US 2147200 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 14, 1939. M. KADENACY 2,147,200
INTERNAL COMBUSTI ON ENGINE Oiiginal Fi led Jan. 25, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I l I l I l I Y I I I I50 I60 no mo 10 7.00 210 2.20 250 2 41\50 heme Feb. 14, 1939 2,147,200 v UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE 2,147,200 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Michel Kadenacy, Paris, France Original application January 23, 1936, Sel'ial No.
60,529, now Patent No. 2,134,920, dated November 1, 1938. Divided and this application June 3, 1937, Serial No. 146,297. In Great Britain August 13, 1935 2 Claims, (Cl. 60-32) This invention relates to two-stroke cycle inand below atmospheric pressure are not shown in ternal combustion engines of the kind wherein at scale relationship. a least a substantial portion of the burnt gases Such a curve may be obtained for example by leaves the cylinder at a speed much higher than utilizing a stroboscopic device formed by a ported 5 that obtaining when -an adiabatic flow only is tube mounted in or on the exhaust duct and ro- 5 involved, and in such a short interval of time that tating with the engine and a stationary but anguit is discharged as a mass leaving a depression larly adjustable ported sleeve on this tube having behind it which is utilized in introducing a fresh its port connected to a manometer, a pressure or charge into the cylinder by opening the inlet depression impulse being obtained each time the orifice with the required delay after the opening port in the tube and sleeve coincide and a record 10 of the exhaust orifice to ensure that the burnt being taken when a steady reading is given on gases are then moving outwardly through the the manometer, the crank angle t wh ch a h exhaust orifice or duct and that a suction effect re din i t k n in term d by he anew is exerted at the inlet orifice as a consequence jus t of e S eof the exit of the said mass, and isdivided from h curve shows clearly th wo p a es o 15 my co-pending application, Serial No. 60,529 filed p ssu or p se that cu durin the 23rd January, 1936, which ha issued as t nt outflow and return of the gases and the interven- No. 2,134,920 on November 1, 1938. ing phase of depression D. This curve is charac- According to the present invention that porteristic for all internal combustion engines of the tion of the depression created by the mass exit kind to which the invention relates but e 20 of the burnt gases which is not utilized for the ments at Which the Outflow and return o e purpose of introducing fresh charge into the cylgases 11 Will V yinder is employed for exerting a suction in the The Period during e Operation o he, gine engine cylinder or for accumulating a depression at which the aspiration of fluid ay be p oduced I 25 in a container which depression may be utilized in accordance with the invention, l be ee 25 for example, for exerting a suction in the engine f om Figure 1.
(mi p In the first place a pressure is registered shortly An embodiment of the invention will now be after the opening of exhaust, as shown by the described, simply by way of example, and with part P of h curvereference to the accompanying drawings in Adepression is then formed in the cylinder and 30 which: i a little later a depression D is formed 'in the ex- Fi'gurel isa curve of pressures and depressions haust duct and the intensity and magnitude of taken in the exhaust duct, of an engine of th the volume in which it exists will be proportionkind-to which the invention relates, during the at to the kinetic ener y c n ain in he exhaust exhaust period. p gases. 5
Figure 2 shows an example of a suitable ar- ,At this moment the aspiration of external fluid rangement of the communication between the exthrough the medium of a communication with the haust duct and the pipe to be provided thereon. in or of the e aus u t ay b O ta ed- .Figure 3 shows an arrangement i which t The return shock P'- then follows and destroys 40 invention is employed for exerting a suction this depress e p v through the cylinder of the engine to which it In an engine of thekind to which the v 15 applied. 1 tion relates,'the fresh charge admitted to the If a! record is taken 01 the pressure variations. cylinder cannot fill the complete void left in the in the exhaust pipe of an internal combustion en- 'cylmder and the exhaust duct y therissumg' gine of the kind to which the invention relates i for practlcal reasons depending upon the during the exhaust period, a curve similar to that gg gg Shape and Surface the admission shown in Figure 1 may be obtained, in which E0 represents the opening of exhaust, the ordinates In fact the apphca'nt has found that if an orifice is provided in the exhaust duct close to represent pressures above and below atmospheric the cylinder and is opened to a our e f gaseous 50 Pressure and the abseissae Crank angles, 111 fluid external to the exhaust duct, the volume grees. Y
of gaseous fluid drawn directly-into the exhaust I Should e mentioned that the figiire i a duct through this orifice during the depression formal representation showing the chief characphase described above does not in any way impede teristics of the curve and that the pressures above or reduce the charge admitteddirectly into the 55 I so that the aspirated air or other gaseous fluid.
2 cylinder through the usual admission orifices, al though the volume 01' gaseous fluid drawn into the exhaust duct may be eoual to this char e.
Consequently, by providing a pipe communiinto the said chamber and thereafter discharged into the exhaust duct, without detriment to the utilization of the depression left in the cylinder by the issuing exhaust gases for the introduction or a fresh charge through the main admission ports.
Suitable distribution means must be provided will-follow the required direction during the suction and so that it cannot return from the paths it is required to follow.
These means may for example consist of non return valves or of controlled valves or of means such as those described in British patent speci-.
fication No. 431,857.
The communication with the interior oi the exhaust duct must be suitably arranged to permit a utilization of the depression phase in accordance with the invention.
Figure 2 illustrates one example of an arrangement of the communication with the interior of the exhaust duct.
In this flgure the exhaust duct is formed by two portions l0 and II connected together by a chamber II.
The portion I! of the duct is extended into the said chamber by means of a tubular element It opening into the portion II and situated in the interior or a tubular element [4 which extends the portion ll of the duct and stops short 01' the inner wall of the said chamber II. The annular space leit between theelements l3 and It establishes a communication between the interior oi the exhaust duct and the chamber II.
The portion II or the duct is adjustably con nected with the chamber ii in order to permit a regulation 01' the distance between the freeend of the element It and the internalwall of the chamber situated towards the cylinder.
'The diameter of the free end of the element It is slightly smaller than that of the duct II and the element l4 at this point is slightly flared so as to provide a passage of increasing section between the elements I! and llirom the free end of the element It.
The length of the element llmay also be regulated by means of the screw connection provided between this element and the duct III.
I These adjustments enable the action of the device to be varied so as to vary the intensity of the suction which will be exerted through the outlet ll of the chamber II.
In carrying the invention into elrect the depression may be employed in order to exert a suction on the cylinder, through an additional outlet other than the main exhaust port, with the object or prolonging the suction in the cylinder, or 01 intensifying the suction therein, or
oi sucking residual gases from the cylinder, it
' desired through the intermediary oi. a reservoir and suitable distribution means, whereby the depression can be accumulated and employed at.
chosen moments. An example 01 such an application is illustrated in Figure 3;
This figure shows an engine cylinchar II in which moves a piston ll. Air is admitted by atmospheric pressure through the inlet ll and fuel is introduced by the injector I8. Exhamt' place through the duct 20.,
Upon the exhaust duct close to the'cyllnder is provided an intake II, which by way of example is shown similar to that illustrated in be controlled or otherwise, and which allows the passage of fluid only in the direction towards the exhaust duct. This valve 23 is .Iollowed by a duct 2" leading to a reservoir 25 connected by a duct 26 to an additional outlet 21 provided on the cylinder and controlled by a valve 28 actuated by a push rod 28 and rocker arm 30.
Withsuch an arrangement a depression will be detained in the reservoir 25 which may be utilized at a convenient time by a suitably timed operation of the valve 28, in order to draw residual' gases from the cylinder or to assist the entry 01 the charge to the cylinder through the inlet p rt It.
In this example the suction, valve 23 opens automatically each time a depression is left in the exhaust duct but it is obvious that the valve 28 should not open before the exhaust gases have left the cylinder and that it should not remain open after the inlet .port I8 has closed.
In the example described with reference to Figure 3, the charge is introduced into the cylinder by atmospheric pressure but this does not exclude the use ofmeans for maintaining or augmenting the pressureof the supply.
Any suitable devices may be provided in the exhaust duct in order to prevent a return wave of the exhaust gases from re-entering the cylinder, such for example as the means described in the applicant's British patent specification No. 431,857.
The valves employed for the suction of the fluid in an arrangement according to the irivention may be simple or multiple. These valves may be arranged so as to provide a passage of large area and they may have any shape provided they respond to rapid suctions. I I claim:- V
1. A two-stroke cycle internal combustion engine having a cylinder, a piston moving in the cylinder, exhaust and inlet orifices in the cylinder, an exhaust conduit on the exhaust orifice,
'means for so controlling the exhaust oriflce during the firing stroke as to ensure the issuance oi the burnt gases as a mass, whereby the said mass moves outward and thereafter returns ,from a point which may be within thesaid conduit,
means for so controlling the inlet orifice as to ensure that it will be opened while the exhaust orifice is still open and when the said issuance of the blunt gases is in full progress and produces a suction eflfect in the cylinder, the exhaust conduit providing a permanent free passage for the burnt gases to the limit 01' outward travelof said gases, and providing a passage for the gases during their outward motion as a mass having no cross section of substantially greater area than any cross section thereof further from outlet, controlling means in said duct, said controlling means opening towards said intake, whereby the depression left behind the mass of burnt gases when it has passed beyond said in take causes a suction effect to be exerted in said connecting duct whereby any residual gases may be drawn out of the cylinder upon the opening of the supplementary outlet or the suction in the cylinder during charging may be prolonged or intensified.
2. A two-stroke cycle internal combustion engine having a cylinder, a piston moving in the cylinder, exhaust and inlet orifices in the cylinder, an exhaust conduit on the exhaust orifice, means for so controlling the exhaust orifice during the firing stroke as to ensure the issuance of the burnt gases as a mass, whereby the said mass moves outward and thereafter returns from 'a point which may be within the said conduit, means for so controlling the inlet orifice as to ensure that it will be opened while the exhaust orifice is still open and when the said issuance of the burnt gases is in full progress and produces a suction eflect in the cylinder, the exhaust conduit providing a permanent free passage for the burnt gases to the limit of outward travel of said gases, and providing a passage for the gases during their outward motion asa mass having no cross section of substantially greater area than any cross section thereof further from the cylinder, an intake on the exhaust conduit at a point situated nearer the cylinder than the limit of outward travel of the burnt gases, a supplementary outlet on the cylinder, means for so controlling this outlet as to ensure that it will be opened after the said issuance of the burnt gases through the exhaust orifice, a duct connecting the said intake to the supplementary outlet, a reservoir" in the said connecting duct, controlling means in the conduit between the reservoir and the said intake, the said controlling means opening towards the said intake whereby a depression may be stored in said reservoir for utilization in prolonging or intensifying the suction in the cylinder during charging or in sucking residual gases from the cylinder through the supplementary outlet.
- MICHEL KADENACY.