US 2150228 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 14, 1939. L, F, LAMB 2,150,228
PACKER Filed Aug. 51, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 nomw L. F. LAMB March 14, 1939.
PACKER Filed Aug. 3l, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet C March 14, 1939. L F AMB 2,150,228
PACKER Filed Aug. 3l, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 raam Patented 'Mai'. 14, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PACKER Luther F. Lamb, Dallas, Tex.
Application August 31, 1936, Serial No. 98,802
6 Claims. ((Jl. 16S-10) Thisl invention relates to new and useful improvements in packers.
One object of the invention is to provide an improved packer which is particularly adapted for use in packing off well casing.
An important object of the invention is to provide an improved well packer which includes an elastic packing `element which is arranged to be anchored within a well casing, said element being normally in a retracted or unpacked position, and a separate member adapted to be lowered into the packing element to distort the same into packing position, whereby the member may be readily removed from the casing and the packing element restored to its normal retracted position,r without removing the packing element from the casing.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved "well packer which is constructed in two units, one of which carries the elastic packing element; this latter unit having means at some distance below the packing element for anchoring the unit in the well casing: whereby when the packing element is in packing position the engagement of the element with the casing wall and the anchoring means provide two points, substantially some distance apart, of contact with the casing, whereby the unit is rigidly held in proper position and wobble or sway of the unit is eliminated, which greatly reduces the wear on the packing element.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved well packer having a tubular mandrel for the passage of well uid, with means within the mandrel arranged to be engaged by a lifting tool, said means being constructed so as not to interfere with flow of fluid through the mandrel. l
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved well packer which is constructed in two units one of which carries the packing element and the other of which has means for engaging the element to expand the same, with means for axially alining the upper unit with the lower unit, whereby the packing element is distorted equally.
A still further objectl of the invention is to provide a lifting tool for raising and lowering t a well packer which is provided with adjustable guide means for guiding the tool 'axially through the 'well casing, the adjustability of said guide means permitting the tool to be employed in various sizes of casing.
A construction designed to carry out the invention will be hereinafter described, together with other features of the invention.
The invention will be more readily understood from a reading of the following specification and by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which an example of the invention is shown, and wherein:
, Figure 1 is an elevation of the upper portion of a well packer, constructed in accordance with the invention,
Figure 2 is a similar view of the lower portion thereof,
Figure 3 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of the packer set within the well casing,
Figure 3a is a partial, transverse sectional view of' a modified form of the device,
Figure 4 is an elevation of the lifting tool,
Figures 5 and 6 are partial elevations of the lower end of the tool, taken at right angles to Figure 4, l
Figure-7 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of the lower unit and showing the lifting tool in elevation and engaged therewith,
Figure 8 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view of a modified form of the invention,
Figure 9 is an elevation of a modied form of lifting tool,
Figure l0 is an elevation of 'still another form of lifting tool, and
Figure 11 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on the line II-II of'Figure 10.
' This application is filed as a continuation in part of my co-pending application'led June 8, 1935, Serial No. 25,587,
In the drawings, the numeral I0 designates the usual well casing which extends downwardly throughout the length of the well hole. The packer, which is constructed of a lower unit A and an upper unitl B is lowered into the well and positioned at any desired point therein. The lower unit A, as is clearly shown in Figures 2 and 3, includes an annular packing collar or element Il which is constructed of rubber, rubber compound or any other elastic material which is capable of distortion and which will form a seal. The annular packing element is provided with an axial bore I2 which has its lower end slightly enlarged as shown at I3. 'Ihis enlarged portion of the bore snugly engages over the upper end of a supporting sleeve I4, which sleeve is formed with an external annular flange or shoulder I5, whereby when the packing element is engaged over the upper end of said sleeve, the lower edge of said element is supported on the annular shoulder. It is preferable to,mold the packing element to the sleeve.
The lower end of the sleeve I4 is slightly reduced and is internally threaded to receive the upper end of .a section of tubing I6. The lower end of the tubing section is connected by a suitable coupling collar I'I with an anchor tube I8. As is clearly shown in Figure 3, the anchor tube I8 may be of any desired length and has its lower end provided with perforations I9 in the usual manner. The length of the tube I8 will, of course, control the position of the packing element II within the well casing It, so by varying the length of said tube which rests on the bottom of the hole the location of said packing element is controlled. Whenthe unit A is lowered into the well casing and the anchor tube I8 strikes the bottom of the hole, it will be seen that the packing element is positioned. Well iiuid may enter the opening I9 in the tube IS and flow upwardly through the tubing section I7, sleeve Iii and packing element. It is noted that the weight of the unit A will cause the lower end of the tube I 8 to embed itself in the formation so as to rigidly support the lower end of the unit.
The extreme upper end of the packing element II is ared outwardly as shown at I2 so that the bore I2 of the packing element will readily receive an inverted conical head E@ which is preferably constructed of metal, although it may be made of any suitable material. It will be seen that when the head 20 enters the bore the packing element II will be distorted outwardly in a radial direction so that its outer surface will contact the wall of the well casing Ill. The head 20 is provided with an integral internally threaded collar 2l at its upper end, and this collar receives the lower threaded end of a section of tubing 22. The upper end of the section 22 is connected by a coupling 23 with an elongate sleeve 24 which is provided with a shing neck 25 at its upper end. -The sleeve 2t is formed with a plurality of perforations or openings 26 throughout its entire length. For guiding the unit B which carries the annular inverted conical head 20 at its lower end axially within the casing I0, the sleeve is provided with radially extended guide wings 2'I which are preferably located near the upper end thereof.
After the unit yA has been lowered into the Well casing to its proper positiony with the anchor tube I8 resting on botton and the lowering tool withdrawn, the unit B may then be lowered -the head 20 within the packing element.
into said casing by the pump rods or a suitable tool (not shown) which is engaged with the shing neck 25 at the upper end of the unit B. 'I'he guide wings 2'I` on the sleeve 24 will guide the unit downwardly within the casing and will assure the head 20 entering the bore I2 of the packing element II. It is noted that the ared upper end I2 of the bore I2 will aid in guiding The weight of the unit B will force the head 20 downwardlywithin the bore I2 of the packing element, thereby distorting said element so that its outer surface engages the wall of the well casing I0, whereby the well casing is packed oi. The guide wings 21 not only guide the unit B during its downward movement inthe well casing but also serve to position the head 20 axially of the packing element whereby an equal distortion in all radial directions of said element is had. .I With the head 20 inserted Within the packin element II, as is clearlyshown in Figure 3, the
'outer surface of said element is forced into a A tional engagement of the element provides means for steadying and rigidly holding the upper end of the unit A in place, While the anchor tube I8 engaging the bottom of thehole forms a gripping means to steady the lower end of the unit A. Thus, it will be seen that fastening of the unit A within the casing is accomplished at two points which are a comparatively great distance apart. When the units A and B are positioned within the well casing, as shown in Figure 3, it will be obvious that the well uid will enter the perforations I9 in the lower end of the anchor tube I8 and willpass upwardly through the tubing section I6, sleeve I and then through the bore of the packing element II. 'I'he fluid will then ow upwardly through the annular head 2U, tubing section 22, andinto the perforated sleeve Z. From the sleeve, the uid will escape through the perforations 26 therein and into the well casing from where it will ow to the top of said casing. It is noted that the fishing neck 25 at the upper end of the perforated sleeve 24 is provided with a bore 25 and although some fluid may escape through this bore, the majority of said fluid will ow outwardly through the perforations 26.
When it is desired to remove the upper unit B for any reason whatever, the shing neck 25 at the upper end of said unit may be engaged by a suitable tool (not shown) and the entire unit B raised to the surface of the well casing. Since the head 20 is carried by the upper unit B, it will be raised therewith and as soon as the head is removed from the bore I2 of the packing element II, said packing element will immediately return to its normal position out of packing engagement with the casingwall. Thus, it will be seen that the unit B may at any time be removed without disturbing the packing element II. Therefore, since the packing remains in the well, the wear on the packing caused by its frictional engagement with the interior wall and couplings of the casing I0 during the removal or insertion thereof. as is the usual practice, is eliminated. The packing element II remains in the casing at all times and need-not be removed until its permanent removal therefrom and, therefore, the life of said packing element is greatly increased.
After the upper unit B has been removed from the well casing, and it is desired to remove the lower unit A, any suitable tool for removing said lower unit may be employed. However,l I prefer to employ a tool as shown in Figures 4 to 6. This tool comprises an elongate tubular section 30 which is provided with a pair of J-slots 3I in its lower end. It is noted that the J-slots are located diametrically opposite each other in the. lower end of said section and the lower end of the vertical leg 3| of each J-slot is open." Near the upper end of the section a pair of diametrical slots 32 are formed. These slots are positioned one above the other and are located at right angles to each other. Guide members 33 are inserted in the slots and areV secured therein by bolts 34 which receive nuts 35 on their extended end. The guide 4members have their outer faces curved and are substantially equal in -length to the inner'diameter of the casing. I0, whereby as v the tool is lowered within the casing, the members form of the invention.
33 serve to guide the same axially within said casing. The upper end of the section 30 is provided with the usual fishing neck 33 `and also with a coupling 31, whereby the sucker rod (not shown) may be attached thereto.
The lower end of the tubular section 38 is inserted within the unit A through vthe bore of the packing element Il, sleeve I4 and tubingsection i6, as is clearly shown in Figure 7. For connecting the lifting tool with the unit A, the section of tubing I6 is provided with a transverse pin 38 which isl rigidly mounted in the wall of said section and which extends diametrically across the interior thereof. In connecting the tool to the unit A, the section 30 is entered into the tubing section I6 and the opened lower end of the J-slot 3l will engage the transverse pin 3 8. The lower edge of the section 30 adjacent each J-slot may be inclined upwardly-at a slight angle, as shown at 301in Figures 5 and 6, so that said pin will'be directed or guided into the 'J-slots. By lowering the section 30 and then rotating said section it will be seen that the pin 38 will enter the horizontal leg of each J-slot and then by exerting an upward pull on the tool, it will be obvious that the unit A may be raised within the well casing. In a similar way, the-engagement of the tool with the pin 38 will permit lowering of said unit into said casing. It is noted that the provision of the transverse pin within the tubing section does not in any way restrict the flow of iiuid through said section because it takes up so little space that there is substantially no decrease in the cross-sectional area of the tubing sectionl at this point. It is also pointed out that the location of the transverse pin 38 is not to be limited to being disposed within the tubing section I6, for it is obvious that said pin could be located within the sleeve I4, as is clearly shown in Figure 3a. By raising the transverse pin 33 within the unit A, it is possible to make the tubular section 30 of the'lifting tool of a smaller length.
.It is noted that ifdesired, a pumping barrel or combination, not shown, may be mounted between Athe perforated sleeve 24 and the head 28. 'I'he pump rodfwould extend down through the bore in which a bronze bushing (not shown) is usually inserted, in the iishing neck 2.5 at the `upper end of the unit Band then downwardly through the perforated sleeve 24 and into the' barrel. In this manner, the packer could be used in combination with a uid pump when it isv necessary to pump the well.'
In Figure 8, I have shown a slightly modified In this form, instead.. of employing the anchor tube I8 for supporting the lower end of the unit A, I provide a slip assembly, whereby the lower end of said unit may be se- "curely locked tothe casing wall. As is clearly shown in Figure 8, the slip assembly comprises a mandrel 40 having a slip conev4l made integral therewith. A plurality of slips 42 are slidable -while their lower ends are fastened to a collar 48 slidable on the mandrel. This slipassembly isf,-
common in the oil eld art and no claim is made thereto. Also the invention is not to be limited to the particular type of slip assembly shown but any suitable type for anchoring the lower end of the unit A maybe employed. When the slips are set, it -will be obvious that the lower end of the unit A is rigidly secured to the casing. Then when the unit B is lowered so that the head 20 engages the packing element Il to distort the same, it will be obvious that there are two points of contact, substantially some distance apart, which rigidly fasten the unit A within the casing I0.
In Figures 9 and 10, I have shown modiiled forms of the lifting tool, by which the lower unit A is raised and lowered within the weil casing. In the form shown in Figure 4, it is noted that the guide wings 33 which are held in place by the bolts 34 must be replaced when it is desired to use the tool with various size casings. In other' words, when a six-inch casing is used, guide wings having a length of six inches must be bolted in the section 30. Similarly, when a larger or smaller casing is used other guide wings 33 must be substituted. To overcome thisobjection, a ilshing tool 50, as shown in Figure 9 is provided. The tool comprises a tubular mandrel 5i having a fishing neck 62 at its upper end.-v The lower end of the `mandrel is provided with J-slots 53 similar to the slots 3| in the form shown in Figure 4. A collar 54 is slidably mounted on the mandrel 5I and is held in ladjusted positions thereon by a set screw 55. Toggle links 56 which are pivoted to each other at 51 have their upper and lower ends pivoted to the collar 54 and to the lower portion ofthe mandrel 5|. By raising and lowering the collar 54 with relation to the' lower pivot of the toggle links',l it is obvious that said links may be extended-or retracted from the mandrel. In this way, it is possible to adjust the links so that they will ride on the wall of any size casing. This eliminates the necessity of substituting guide wings as is necessary in the form shown in Figure 4.
In Figures 10 and 11, stillanother form of the lifting tool is shown. In this form, -a pair of guide wings 68 extend through slots 6I formed in the tubular section 30 which forms the main body of the tool. As is clearly shown inI Figure 10, the guide wings 60 are inclined and are disposed at right angles to each other. A single bolt 32 passes through'thebody 30 and through both guide wings 60 and receives a nut 63 on its outer end. Each guide wing 30 is provided with a plurality oropenings 68' along its length and it will be seen that by passing the bolt 62 through the various openings 68', it is possible to extend or retract the outer end of the guide wings 60. In this manner, it is possible to adjust the wings so as to adapt the tool to various size casings.
What I claim and desire to securey by Letters' Patent, is: v
1. A well packer including, a pair of co-aoting units, one unit. comprising a tubular support. an
annular elastic packing element carried by the upper end of the supportand 'normallydisengaged from the well casing; means on the support and spaced from the packing element for fasten- .ing said unit in the well casing, means within the tubular support adapted to be engaged by a lifting tool whereby the unit may be raised or lowered in a'well casing, the second unit including a. tubular support. and means carried by the lower end of the second unit for ensas'insl within the annular packing element to expand the'same I6 radially into packing engagement with the well casing, there being an axial passage extending through both units, whereby uid may flow upwardly therethrough.
2. A well packer including, a pair of co-acting units, one unit comprising a tubular support, an annular elastic packing element carried by the upper end of the support and normally disengaged from the well casing, means on the support and spaced from the packing element for fastening said unit in the well casing, the second unit including a tubular support, guide wings in said support for engaging the 'casing wall to guide the support axially in the casing, and means carried by the lower end of the second unit for engaging within the annular packing element to expand the same radially into packing engagement with the well casing, there being an axial' passage extending through both units, whereby fluid may ow upwardly therethrough.
3. A well packer including, a pair of co-actingl units, one unit comprising a tubular support having its lower end open, an annular packing element mounted on the upper end of said support, whereby fluid may flowA upwardly through the support and element, lifting means for raising and lowering the support including a tubular body having J-slots at its lower end, a transverse pin within the tubular support adapted to be engaged in the J-slots, the second unit including, a tubular support, and means having a uid passage therethrough can'ied by the lower end of the support for engaging within the packing element to expand the same radially into engagement with the well casing. l
4. A well packer including, a pair of co-acting units, one unit comprising a tubular support having its lower end open, an annular packing element mounted on the upper end of said support, whereby uid may ow upwardly through the support and element, lifting means for raising and lowering the support including a tubular body having J-slots at its lower end, adjustable means on the body lfor guiding the same axially within the well casing, a transverse pin within the tubular support adapted to be engaged in the J-slots, the second unit including a tubular support, and means having a iiuid passage therethrough carried by the lower end of the support for engaging within the packing element to expand the same radially into engagement with the well casing.
5. The combination with a well packer having, a tubular mandrel with a transverse pin therein of a lifting tool for raising and lowering the packer in a well casing including, a tubular body having diametrlcally opposite J-slots in its lower end for engaging said pin to connect the tool and packer, and guide wings extending outwardly from the body for guiding the tool axially within a well casing.
6. The combination with a. well packer having a tubular mandrel with a transverse pin therein of a lifting tool for raising and lowering the packer in a well casing including, a tubular body having diametrically opposite J-slots in its lower end for engaging said pin to connect the tool and packer, guide wings extending outwardly from the body for guiding the tool axially within a well casing, and means for varying the length of the portion of the wings extending from said body whereby the tool may be used in various size casing. y
LUTHERv F. LAMB.