US 2149749 A
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March 7, 1939." E. s. SAVAGE 2,149,149
PROJECTILE Filed Oct; 1, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 lllllflllllllllllll INVENTOR ATTORNEY March 7, 1939. E. s. SAVAGE 2,149,749
' PROJ-ECTiLE 2 Sheets-Sheet Filed Oct. 1, 1936' I INVENTO v v 7 BY ATTORNEY- Patented Mar. 7, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,149,749 IPROJECTILE Edward S. Savage, Rochester, N. Y. Application October 1, 1936, Serial No. 103,492 8-Clai1ns. (Cl.273-106) The present improvements are particularly apsimple plunger actuating means for rapidly forcplicable to air guns and projectiles for that type ing the projectile through the barrel to a point of gun employing a barrel having a muzzle diamadjacent the muzzle. A eter smaller than the breech diameter, and in Another object of the invention is to provide an which a plunger is used to force the projectile air gun having suitable means for supporting the through the barrel to a position close to the muzgun on a surface and having manual means for zle, the projectile being subsequently discharged operating the gun so constructed that the operatfrom the muzzle position by air pressure. The ing force applied will tend to hold the gun in its discharging air pressure may be produced by a firing position and avoiding any tendency to dis- 10 piston or air pump but in this type of gun the turb the gun when it is being fired.
air pressure is usually created by the action of Another object of the invention is to provide an forcing a second projectile toward the muzzle by air gun of this type with a spring actuated plungmeans of a plunger, thus compressing the air beer, easily operated manual means for retracting tween the two projectiles and causing the first the plunger and compressing the spring, and ef- 1projectile to be discharged with an accompanying fective means for retaining the plunger and 15 loud report or pop sound. -The second projecspring in the cooked position.
tile then takes the place of the first in position to A further object of the invention is to provide be dischargedin like manner. for the gun a simple and safe breech loading Guns operating on this principle have heretomeans.
2.0 fore used projectiles cut from vegetables or fruit With these and other objects in view the inven such as potatoes or apples, and it-is customary tion resides in certain improvements and combiwith this type of gun to employ the breech end of nation of parts, all as will be hereinafter more the barrel as a cutter or a die by forcing it into fully described, representative embodiments of a slice of the vegetable of proper thickness, thus which are shown in the accompanying drawings.
leaving a slug of the vegetable inside the breech in whichand in position to be pushed toward the muzzle Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view and end by the plunger.- projection of a projectile designed for use in con- One object of the invention is to provide an air junction with the air gun. gun of the type described of simple, durable, and Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of a simple gun 50 safe construction, designed to use an improved barrel showing the improved projectiles in positype of previously prepared projectile which protion for firing, and a hand operated plunger jectile forms a part of this invention. i shown in side elevation.
Another object of this invention is to provide a Fig. 3 is a l n itu inal sectional view of a lever substantially indestructible projectile for use with operated air gun, constructed in the form of a an air gun, of this or any other suitable type, cannon, with plunger actuating gears shown in which can be discharged repeatedly from the gun, side elevation. This view shows the gun in posithe projectile being composed of a compressible tion for firing, with the plunger retracted previand elastic material, and having small frictional ous to being reloaded with a projectile in the resistance against movement through the barrel. breech. I 40 Another object of the invention is to provide a Fig. 4 is a sectional View of the cannon shown projectile having the above mentioned characin Fig. 3 taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3, looking in 40 teristics which, while occupying a position withthe direction indicated by the arrows. in the muzzle of the gun will act as an air seal and Fig. 5 is a sectional view of the breech loading will retain such position against increasing air chamber taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3, showing pressure until the air pressure is sufiiciently high the safety breech shutter used in the embodiment 5 so that the resulting discharge of the projectile illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4, and also used in the will produce a loud report and high projectile vemodifications illustrated in Figs. 6 to 11. locity. Fig. 6 is-a longitudinal sectional view of a toy Another object of the invention is to provide a cannon, embodying a modification of theinvenprojectile which may be discharged at high-vetion, which is provided with a spring operated locity from an air gun of suitable type and which plunger and screw means for retracting the 50 cannot cause bodily injury to a person who may plunger. This view shows the gun loaded and in be hit by the projectile. position for firing.
Another object of the invention is to provide the Fig. '7 is a rear end elevation of the cannon air gun with simple breech loading means and shown in Fig. 6 with a part in section on the line 55 1-1 of Fig. 6. In this view the hand operating wheel is removed.
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view of a modified form of air gun, also constructed to simulate a cannon, in which the plunger is lever operated. In this view the front portion of the barrel is broken away and lever parts are shown in side elevation.
Fig. 9 is a sectional view of the cannon shown in Fig. 8 taken on line 9-9 of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of an air gun, constructed to simulate a cannon, having a spring actuated plunger and lever means for retracting the plunger and compressing the spring.
Fig. 11 is a sectional view of the gun shown in Fig. 10 taken on line l 1-! I of Fig. 10.
The same reference numerals throughout the several views indicate the same parts.
Referring first to the improved form of projectile designed to be used with the air gun, Fig. 1 illustrates the preferred embodiment of this projectile. The projectile is here shown as comprising a sponge rubber body, the sponge rubber possessing the desired characteristics of softness, compressibility and maximum elasticity. The preferred form is cylindrical, as shown, and the ends are provided with impervious flexible rubber surfaces I0, H), which serve to prevent loss of air pressure through the porous sponge rubber when the gun is fired. This impervious surface also furnishes a suitable contact surface for the gun plunger when the projectile is being forced through the barrel. Untreated sponge rubber has a high frictional characteristic which renders its use as a projectile in this type of gun unsatisfactory because of the excessive pressure required to force such a projectile through the gun barrel. I have provided means for eliminating this objectionable friction which consists in impregnating the pores of the sponge rubber with a lubricating material. The whole projectile may be so impregnated or only the portions near the surface may contain the lubricant. The lubricant may be in any effective form such as a liquid, grease or powder, preference being given to those lubricants which will not injure rubber and which will remain effective for a long time due to low evaporation characteristics. Glycerine has proved to be a satisfactory lubricant for this purpose, a small amount absorbed in the pores of the sponge rubber is very effective and remains effective indefinitely. The glycerine has no injurious efiects on rubber but is beneficial in that it serves to prevent the rubber from becoming hard with age. Parafiine is also a very satisfactory lubricant for this purpose.
It is understood that this improvement in projectiles is not limited to the use of sponge rubber as described in the foregoing but applies to the use of other compressible and elastic materials, including elastic fibrous materials, which will function in a similar manner. Materials having low frictional characteristics against a smooth surface would not require a lubricant.
To clearly illustrate the action of this improved projectile in a gun of the type described I have shown in Fig. 2 the most elementary form of such a gun associated with the improved projectiles in position for firing. The form of gun shown in this figure is not novel but improvement resides in its use in conjunction with the improved type of projectile described herein. The barrel here shown is considerably smaller at the muzzle end than at the breech end. The projectile is sized 4 breech. This permits the projectile to function as a highly efiicient air compressing piston when it is forced forward during the firing stroke of the plunger.
In use the tapered barrel II is held in one hand and the handle l2 of the plunger I3 is grasped'in the other hand. A projectile is first inserted in the large end, or breech of the barrel, the projectile is then forced through the barrel by means of the plunger until movement is stopped by the shoulder l4 of the handle striking the end of the barrel at IS. The length of the plunger is such that the projectile will stop within the muzzle in the position shown at "5, in which position it is considerably compressed due to the smaller diameter of the barrel at this point, being so compressed the projectile then provides an effective air seal for the muzzle end of the barrel. After withdrawing the plunger a second projectile I7 is inserted in the breech this projectile is forced forwardly quickly by means of the plunger and the rising air pressure produced between the two projectiles, as the second projectile approaches the first, will cause the discharge of the first projectile, the second projectile then taking its place within the muzzle. The sudden release of the compressed air, as the first projectile leaves the barrel, causes a loud report or pop sound which is very desirable in a toy gun. The first projectile, or another, may be again placed in the breech and the gun fired as before.
It should be noted that when the second projectile is being forced forward by the plunger the rising air pressure against the rear end of the first projectile has a tendency to compress that end of the projectile resulting in increasing the expansive force of the first projectile against the gun barrel. This expansive force is a factor tending to hold the projectile in position in the barrel until the air pressure has increased sufficiently to produce the desired loud report and high velocity when the projectile is finally discharged. 1
The barrels shown in the several views of the drawings are formed with a bore having a uniform taper from breech to muzzle. Any one of the guns however will operate satisfactorily with a barrel having a uniform bore throughout its major length and provided with a contracted or tapered bore near the muzzle smaller in diameter than the remainder of the barrel. With such a barrel a slightly enlarged bore at the breech is desirable to facilitate loading.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 the air gun is constructed to simulate a cannon. The barrel I8 is provided with an annular flange I!) at its breech end by means of which it is clamped to the forward end of the shell or housing 20 which housing simulates in shape the explosion chamber of a cannon. The cap 2| closes the rear end of the housing and simulates a cannon breech in external appearance. A sheet metal base member 22 is formed with two upturned side plates 23 shaped to resemble a cannon base. Perforations in the sides 23 at 24 furnish bearings for the shaft 25 the ends 26 of which serve as cannon trunnions. The housing 20 is supported on the shaft 25 by means of the sheet metal bearing members 21 which are preferably attached to the housing by spot welding.
A guide tube 30 is supported at each end cento and turns with the gear turned through a limited dotted position Mb in ture were simply an trally within the housing IS in axial alignment with the barrel I1. The plunger 28 comprises a sheet metal tube preferably closed at the front end and open at the rear end and is fitted to slide freely in the guide tube 3!]. A light tension spring 3: is positioned within the plunger, one end of the spring being attached to the front of the plunger, the other end of the spring being attached to the cap 2|. spaced perforations 32 positioned in line longi- A series of equally tudinally along the lower side of the plunger 28 form, in effect, a rack carried by the plunger. A spur gear 33 turns on the shaft 25 and meshes with the rack 32. A smaller gear 3 is fastened 33. A shaft 35 turns freely in bearings 35 formed by perforations in the sheet metal side plates 23 and a gear segment 32 is fast on the shaft 35 and meshes with the gear 34. The shaft 35 and gear segment 31 are angle by means of the lever 38 which is fast on the shaft, the upper end of the lever being provided with a handle Downward movement of the lever 38 is limited by the pivotally mounted stop 4!] which normally occupies the vertical position shown in the .rawings, in which position of said stop the lever will be stopped in its downward movement when the handle reaches the dotted position 390.. The stop 5.3 may be turned .to the horizontal which position movement of the lever 38 will be stopped with the handle in the dotted position 3%.
The screw S! with the knurled wheel S2 is adjustable in the threaded post S3 which provide means for adjusting the angular elevation of the gun about its trunnions 26.
Force applied to the lever handle 39 moving it downward will cause the gear segment 31 to turn upward, rotating the gears as and 33 and thus causing forward movement of the plunger 2 Release of the handle 33 will permit the ing 3! to retract the plunger 28, reversing the motion of the gears and segment and returning the lever arm 38 to its upper position. The downward movement of the lever 38 to fire the gun is particularly advantageous due to the fact that considerable force will be applied to the lever handle 39 when the gun is fired and the downward direction of this force does not tend to tip the gun over or disturb its position but tends to hold the gun in position. With this object in view the supporting surface of the base 22 is made of sufficient width and is extended rearwardly to a point where the base will be below the handle 33 in any position of said handle.
For loading the gun an aperture 4| is provided in the barrel at the breech, said aperture being preferably located on the upper side of the barrel. The gun would operate satisfactorily if this aperopening of sufficient size for inserting a projectile in proper position in the breech chamber. There would however be an eement of danger in that a person might insert a finger into the breech loading aperture and at the same time the lever 38 might accidently be forced down thus movingthe plunger forward and causing injury to the finger. To eliminate this hazard the breech opening 4| is provided with a sheet metal shutter 42, a cross section of which, taken on line -5 of Fig. 3,
shown'in Fig. 5. This shutter preferably con forms to the tubular shape of the barrel when said shutter is closed as shown in Figs. 3 and 5. A slight enlargement of the barrel at 43 permits the lower portion 44 of the shutter to lie within the barrelwhen the shutter is closed. The shutter is provided with two projecting ears d5 which, with the cars 35 which project from the barrel, and the pin N, form a hinge on which theshutterturns. A prong 48 on one ear of the shutter hinge provides a stopto make contact with the barrel and so to limit the opening movement of the shutter at the dotted position 51%. In the open position of the shutter, as shown in Fig. 5 at 321), the lower portion '53 forms an obstructing member occupying a position in front of the plunger and so preventing any possible movement of the plunger forward into the loading chamber as. The prong 53 projects outwardly from the shutter when said shutter is closed and forms a convenient handle for opening the shutter. In the open position the semi-cylindrical shape of the shutter forms a convenient loading receptacle for the projectile which is carried down thereby into the breech chamber when the shutter is closed.
To load and fire the gun, the shutter 42 is opened, a projectile is placed in the shutter receptools, the shutter closed, the handle 39 is pressed down until the lever 38 strikes the stop 33, said stop occupying the vertical position shown in the rawings, the plunger will have moved forward forcing the projectile toward the muzzle to the position shown at 5%. The handle 33 is. then released and moves upward to its upper position. The breech chamber is again loaded with another projectile as before, the handle 33 is again forced down, preferably with a quick motion, forcing the second projectile forward which compresses the air between the two projectiles, discharging the first projectile with an accompanying loud report, the second projectile being left in the position formerly occupied by the first at 5!. The gun may be fired as often as desired usingthe same projectiles repeatedly. Obviously, after each firing of the gun, a projectile remains in the muzzle. If it is desired to remove this projectile after the gun has been used, this may be done by first turning the stop ill down to' retract the plunger and compress the spring.
The tapered barrel 5! is shown with two projectiles 52 and 53 in position for firing. The barrel 5! and shutter 55 are identical to those shown Figs. 3 and 4 and function in the same way. The barrel is supported on the front end of the housing 56 which housing encloses most of the operating parts of the gun and a cap 51 closes the rear end of the housing.
The plunger 58 is guided to move axially in line with the barrel 52 and comprises a sheet metal tube closed at the front end and open at the rear end. A rod 53 is riveted at the rear end 36 to the housing cap 51 and is positioned axially in line with the barrel. This rod or serves as a guide for the compression spring 6!, which fits loosely thereon, the spring also fits freely within the tubular plunger 53. A plate 52 fits tightly within the front end of the housing 5% and is provided with a hole 63 forming a bearing and front guide through which the plunger 58 moves. The rear of the plunger 58 rides on the spring BI and is guided thereby. v
A sheet metal plate 64 forming a flange is fitted tightly to the rear end of the plunger 58 and is provided with a curved finger 65 which extends upwardly from the upper center of the plate, the curved end of the finger fitting freely in a guide slot 65, which slot extends longitudinally along the upper center line of the housing 6. The fin ger 65 serves the double purpose of providing a visible indicator showing the position of the plunger at all times and also providing means to retain the plate 64 against rotation about the axis of the plunger. A latch member 67 has hinged connection at B8 to the lower rear portion of the. plate E54 and travels longitudinally therewith. A hook 69 formed on the lower edge of the latch 61 is adapted to normally contact the rearward side of the screw thread 19. The latch member 57 is also provided with a finger portion it extending rearwardly therefrom and, in the cooked position shown in the drawings, projects through a slot ii in the cap 5?. An elastic shock absorbing bumper member 12, preferably cylindrical in form, encircles the rear portion of the plunger 58 and in contact with the plate 64. This shock absorbing member may be composed of any suitable elastic material and is here shown as composed of sponge rubber which has proved most satisfactory for this purpose.
Manually operable means for retracting the plunger after the gun has been fired is provided by the screw member 13, the hand wheel M and handle 15. The screw member 13 is here shown as comprising a tubular body portion 16 mounted to rotate about its axis in parallel alignment with the axis of the plunger 58, and turning on bearings I? and 78 formed in the front plate 62 and cap member 57 respectively. The threaded portion 19 of the screw member comprises a wire coil which closely fits the body 16 and is preferably soldered thereto. The rear end of the wire forming the screw thread 79 is bent to form a short circular segment 80 which provides a land for the hook 69 when the plunger is fully retracted, eliminating any tendency for the pressure of the hook 69 against the segment iii] to cause rotation of the screw. The extreme end of the wire is bent sharply at right angles to the circular segment as shown at 88a forming a stop to make contact with the side of the hook 59 and prevent further rotation of the screw 13 after such contact is made.
A trigger member 8! is pivoted to turn freely on a pin 82, said pin being riveted to the cap 51. This trigger member is provided with a finger 83 which projects horizontally under the latch finger iii and is normally held in position by the trigger spring 84.
A sheet metal saddle 85, with perforated depending ear portions 86, is attached to the under portion of the housing 56 preferably by spot- Welding and provides pivotal supporting means for the barrel and housing on the horizontal shaft 87, which shaft is carried by bearings in the vertical side plates 88 of the base 89,.the ends of the shaft 87 serving as trunnions for the cannon.
The same means for adjusting the angular elevation of the gun'barrel is employed here as in the previously described embodiment of the invention and consists of the knurled wheel 98 on the screw iii which screw is adjustable in the inter nally threaded post 92.
To operate the gun, assuming first that the plunger is in the released or forward position in the barrel, the hand wheel 14 is turned clockwise as seen from the rear, the hook 69 of the latch 61, lying of its own weight against the screw, will be caught by the revolving screw thread 19 and will function as a threaded nut, causing the plunger to be drawn backwardly and compressing the spring Bl. Turning of the hand wheel is stopped when the operator observes that the finger 65 has reached the end of the slot 66 or when further movement is prevented by the stop 80 striking the side of the hook 69. .A projectile is then placed in the breech chamber by means of the shutter as previously describedin connection with Figs. 3 and 5. The trigger 8! is then pulled down which raises the latch 61 and releases the hook 69 from engagement with the screw thread 19. The released plunger is then forced forward by the spring 5! so quickly that the latch 61 does not have time to fall into engagement with the screw until the plunger is stopped at the end of its stroke by impact of the bumper 12 against the end plate 62. Notwithstanding the high speed of the plunger the restricted diameter of the muzzle will retain the projectile as shown at 53. The hand wheel is again rotated to retract the plunger to the cocked position, another projectile is loaded into the breech chamber and the gun is then ready to be fired by pulling the trigger. When the gun is fired, the plunger and two pro- J'ectiles in the barrel function as in the other embcdiments of the invention already described.
Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate another modification of the invention, constructed to simulate a cannon, and also employing a manually operated lever to actuate the plunger similar to the gun illustrated in Figs.'3 and 4. Here a lever and link connection between the manually operated lever and the plunger is provided instead of the geared connection employed in the former gun.
The barrel 93, shown broken away in Fig. 8, and the shutter 94 are identical to those described in the foregoing and illustrated in Figs. 3 and 5. The plunger 95 comprises a hollow tube closed at its front end and carries at its rear end an annular flange 96 which is seamed tightly thereon. The outside of said flange d6 fits freely within the cylindrical sheet metal housing 91 and serves to guide the rear end of the plunger in its longitudinal movement therein. The front end of the plunger 95 fits freely in the flat ring 98 which is fast in the housing 97, said ring serving as a guide for the plunger as it moves therethrough.
The sheet metal housing 9'! is formed as an incomplete cylinder with an opening or slot 99 along its lower side. At the edges of this slot the sheet metal is bent downward to form two parallel vertically positioned supporting plates I00. Oppositely positioned holes at It! provide bearings for the shaft m2, which shaft functions both as a driving shaft and cannon trunnions. The gun base comprises a base plate lii'and the vertical side plates Hit and Hi l, said side plates being attached to the base plate by means of flanges Hi5 and H35 which are preferably spot welded to the base plate. .Oppositely positioned holes Hi5 and H36 in the side plates provide supporting bearings for the shaft H32 and serve as trunnion bearings. The shaft I92 carries the manually operable lever It? which is fast thereon and a lever arm m3 is also fast on the shaft Hi2 and positioned centrally between the plates iii?) and H39. A lever 959 is journalled at its lower end to oscillate freely about the pin I I0 which pin fits tightly in holes in the plates and I08. The upper 95 by means of the link III.
. arm I08 to the lever end ofthe' lever I09 is connected to the plunger The plunger wall is slotted at H2 above and below the link III to permit angular: oscillation of the linkabove and below the horizontal about the pin I I3 by means of which the link is. attached to' the plunger .95. The slots I I2 also provide clearance for the upper end of the lever I09 to pass up' through the plunger when the lever, link and plunger move forward.
A link H4 connects the lower end of the lever I09 by means of the pins I I5 and H6 respectively. A tension spring H1 is attached at one end to the lever I09 at H8 and at the other end toa stationary pin H9 carried by the base. The function of the spring is to return the lever I09 and other connected parts to the normal position, shown in the drawings, after the operating lever I01 has been moved down.
As in the previously described guns, adjustment for angular elevation of the gun is provided by the knurled wheel I29, the screw I2I and the internally threaded post I22.
When the lever I01 is forced down to its lower position by means of the handle I23, shown dotted only in its lower position, the lever I08 will be caused to move to the dotted position I091), the
link H4 moves to the dotted position H41); the lever I09 moves to the dotted position I991) and the link III to the dotted position IIIb, the plunger 95 then occupies its forward position. Upon release of the handle I23 the spring H1 will return the lever I09 and other connected parts to their normal position.
In operation the projectiles are loaded into the barrel and, with the plunger, function the same as in the gun shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5 previously described. While no adjustable stop means for the lever movement is shown in the drawings, such as the stop 49 of Fig. 3, it is contemplated that such a stop means may be applied to this type of construction if so desired, thus providing similar means for mechanically clearing the barrel of projectiles after the gun has been used.
Figs. 10 and 11 illustrate a further modification of the invention, also simulating a cannon, which employs a spring actuated plunger and lever mechanism for retracting the plunger to the firing or cooked position, which is the position shown in the drawings.
The barrel I24, shown broken away in Fig. 10,
and the shutter I are identical to those described in the foregoing and illustrated in Figs. 3, 5 and 6, and with the improved type of projectiles already described, one of which is shown in the breech chamber at I20, and a plunger, these parts function in the manner already described. The construction and function of the plunger I21, the spring I28, the guide ring I29. the guide rod I and the shock absorbing bumper I3I, are similar to the equivalent parts shown in Figs. 6 and '7.
The sheet metal housing I32 is shaped to form a cylinder in which the two adjacent edges do not quite meet, leaving" a narrow longitudinal slot I33 along the lower side of the housing. The annular ring I34 is fitted tightly to the rear end of the plunger and serves as a guide therefor sliding freely in the housing I32. Two downwardly extending flange plates I35 and I35 are positioned opposite and parallel to each other and are attached to the housing by means of curved flanges preferably spot welded thereto. .Two opposite outwardly extending pins I35 are riveted to the flange plates I35 and I35 and serve as cannon trunnions.
The cannon base comprises the base plate I31 and the two opposite and. parallel vertical side plates I38 which are fastened to the base plate by means of flanges I39 preferably spot welded to the base plate. Oppositely positioned holes in the side plates form bearings for the drive shaft I40 and similar holes support the bearing pin MI. The operating lever I42 is fast on one end of the shaft I40 and is provided with a handle I43 at its outer end. The lever I44 is also fast on the shaft I49. A link I45 drivingly connects the upper end of the lever I44 to the lever I45 at pins I41 and I48 respectively. A dog I49 is pivoted on the pin I59 between prongs formed on the upper end of the lever I45. A spring I5I encircles the pin I50, one part of the spring bearing against the.
lever I45 and another part against the dog I49, said spring being initially tensioned so as toimpart a constant upward turning force to the dog about the pin I50. A lug I52 projects laterally from a point adjacent the rear end of the dog I49 and provides a stop to contact the lower side of the housing I32 to limit turning movement of the dog upwardly. A tooth I53, carried by the rear end of the dog I49, projects upwardly through the slot I33 and is provided to contact the lower forward face of the fiange I34. A finger I54, also carried by the rear end of the dog, projects rearwardly therefrom.
A catch member I55 is pivoted on a pin I53 which pin is riveted to and projects inwardly from the flange I35. Said catch I55carries at its rear end a tooth I51 and finger I58 similar in shape to the tooth I53 and finger I54 on the dog I49. The catch I55 is normally held in the horizontal position shown in the drawings, by a spring I59 attached to the flange I35, which spring contacts the shoulder I60 forming a part of the catch member I55. A stop pin IGI limits downward movement of the spring.
A trigger member I62 is pivoted on the I53 and carries a forwardly projecting finger I04, which finger is of sufficient width horizontally to overlap both the fingers I54 and I59 of the dog I49 and catch I55 respectively. The trigger member is normally held in the position shown, either by spring means or by weight of the rear portion of. the trigger member.
Adjustment for angular elevation of the gun is provided by the knurled wheel I65, the screw I96 and the internally threaded post I61.
When the parts are in the cooked position,
- which is the position shown in Fig. 10, the catch member I functions as retaining means, the
.tooth I51 engaging the lower edge of the guide ring I34, to prevent forward movement of the plunger I21. The tooth I53 of the dog I49 is also in contact. with theguide ring I34 as shown, due to the weight of the actuating levers, but said tooth I53 performs no function while in this cocked position.
Assuming the parts to be in the cooked position as shown, the act of pulling the trigger I52 causes the finger I54 to move down, forcing the fingers I54 and I58 down, drawing the teeth I53 and I51 down, and thus releasing the plunger I21, and permitting the spring I 29 to drive the plunger forward until it is stopped by contact of the shock absorbing bump-er I3I against the plate I29. To again cock the gun the lever I42 is raised to the upper position, shown dotted in the drawings, with the handle at I431). This movement of the lever I42 moves the other connected parts to the dotted positions shown at I445, I451), I452), I491), and I53b. When the handle I43 is agai forced down, the tooth I53 moving rearwardly catches against the flange I 34 and its further rearward movement forces the plunger I21 rearwardly, until the flange I34 passes over the catch tooth I51 which snaps up and again catches against the flange as shown when the handle I43 is released.
The use of a lever to be manually operated in a downward direction toward the supporting surface, as employed in three modifications of this invention here shown, is highly advantageous due to its simplicity, ease of operation and the stability of the gun when being so operated. A necessary feature of this construction to'in'sure the desired stability, without fastening the base to the supporting surface, lies in the proper relative positioning of the operating means and the supporting means. The supporting surface of the base, or supporting means, is so located in reference to the direction. of the applied force which operates the gun, that there is no tendency to disturb the position of the gun While being operated. To this end the invention provides that the applied force be directed toward points within or close to some part of the base area of the supporting means, said base area constituting the area included in a plane geometrical figure bounded by peripheral lines joining the points of contact of thesupporting means with the supporting surface. For example, if the supporting means were a tripod the base area would constitute the area of a triangle bounded by the three straight lines joining the tripod feet.
Obviously other means than a lever arm for applying the actuating force downwardly may be employed without departing from the scope of the invention, and obviously any suitable type of supporting means may be employed for the gun, as for instance some suitable form of wheeled carriage.
While I have illustrated and described herein four cannon type of guns designed to employ my improved type of projectile, and fulfil the objects primarily stated, it is to be understood that it is not intended to confine the "invention to the particular embodiments herein shown, since it may be embodied in various other forms which may obviously include simulations of a rifle, a shotgun, a pistol, or the like, all coming within the scope of. the invention.
What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters "Patent'is:
1. A projectile for use in an air gun of the type in which'one projectile 'is positioned-within the bore of the gun near the'rnuzzle thereof and 'in which a second projectile is moved'through the bore toward the muzzle to act as a piston to compress air to cause discharge of the first projectile from the muzzle, said projectile comprising an elastic compressible body of porous cellular material having open pores on that surface of the body contacting with the walls of the bore of the gun and having a substantially non-porous flexible wall disposed transversely of said bore.
2. vA projectile for use in an air gun of the type in which one projectile is positioned within the bore of the gun near the muzzle thereof and in which a second projectile is moved through the bore toward the muzzle to act as a piston to compress air to cause discharge of the first projectile from the muzzle, said projectile comprising an elastic compressible body of porous cellular material having open pores on that surface of the body contacting with the walls of the bore of the gun and having a substantially non-porous flexible wall disposed transversely of said bore and a lubricant impregnated in the pores of said cellular material.
3. As a new article of manufacture, a pro jectile for use in a toy gun, said projectile comprising an approximately cylindrical body of highly'resilient compressible porous cellular material having pores opening on at least the major part of the cylindrical surface of the body and having a substantially non-porous wall extending substantially across at least one end of said body.
4. As a new article of manufacture, a projectile for use in a toy gun, said projectile comprising an approximately cylindrical body of highly resilient compressible porous cellular material having pores opening on at least the major part of the cylindrical surface of the body and having a substantially non-porous wall extending substantially across at least one end of said body, and lubricant impregnated in the pores of said body.
resilient compressible porous cellular material having pores opening on at least the major'part of the cylindrical surface of the body, and,
lubricant impregnated in the pores of said body.
EDWARD S. SAVAGE.