reduce the distance between its ends; locating the the tube in the corresponding perforation in the other tube sheet while the tube is so flexed; similarly mounting additional tubes, one at a time, in their corresponding perforations in the tube sheets .until the nest of tubes is complete; and permanently securing the ends of the tubes in place in the tube sheets, as by brazing or soldering.
, '7. The method of making condensers which comprises arranging a multiplicity of open-ended, finned, copper water tubes with their ends located in perforations in a pair of spaced, perforated, copper tube sheets having edge flanges; securing said tubes in the tube sheets, as by brazing or unitary water tube nest; inserting said tube nest as a unit entirely within an open-ended, one piece, steel shell so as to leave water box space at each end of the shell; expanding said tube sheet flanges against the interior of the shell; and welding said flanges to the interior of the-shell to form fluid-tight joints between the steel shell and the copper tube sheets.
. JOHN G. Beaononn with the cooling water inlet to as I distance between the
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|U.S. Classification||165/158, 165/159, 165/174, 29/890.7|
|Cooperative Classification||F25B39/04, F25B2339/047|