US 2149030 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 28, 1939. G. A. MOORE CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Aug. 12, 1936 I5 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. GEOKGE/WL/NGTONNOORE JMMM M ATTORNEY.
Feb. 28, 1939. G. A MOORE CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Aug. 12, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 a INVENTOR Z6 050x05 A/PUNGTON MOORE ffiwm \imdd ATTORNEY Feb. 28, 1939. ca. A. MOORE 2,149,030
" CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Aug. 12, 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 M Fae .10,
3: 1' \NVENTOR 650/765 A/fU/WTONMWE 5 61mm M ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 28, 1939 2,149,030 CONTAINER AND MJTHOD OF MAKING THE George Arlington Moore, Louisville, m asslgnor to Humoco Corporation, Louisville, Ky., a corporation of Delaware Application August 12, 1936, SerialNo. 95,536
This invention relates to containers, and more particularly to flexible containers made of paper or like materials and adapted for use in packaging tobacco or other similar products.
It has been heretofore proposed to package substances such as tobacco, for example, in flexible containers formed by folding a single blank of flexible material and gluing adjacent edges thereof to provide a pocket and an integral elonor pouch to prevent spilling of the contents and yet permit the ready removal of some or all of the contents when desired. Due to the fact that prior containers of this type are not impervious to air and moisture, the same have not been suitable for packaging tobacco for any extended period of time, such as for distribution and sale, the user who desires to benefit by the advantages of such a pouch being obliged to fill and refill the same from a large tin container, for example, in which he purchases the tobacco, and even this type of container, as marketed today, is not innpervious so as to prevent the loss of volatiles from the tobacco. Accordingly, when using tobacco in this manner, the consumer loses the benefit of the efforts and expenseto which the manufacturer is put in conditioning the tobacco to insure a desired flavor and aroma, since the volatiles of the tobacco are given up by evaporation and the tobacco thus dries out during, the period between packaging and actual use, a period which is often-times of considerable duration.
It is accordinglyan object of the present invention to provide a container or pouch of the above type which" is impervious to-air and moisture and which may be readily opened without injury to the flap, whereby the pouch pocket may be readily and effectively closed after the impervious seal has been broken.
Another object is to provide a novel pouch for tobacco and the like in which the contents may be readily packed and preserved for an indefinite time in the condition in which the same were at the time of packing.
A further object is to provide a novel package which is of light weight and which may be inexpensivelymanufactured, packed and sealed.
Still another object-is to provide a novel impervious container which is flexible and adapted to be comfortably carried in the pocket of the user without causing any wear and tear of his clothing, such as is, caused by rigid tin or cardboard containers, and from which the contents gated flap for closing the mouth of the pocket may be readily dispensed after the impervious seal has'been broken.
A still further object is to provide a pouch for tobacco and the like which is sealed in a novel manner and to provide a novel method of sealing the same.
The above and further objects and novel features of the invention will more fully appear from the following detailed description when the same is taken in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be expressly understood, however, that the drawings are for the purpose of illustration only and are not designed as a definition of the limits of the invention, reference being primarily had for this latter purpose to the appended claims.
' 'In the drawingawherein like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the several views,
Fig. 1 is an isometric view of one form of the novel container comprehended by the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a sectional end elevation, the section being taken on line 22 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a detailed sectional view, on an enlarged scale and with parts broken away, the section being taken on line 33 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a development of a blank from which the. container in Fig. 1 may be formed;
Fig. 5 shows the blank of Fig. 4 folded to form the pocket of the container;
Fig. 6 is a detailed sectional view, on an enlarged scale and with parts broken away, the section being-taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 5;
' Fig. 7 isan isometric view showing the container of Fig. 1 in opened position for dispensationof the contents thereof;
Fig. 8 is an isometric view showing the container partially open; I
Fig. 9 is a front elevation showing the condition of the container-after the impervious seal has been broken;
Fig. 10 is a development of a blank from which another-embodiment of the package of the pres- 46 Fig. 13 is a sectional end elevation, the section being taken on line |3|3 of Fig. 12; and,
Fig. 14 is a detail isometric view, partly in section and with parts broken away, of another modification of the invention.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings, by way of example, in the form of a folding pouch suitable for packaging loose cut tobacco, the same being constructed from treated paper in such a manner that it may be conveniently carried in ones pocket, and sealed so as to prevent the entrance of moisture or air, as well as the escape or evaporation of volatiles from the tobacco, thereby permitting the same to be-employed as a package in which tobacco may be distributed for sale and use with the assurance that the consumer will receive the tobacco in factory fresh condition. The container shown is also so constructed that the seamed edges thereof are reinforced to provide rigidity and strength, without sacrificing the desired flexibility, at points at which failure is most likely to occur in a container of this general type, the rigidity serving also to facilitate handling of the container and dispensation of the contents thereof.
The novel container or pouch in the form illustrated in Figs. 1 to 9, inclusive, may be constructed from a blank 20 (Fig. 4) of paper or other suitable flexible or fibrous material. If paper is employed, the same is preferably of the long fiber type having a hard finish to avoid undue absorption of lacquer to be applied thereto. Blank 20, as shown, comprises four sections 2| to 24, inclusive, of substantially equal dimensions, an end section or tab 25, and a projecting portion or seam flap 26 projecting from each end of section 22. When the blank is folded, in accordance with the method to be hereinafter described, sections 2| and 22 constitute the walls of an expansible pocket for retaining tobacco, or any of various other substances which it may be desired to package, and sections 23 to 25, inclusive, constitute a closing flap adapted to be wrapped or folded around the pocket for closing the mouth of the latter, and to be adhesively secured to the outer walls of said pocket in a novel manner to hereinafter appear for the purpose of rendering the container impervious.
In order to render the walls of the container moisture repellent and impervious to air, and to provide seams in the formation of the same which will not permit the passage of air or moisture therethrough, one surface of blank 20, hereinafter referred to as the "inner surface, is preferably coated with a thin dry film of a thermoplastic lacquer 21 (Figs. 3 and 6) having moisture repellent and potential adhesive qualities.
Lacquer coating 21 is preferably adapted to be activated or rendered tacky by a solvent, by heat, or both, and thereby rendered effective to bind engaging surfaces of the blank together, as will be more fully pointed out hereafter. If heat alone is used as an activating agent, the lacquer should be rendered tacky only at temperatures considerably in excess of usual room temperatures, for example, to F.
It has been found in practice that one suitable lacquer for forming film 2'! is composed of about 65 per cent of such ester solvents as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, or the like, and such hydrocarbons as toluol, and about 35 per cent of solids which can be readily activated by solvents as well as heat. The solids content is composed of about 25 per cent of low viscosity nitro-cotton,
60 per centof' resins, and about 15 per cent of a plasticizer such as dibutyl phthalate which may have small quantities of vegetable oils added thereto, if desired. The resins employed. may contain some gums, such as ester gum, but usually synthetic resins, which have more definite physical properties than any natural resin, are used. The lacquer thus constituted is free from tack at room temperatures and under normal conditions of humidity, and may readily and quickly be applied to the entire surface or any localized portion of the surface of blank 2|], the same being adapted to dry quickly after each activation thereof. Contact temperatures for forming seals along the desired lines must accordingly be in excess of about F., the excess being dependent upon the speed of operation and the thermal conductivity of the material constituting blank 20. Under normal conditions, the lacquer is firm but sufliciently flexible and elastic so that the same will not crack or flake or become susceptible to penetration by air and moisture when the blank is folded and sealed in the novel manner to appear hereafter.
For the purpose of protecting the outer walls of the container by preventing absorption thereby of moisture, such as moisture from the atmosphere or perspiration when the container is carried in ones pocket, and to give the container a pleasing appearance, the outer surface of blank 20 is preferably coated with a thin, dry film 28 of a high-gloss, moisture-proof lacquer (Figs. 3 and 6). Film 28 need not have thermoplastic and adhesive qualities, but should have a potential adhesive afiinity for the lacquer employed to form the inner film 27. A suitable and economical high-gloss lacquer whichmay be employed for film 28 consists of about equal percentages of solvents and solids. The solvents may comprise ethyl acetate diluted with various alcohols and toluol, while the solids are made up of 30 per cent low viscosity nitro-cellulose, l0
per cent of a plasticizer, such as a modified cocoanut oil or dibutyl phthlate, and 60 per cent of synthetic resins having as chief characteristics transparency and gloss.
In the formation of the novel container of Fig. 1 from blank 20, section 2| is first folded along line a and the end edges thereof are brought into engagement with the corresponding edges of section 22. Seam flaps 26, 26, which constitute extended portions of section or side 22, are then folded inwardly to engage the outer surface of section 2|, and said end edges, together with fiaps 26, 26, are pressed together with the simultaneous application of suflicient heat, such as by electrically heated clamping irons, to activate the affected areas of the thermoplastic adhesive film 21. The adhesive film between the engaging surfaces adjacent the ends of sections 2| and 22 and on the inner surface of flaps 26, 26 being thus rendered tacky is pressed into the interstices of the material of the blank and becomes effective when dried to substantially weld said engaging surfaces to one another. A pocket 29 .is thus formed in which tobacco 30 or-some other sub stance may be packed and retained, said pocket having a seamless bottom and a three-ply imperviously sealed seam at each end thereof. It will be noted that all three plies of the endseams are adhesively welded together and are accordingly strong and sufficiently rigid to prevent tearing under ordinary conditions of usage, and yet 'sufliciently flexible so that the same will readily conform to the contour of the body when the 7 which will have some breadth when the container is packed.
After the formation of pocket 25; in the manner 1 above described, the same is substantially filled with tobacco 30, suilicient vacant space being left at the mouth of the pocket to permit the op-' posed edges of sections 2| and 22 at said mouth to be pressed into engagement. Closure flap 23, 24 is then folded or wrapped around pocket 29 to thereby close the mouth of the latter for retaining the contents therein, sections 23 and 24 of the flap being brought into engagement with sides 2| and 22, respectively, of pouch pocket 29.
Flap 23, 24 is now adhesively sealed to the outer walls of pocket 29 in a novel manner so that the container may be readily opened without mutilation for dispensing the contents thereof and yet be imperviously sealed to insure preservation of the tobacco in its original condition under all conditions of temperature, pressure and humidity. In the form illustrated, the novel method of imperviously sealing the package comprises pressing the lacquer-coated ends of sections 23 and 24 into contact with opposite sides of the triple ply end seams of pocket 29 and simultaneously applying heat thereto to activate lacquer film 21 between the engaging surfaces to which pressure and heat are applied. The marginal portions of flap 23, 24 are thus substantially welded to said end seams, which constitute portions of the outer wall surface of pocket 29, thereby forming an impervious joint. The sealing operation is completed by further welding flap 23, 24 to the outer wall of pocket 29 along a line extending longitudinally of said pocket between the end seams of the latter or the joints last described, This longitudinal weld is preferably formed, as best seen in Figs. 1 and 2, by applying pressure and heat to the upper marginal edge 3i of the container after tab 25, has been folded around into engagement with section 23 of the flap, said pressureand heat preferably being applied by clamping margin 3| between a pair of electrically heated, converging irons.
The closure flap is thus welded adjacent line b by means of thermoplastic adhesive film 21, which is' activated by the heat, to the outer wall of pocket 29 at c and to the outer wall of section 23 at d (Fig. 2). The container is thus completely and imperviously sealed so that no air or moisture can reach the contents through the mouth of pocket 29 or through any other part of the package. At the same time, the edges of flap 23, 24 are secured so as to facilitate handling and eliminate danger of injury to the flap by tearing. It may be noted that the upper edge of section or side 2| need not extend into seam 3 i, but if it does so extend, as illustrated in Fig. 2, only sufficient heat is preferably applied to form welds-c and d'without activating the adhesive inside the mouth of pocket 29. Opening of the package will be facilitated if pocket 29 is not sealed across the mouth thereof.
' Tab 25, which is provided as a means adapted for use in breaking the impervious seal thus formed to open the package, may be held in folded position by an adhesive coated strip 32, which may be the revenue stamp required by law, if the package is used for tobacco. If desired,
the ends of tab 25, which overlap the end seams. of the container, may be adhesively secured to section 23 at the same time and by the same operation that the ends of said section are secured to the outer wall of pocket 29.
' To open the package of Fig. 1,, stamp 32 is first torn. The seals or welds between the closure flap and the outer walls of pocket 29. are then broken by pulling on tab 25 and, in effect, peeling flap 23, 24 from the outer wall of pocket 29. As the welded surfaces are thus severed, the same are slightly defaced, by reason of the'adhesive bond, as illustrated at 33 in Figs. 8 and 9, but this in no way affects the utility of the package for use as a pouch while the contents are being intermittently used. After the impervious seal is thus broken, the mouth of pocket 29 may be closed by wrapping flap 23, 24, 25 around said pocket, in the manner above described when folding the flap in preparation for the sealing operation.
If desired, a package ,ofcigarette papers 34 may be adhesively secured to the outer surface of the pouch beneath tab 25 when the latter is in folded position, as illustrated in Fig. 8. The papers will thus be convenient to the user and protected from the elements and injury due to handling.
It will be noted that when the package is in open position, as seen in Fig. 7, the end seams of pocket 29 being comparatively stiff by reason of the multiple character thereof and the adhesive bond between the plies, facilitate handling of the package and the pouring of the tobacco therefrom. Handling and pouring are also facilitated by the fact that the lacquer-treated material has a degree of stiffness which proves highly beneficial in this respect.
Another embodiment of the package comprehended by this invention is illustrated in Fig. 12, and may be formed by folding a blank 35 (Fig. 10) in a novel manner to be hereinafter described. Blank 35, like blank 20, is preferably coated on the inner surface thereof with a thin dry film of thermoplastic lacquer having potential adhesive qualities, and on outer surface of the blank with a coating of high-gloss, non-thermoplastic lacquer. The lacquers employed may be of the same character and composition as described in connection with the first embodiment.
To form the container of Fig. 12, the ends or hem flaps of blank 35 are first folded inwardly along lines e and J, and the folded portions or flaps adhesively secured in position by the thermoplastic lacquer provided on the inner surface of the blank. The two ends of the blank, one of which forms one side of the mouth of the pouch pocket and the other of which constitutes the free end of the closure flap, are thus reinforced by a double-ply hem. Similar hems may be provided on the embodiment of Fig. i, if desired.
Blank 35 is then folded along line g but preferably without creasing, seam flaps 35, 36 are folded inwardly, and the end seams of pocket 31 thus formed are sealed by the application of heat and pressure in the same manner as de scribed in connectionwith the firstembodiment. After the formation of the end scams, 2. score or bending line 38 (Figs. 11 and 11A) is preferably impressed in the material of the blank along a longitudinal line below and parallel to the upper edge of the front wall 39 of pocket 31. Score 38 facilitates the packing and sealing of the package in that it assists materially'in the folding of the closure flap 40, 4| along the line of the score by preventing the formation of disordered wrinkles which might otherwise occur by reason of the opposite curvatures of the side walls 39 and 42 of pocket 31 after the latter has been filled.
Before packing the container, a fiber button 43, together with a string 44, are preferably attached to the tab portion 4| of the closure flap by any suitable means such as a tubular rivet 45, for a purpose to" appear hereafter.
Pocket 39 is then filled to a level adjacent score line 38 with the substance to be packaged, and flap 40, 4|, together with the upper margin 48 of the front wall of pocket 31, is folded forwardly and downwardly, as viewed in Fig. 11, along said score line, and tab 4| is folded around the bottom of the pocket into engagement with the back wall 42 of said pocket. The edges of flap 40, 46 are then sealed to the outer walls or end seams of pocket 31 by the application of heat and pressure, in the same manner as above described in connection with the first embodiment. A longitudinal weld or seam 47, corresponding to weld 3| of Fig. 1, is provided at the base of pocket 31 in lieu of at the top thereof. It will be understood, of course,
that the flap may be long enough to extend around the upper edge of the pocket also and a seal of the character shown in Fig. 1 provided.
Prefer ably, string 44 is led around the sealed package and a few turns taken therewith around rivet 45 under the flange of button 43, and the free end thereof passed beneath tab 4| and a revenue stamp 48 or the like, as illustrated in Fig. 12.
In opening the package of Fig. 12, the free end of string 44 is pulled from beneath the tab 4| to tear stamp 48 and then removed from beneath button 43. Thereafter, tab 4| is employed to peel flap 40, 46 from the outer wall of pocket 31 and thereby break the impervious seal above described in the same manner in which tab 25 is employed for the same purpose in the embodiment of Fig. 1. The closure flap may be held in folded position for closing pocket 31 after the seal is broken by means of string 44 cooperating with button 43 in the manner illustrated and above described.
In the modification of the invention illustrated in Fig. 14, the general formation of which is the same as the second embodiment, the upper reinforced edge of the front wall 49 of the pocket 50 is adhesively secured to the back wall thereof by means of the thermoplastic lacquer coating applied to the inner surface of the blank from which the container is formed. Closure fiap 52 need not then be sealed to the outer surface of the walls of pocket 49, as in the other embodiments, thereby materially reducing the total sealing area, the flap being used as a closure only after the seal at the mouth of the'pocket has been broken.
The blanks from which the above described pouches are formed may be printed with any desired information or advertising matter before the coating of high gloss lacquer is placed thereon. It is also pointed out that a score line of the character provided in the second embodiment may be provided in flaps 23 and 52 of the first and third fnnns, respectively. In the form shown in Fig. 14, said score may be placed either above or below the seal across the mouth of pocket 50.
There is thus provided a novel contalnerin which a substance, such as loose tobacco, may be readily and inexpensively sealed in an impervious manner and retained without change of condition, particularly as respects moisture content,
for an indefinite period, as during distribution and sale. The novel package is so constructed and sealed that the seal may be readily broken when it is desired to open the package and yet not susceptible to injury during the normal handling thereof. Additionally, the container is so constructed as to facilitate the packing and sealing thereof, as well as to facilitate the handling of the same while dispensing the contents, such as into a pipe or onto a cigarette paper. A novel and eflicient method of sealing a pouch of the character described, whereby the same is rendered impervious, is also provided, said method being such as to avoid any danger of the packaged substance becoming contaminated by an adhesive or solvents therefor.
Although only three embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described in detail, it is to be expressly understood that the same is not limited thereto. For example, only those portions or strips of the blank employed in forming the impervious seal and seams need be coated with thermoplastic lacquer and other types of adhesive may be employed for forming said seams and seals. It may also be pointed out that the flap may simultaneously be sealed to the ends of the pocket and longitudinally of the latter, if desired.
Various other changes may also be made in the size and shape of the package and in the materials specified without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, as will now be apparent to those skilled in the art. For a definition of the limitsof the invention, reference will be had primarily to the appended claims.
What is claimed is: i
l. A container constituted by a blank of flexible material having a thin dry coating of thermoplastic lacquer on the inner surface thereof and being folded to form a pouch comprising a pocket with a seamless bottom and seamed tripleply ends, the outer plies being adhesively joined to the center ply by said thermoplastic lacquer, and a closing fiap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to extend around the bottom of said pocket when folded, said flap being adhesively joined to the outer walls of said pocket adjacent the bottom and end edges thereof by said thermoplastic lacquer.
2. A container constituted by a blank of paper having a thin dry coating of thermoplastic adhesive on the inner surface thereof and being folded to form a pouch comprising a pocket with a seamless bottom and seamed triple-ply ends, the plies being adhesively joined by said thermoplastic adhesive, and a flap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to be wrapped around the latter to close said mouth, said fiap being adhesively joined to the outer walls of said pocket along the ends thereof and along a line extending from one of said ends to the other.
3. A pouch for tobacco or other substances comprising a pocket for receiving the substance and a closing flap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to fold around the latter, said flap being adhesively secured to the outer walls of said pocket along and throughout the entire length of three edges of the latter.
4. A fibrous container for tobacco or other substances constituted by a blank having a moistureproof thermoplastic lacquer with adhesive qualities on one surface thereof and comprising a pocket for receiving the substance, and a closing fiap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to be folded wholly or partially around the latter,"portions of said flap being adhesively secured to the outer walls of said pocket by said thermoplastic lacquer to prevent the entrance of air and moisture into the pocket.
5. A collapsible container comprising a pocket having a seamless bottom edge and adhesively sealed ends, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket, said flap being folded to close said mouth and having edges thereof adhesively secured to the end seams of said pocket and being secured to the outer surface of the latter along a longitudinal line extending between said end seams.
6. A container comprising a pocket having the ends of one wall thereof lapped over the corresponding ends of the other wall thereof and adhesively secured to both sides of said latter wall, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding.
'7. A container comprising a pocket having the ends of one wall thereof lapped over the corresponding ends of the other wall thereof and welded to both sides of said latter wall, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding, said closure flap being welded to the outer surface of said pocket along the ends of the latter and along a strip extending longitudinally thereof.
8. A container comprising a pocket having extending portions on one wall thereof folded around the ends of the other wall thereof, said first-named wall and extending portions being adhesively secured to opposite sides of said second wall adjacent the edges thereof, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding.
9. A container constituted by a blank of fibrous material having a dry film of thermoplastic adhesive thereon, said container comprising a pocket having the ends of one wall thereof folded over the corresponding ends of the other wall and adhesively secured to both sides of the latter adjacent the edges thereof by means of said thermoplastic adhesive, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding.
10. A container constituted by a blank of iibrous material having a dry film of thermoplastic adhesive thereon, said container comprising a pocket having the ends of one wall thereof folded over the corresponding ends of the other wall and adhesively secured to both sides of the latter adjacent the edges thereof by means of said thermoplastic adhesive, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding, said closure flap being secured to the outer surface of said pocket by means of said thermoplastic adhesive along the ends of said pocket and along a strip extending longitudinally of the pocket.
11. A foldable pouch constituted by a blank of fibrous material having a dry film of thermoplastic adhesive thereon, said pouch comprising a pocket having a seamless bottom and ends sealed by said adhesive, and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket, said flap being folded to close said mouth and sealed to the outer surface of said pocket by said thermoplastic adhesive to prevent the entrance of air into said pocket through the mouth thereof. 1
12. A package comprising a sheet of flexible fibrous material treated with' moisture-repellent thermoplastic lacquer having potential adhesive qualities formed into a pouch having a pocket containing a substance to be packaged and a closing flap for closing the mouth of said pocket, portions of said flap being sealed by said thermoplastic adhesive to the outer surface of said pocket to prevent entrance of air through said mouth and the remaining portion of said flap serving as a tab for severing said flap from said outer surface at the points at which the same are adhesively joined.
13. A container constituted by a blank of f1- brous material having a dry film of thermoplastic adhesive thereon comprising a. pocket having the ends of one Wall thereof folded over the corresponding ends of the other wall and adhesively secured to both sides of the latter adjacent the edges thereof by means of said thermoplastic adhesive, and a closure flap extending from the mouth of said pocket, the latter being sealed along said mouth by said thermoplastic adhesive to render the pocket impervious and the mouth being adapted to be closed after the seal is broken by folding said flap.
14. A container comprising a pocket having extending port ons on one wall thereof folded around the ends of the other wall thereof, said first-named wall and extending portions being adhesively secured to opposite sides of said second wall adjacent the edges thereof, a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of the pocket and adapted to close said mouth by folding, and means "including a cooperating button and cord for holding said flap in folded position.
15. A folding pouch for packaging tobacco or other substances constituted by a. blank folded to form a pocket for containing said substance and a closure flap extending beyond the mouth of said pocket, said pocket having a longitudinal score line impressed in the walls thereof, said flap and the portions of the walls of said pocket above the score line being wrapped around the remainder of said pocket and adhesively secured thereto along the ends and one side thereof.
GEORGE ARLINGTON MOORE. Q