US 2150514 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 14, 1939. B, MclNNl-:RNEY
l AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 3, 1957 IN VENT OR.
March 14, 1939.
AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS 2 SheQts-Sh'eet 2 Filed NOV. 5, 1957 l y 1N VENT OR. venjawz/w /Wmewney @HM M./
Patented Mar. 14, 1939y UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE 'I'his invention relates to improvements in air conditioning devices.
It is well understood that our modern dwellings, oiiices, restaurants and shops can be made more comfortable both in summer and in winter by conditioning the air with respect totemperature and moisture content.
In parts of our country where the air is moist and hot in summer, living conditions are very unpleasant for several months each year, and in such places air conditioning is essential to comfort. i
It is now quite common to subject the air in buildings, such as residences, hotels and theaters to a treatment that reduces its temperature and modifies its moisture content. In some instances this4 temperature reduction is effected by means of refrigerating units such as those employed with the ordinary power operated refrigerators. In other cases with ice or cold water and in other cases the air is merely driven through moist screens or through a water spray where the temperature is reduced by the evaporative action of the air and the water.
'The last method is usually the simplest and the cheapest but its action is more ory less illusionary due to the fact that the latent heat of vaporization that is absorbed by the waterduring its Vaporization is returned when the vapor condenses with the result that the total amount of heat in a room subjected to this kind of air conditioning is in reality increased by the energy expended in operating the apparatus, and in moist climates the vapor which has been added to the air tends to increase physical discomfort.
The apparatus to which this invention relates is of the type in which the heat absorptive action of evaporation is employed to reduce the temperature of a radiator and in which air is then passed through the radiatorfor the purpose of cooling it. The air that is used for eifecting the evaporation is conducted to the outside of the room to be cooled and the air that is cooled byv passsing through the radiator is directed into .the room and in this way the heat abstracted from the liquid during the evaporation will not be redelivered to the-airof the room.
Having thus described the invention in a general way, the same will now be described in detail and for this purpose reference will be had to the accompanying drawings inwhich one form of the invention has been illustrated and in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical section through a unit embodying the invention, parts being broken away to better-disclose the construction.
Figure 2 is a fragmentary section taken on line 2-2 Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is a detail showing one arrangement 5 of proportioning valve;
Figure 4 is a view showing how the device can be associated with an ordinary hot air heating system.
Figure 5 is a longitudinal Isection similar to 10 Fig. 1 andshows a modied form of the invention; and
Figure 6 is a partial section taken o n line 6 6' Fig. 5.
Inthe drawings reference numerals 5 and 6 15 'represent respectively the top and-the bottom tank of a radiator and are connected by attened tubular members l. The number, size and shape of the tubular members can be Varied to suit .conditions but for the purpose of illustration the tubes 1 have been shown as few in number and comparatively large. A partition 8, having la vertical wall 9, is positioned at some point between the two tanks,` the exact point being .determined by the average temperature and humidity of the air to be conditioned. 'I'he partition has an opening for each tube and the latter are joined to the partition by solder so that a water Vtight pan or reservoir is formed at this point.
At one point the bottom of the pan, or partition, is provided with a sump I0 in which is positioned a hollow float II that controls the action-of a valve rmechanism I2, which will be more fully described hereinafter. Pans I3 surround the tubes l directly below tank -5 but are not attached -35` to the tubes for reasons that will be obvious as the description proceeds. Radiating iins are attached to the tubes below the partition and serve to facilitateradiation or heat interchange in the usual manner. Those portions of the tubes 'l 40 that are positioned between the two pans 8 and I 3 are covered by an absorptive fabric I5 that may be made from wool, linen, cotton or any other suitable material that has the property of conducting a liquid by capillary action; these cover- .ings will be referred to hereinafter as wicks.
It is evident that a spray or other equivalent means may be used to moisten the wicks, but I prefer the method shown, in which the lower ends of the wicks extend to the bottom of pan 8 and 50.
the upper ends are curved outwardly and downwardly and project into the pans I3. When pans f- 8 and I3 contain water, or other liquid, this will travel upwardly from pan 8 and downwardly from pan I3,thus keeping the wicks moist. II'he 55 pans 8 and I3 are kept supplied with water by means of a valve mechanism I2 which comprises a valve body having a cylindrical chamber I8 whose lower end terminates in a smaller cylindrical opening I1. 'Ihe wall at the intersection of chamber I6 and opening I1 is chamfered so as to form a valve seat I8 that cooperates with a poppet valve, |9 whose stem 20 projects through l the bottom of the valve body. Chamber I6 is placed in communication with-a source,of water under pressure by means of a pipe 2| that may be part of the domestic water supply installation. A discharge pipe 22 communicates with pan I3.
Adjustably secured to the pan I3 is anoverow` pipe 23 that determines the level -to whichthe liquid can rise. The overflow is discharged into pan 8 and controls the float It will be ob served that iioat is attached to one end of a lever 24 -that is pivoted at 25 to lugs that are integral with or secured to the valve body. When the level of the water in pan 8 sinks below a predetermined point the upward ypush that is`exerted on the valve stem by the lever 24 unseats valve |9 and permits Water to flow into pan I3 and overiiow from it into pan 8 until it reachesa predetermined level and in this manner pans 8 and I3 are constantly 'supplied' with water.
l'I'he radiator is enclosed in a housing that has been designated by reference numeralr 26. The
front of the housing is connected with a tubular chamber 21 that has been shown as of somewhat smaller diameter at its center than at its ends.
*A iilter screen 28 closes the front end of chamber 21 and a motor 29 is supported in the housing on a shelf 38.
A pipe 3| connects the bottom tank 6 with the 4intake port of a rotary pump 32 and apipe 33 connects the delivery port of the pump with tank 5. Shaft 34 connects the motor and the pump. A fan 35 is carried by the shaft 34 and when the motor is in operation the pump transfers liquid from the lower to the upper tank land the fan produces a movement of the air in the direction betwen pans 8 and I3 and produces rapid evaporaa mechanical refrigerator.
of arrows 88.
A portion of the air flows through the radiator tion of the liquid in the wicks; this air flows into the chamber 31 and out through the flue 38. The
. very erroneous idea is quite prevalent 'that it is possible to reduce `the temperature of a closed room by circulating the air over moist surfaces or through a water spray.
It is evident that at rst more' heat will be abstracted from ,the liquid in the tubes by the evaporation than will be returned to itby the air that ows through the radiator and into the room and as a" result the liquidl is gradually reduced in temperature until a point of equilibrium is established; 1
Owing t 'o the/ difference in 2temperature and 'consequent difference in density of the water at the'top and at the bottom of the radiator, it is theoretically possible todispense with the pump 32 and still obtain )some circulation but the use of a pump is desirable:
In Fig. 3, means has been illustrated for connecting the intake ofthe 'fan chamber 21 at will with the outside or with the room itself or partly with the outside and partly with the inside.' A split conduit comprising branches 39 and 40 is connected with the wall of chamber `21 and has a movable damper 4| that can occupy any position between-the two extreme positions indicated by dotted lines. The branch 3 9 may beA considered as extending to the outside of the room and branch 40 as communicating with the room. When the damper is in the full line position the air is taken in equa-l amounts from the outside and inside.
'I'he outlet for the air that passes through the Y refrigerator below the partition or pan 8 is provided with a plurality of interconnected pivoted louvers 42 that lmay be adjusted to any desired that catches any water of condensation or leakage and this overows through pipe 45.
In winter and during those parts Vof the year when it is necessary to heat a `room or a building instead of cooling it, the Aapparatus that has just 'been described can be used for this purpose and it may then be'connected with a suitable steam boiler by means of pipes 46 and 41, one of which y supplies the steam and the other of which serves as a return for the water of condensation; these pipes are provided with suitable valves. Instead of steam hot water may be circulated in which case the'supply pipe may be connected with tank 5. Whensteam or hot Water is used the pump may be disconnected but the fan is used in the usual manner. y
In cold weather it is often desirable to add moisture to the air and this is effected by sliding member '48 upwardly so as to uncover some or al1 of the opening through which the moistened air emerges. Member 48 is clamped in adjusted position by a screw 49 that passes through a slot 50. vBy adjusting the position of member 48 the proportion of the moist air that flows into the room and into flue l38 can be determined. y 1
By means of the damper 4|, the proportion of fresh air that is added can be controlled and on very cold days it may be necessarya to close the fresh air intake and depend entirely on the leak lon age for air dilutionf The amount of water'evap- A orated by the' device when yused as a heater may be controlled by a valvel in pipe 2| or by adjusting overlow'23 and iioat |I.
Air conditioners of the type" described can be very easily installed in stores, restaurants and `also in oiiices and private dwellings, and may be auxiliary to the ordinary heating system or may constitute theonly heating system.
In Fig. 4, the device has been shown as inn corporated inan ordinary hot air heating plant. Numeral 5| designates the fire box of a furnace and 52 the jacket, while 53 designates the ilue Vfor the combustion gases. Two ducts .54 and 55 have been shown as connecting the hot air space of the furnace with rooms A and B. The duct v38 connects the evaporation cooler with the out- -side and return flue 56 conducts air from the vtirety by reference numeral 58.
mit some of the moist air from chamber 61 toy parts including tubes 1 can be varied to suit the particular conditions and the embodiment shown can be departed from to such extent as may be permissible within the scope of the appended claims.
In Figs. 5 and 6, a modified form of the invention has been shown. In this embodiment the liquid employed to transfer heat from the cooling means to those parts of the tubes that come into contact with the circulating air from the room has been omitted together with pump 32. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 5, the tubes 'la are made larger than the corresponding tubes 'l in Fig. 1, and the air that passes into the room is passed through the tubes and supplies heat to the tubes which are cooled by the evaporative refrigerator device.
In order to more clearly describe vthe construction'and opration of the device shown in Fig. 5, reference will now be had to the drawing in which reference numeral la designates wide thin tubes ofcopper or other good .heat conducting metal. These tubes arev assembledy between the end plates 51 and the assembly. is positioned in a housing that has been designated in its en- The housing extends rearwardly and connectswith acylindrical section 59 in which is positioned a fan 35 that is driven by a motor 29 supported on a shelf 30. From section 59 an outwardly` flaring housing 60 extends rearwardly and terminates in screen 2 8. A conduit 6I., shown dotted, extends from the screen to the outside of the room that is to be air conditioned. The wall of section 60 has an opening 62 that communicates with theroom and which is provided with a damper 63 which can be opened if for any reason it is found desir'- able to recirculate the air from the room through the air conditioner. The extent to which the damper 63 is opened rdetermines the proportion of fresh and old air that is employed. Tubes 1a are arranged with their flat sides parallel and in Vertical `planes in the manner shown in Fig. 6 and above each tube is positioned a perforated pipe 64. vThese pipes are connected with a source of water supply 65 through a valve and serve to spray water onto the tubes for the purpose of keeping their outer surfaces moist. It is believed that the tubes should have a covering of absorbent fibrous material |5a that corresponds to the wicks l5 of Fig` 1. 'Ihe absorbent coveringsare maintained moist by the spray.` f
'I'he housing'58 is so designed that it forms ay chamber 66 that'is in communication with the spaces'between the tubes and the housing in like manner provides a chamber 6 1 that is inv communication with the spaces between the tubes. A conduit 68 `connects the chamber 61 with the outside ,of the room that isv being air conditioned.
A- damper 69 is hinged at 'HlV and serves-by its position/ to proportion the air fthatugoes `into chambnfii, ,thence through conduit I 68 with' re-r specttotheair that aiiows throught-.theinterior of thegtubesand enterstherrooms;A I 'Tubes 1a l are `open .at both ends'f andI are -p'ro videdfon their interiors withzigzagplates `1f| that enter the room. .i
We will now assume lthat the apparatusr illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6 is positioned in a room to be air conditioned 4and that conduits 6l and 68 are in communication lwith the atmosf phere outside of the room. The air that passes into chamber 66 follows the path of arrow 12 and in passing over the moistened surfaces of 'the absorbent coverings I5a, it produces rapid evaporation, which in turn cools the ytubes and the platesl 1i. 'I'he air that passes from the fan below damper 69 ows through the interiors of the tubes and emerges into the room vas indicated by arrow13.
Since the transfer of heat from the air to the tubes is not suilicient inthe beginning to return as much heat as was abstracted by the evaporation of the liquid, thetemperature of the metal parts will continue to decrease until an equilibriumv is reached.
It will be observed that this device operates in v' A' 'I substantially the same way as the device illustrated in Fig. 1, but cannot be used as a heater. It does, however,function to abstract heat from the room and remove it to a place outside thereof.
While my tests indicate that the forms shown are most eiiicient, it is evident that special installations may require changes in the construction. The wick section may be placed atthe bottom of the tubes incase it is desiredwtoy conduct the heat outside from that point or'- any desired number of the tubes at either side may be. completely covered with wicking, andilue v38 located adjacent thereto thus providing a side outlet for the heat, while'the entire length ofthe remaining tubes are used for cooling the air without departing from the principles of my invention.
Having described the inventiony what is claimed 1. An air conditioning` and heat kinterchange U as new is:
device for cooling a room,"comprising in combina-y 1 tion, a plurality of tubular heat conducting members having exposed surfaces, means for maini taining a portion of the surfaces moist by applying to them a vaporizable liquid, means vcomprising a fan for flowing :air over thel moist surf aces whereby evaporationl is effectedand heat abstracted from the tubular members, means comprising a conduit forconductingrthe moist-l ened air to a position outside of theroom, means including the fanv for liiowing air. over andin thermal conductive contact with the unmoistenedv f surfaces of ythe tubular members-and into the` room whereby the airiscooled for -abstracting heat from theair inthe room, the Wall'of the Aconduit for the moistened air having an opening l in direct communication with the interior ofA the into theroom, and means comprising .amovable V conductingthe air fromythe absorbent rmernberse room for sending air directly fromthe conduit prising the fan for flowing air in thermal conductive contact with the heat conductive members into the room, whereby heat is abstracted from the last named air stream and the temperature of the room lowered, the conduit having an opening in direct communication with the interior of the room whereby air from the absorbent members may be passed directly into the room without first mixing with the cooled air, and a damper for controlling the effective area of the opening, whereby the proportion of moistened air diverted directly to the room can be varied. l
3. An air conditioning and heat interchange device for modifying the temperature of a room, comprising a radiator having vertically spaced tanks connected by a plurality of tubes, a liquid lling the radiator, means separate from the tubes for ,circulating the liquid in the radiator, an absorbent material surrounding the upper portions of the tubes, means for supplying water to the absorbent material whereby it will be maintained moist, and means comprising a fan for passing a stream of air over the moist absorbent material, whereby the water will be evaporated, thereby abstracting heat from the liquid in the tubes, means conducting the stream of air to a point outside the room, means including the fan for circulating the air for the room through the remaining portion of the' radiator tube, whereby heat will be removed from the room by a thermal pump action.
4. An air conditioning device, comprising in combination, a liquid containing radiator having spaced tanks connected by a plurality of tubes, a pipe, separate from the tubes, joining the tanks, a pump operatively associated with the pipe, said pump when operating serving to circulate the liquid in the radiator, an absorbent material covering a portion of the tubes, means for maintaining the absorbent material moist, a partition extending transversely of the tubes adjacent the absorbent material, means comprising a fan for directing a now of air through the radiator on4 both sides of the partition, and means for sepa'- rating the two air streams from each other after they have passed through the radiator.
5. An air conditioner and heat interchange device comprising a radiator having an upper tank and a lower tank for containing water, connected b-y a plurality of tubes, and means separate from the tubes for returning water from the lower to the upper tank, a partition extending transversely of the tubes between the tanks, means associated with each tube, in the space above the partition for effecting a rapid evaporation of water in contact with the tubes to abstract heat from the water in the tubes, means comprising a fan for circulating airv through the radiator spaces above and below the partition, and means on the discharge side of the upper radiator space for conducting any desired portion of the emerging air to a distant point.
6. An air conditioning and heat interchange device comprising two vertically spaced tanks connected by tubular members, a liquid i'n the tanks and tubular members, means for effecting a circulation of the liquid from the upper tank through the tubes into the lower tank and then returning the liquid to the upper tank, a water supply pan positioned in close proximity to the tubes directly below the upper tank, a second water supply pan surrounding the tubes at a point below the upper pan, means' for supplying water to the pans, an absorptive brous material surrounding each tube between the pans, the ends of the absorptive material projecting into means for conducting the air and discharging it at a 'point separated from the air intake of the fan by a wall, and means comprising the fan for moving a stream of air around and about the tubes between the lower pan and the lower tank whereby a heat interchange is effected.
7. An air conditioning device, comprising in combination, a liquid containing radiator having two vertically spaced tanks connected by a plurality of tubes, a pipe, separate from the tubes, joining the two tanks, a pump operatively associated with the pipe, said pump when operating serving to transfer liquid from the lower to the upper tank, a water supply pan positioned directly below the upper tank, adjacent the tubes, an absorbent material coveringthe upper ends of the tubes, the upper end of the absorbent material dipping into the pan, a pan extending transversely of the tubes below the absorbent material, means for supplying water to the upper pan, means for overflowing water from the upper pan to the lower pan, a valve in the water supply means, a oat responsive to the water level in the lower pan for controlling the opening and the closing of the valve, means for producing a flow of air through the radiator, the air that iiows between the two pans producing evaporation whereby heat is abstracted from the liquid in the tubes, and means for directing this air into a conduit for removal to a predetermined place, the air that iiows through the radiator below the lower pan and the lower tank giving up heat to` the liquid in the tubes whereby its temperature is lowered 8. In an evaporative refrigerator an upwardly ranging tubular member, a covering of absorbent material in heat conductive contact therewith, a pan positioned adjacent the upper end of the tube, spaced from but in close proximity thereto, the upper end of the absorbent covering extending over the edge and into the pan whereby liquid will be conducted fro'm the pan by capillary action to maintain the absorbent material moist, means for maintaining a predetermined liquid level in the pan, a pan surrounding the tubular member some distance below the upper pan, the
lower end of the absorbent material extending into the lower pan, means for supplying a liquid to the upper pan, means for overilowing liquid from the upper pan into the lower pan, and means controlled by the level of the liquid in the lower pan for controlling the flow of liquid to the upper pan.
9. An air conditioning and heat interchange device comprising, a heat conducting medium, two separate air spaces associated therewith, one of said spaces including means for effecting rapid evaporation of a liquid in contact with the included surface of said medium, the other space including another portion of the surface of said medium and serving to conduct air into contactl with the included surface of the medium and thence into a room to be cooled, means comprising a fan for circulating air through both spaces, means comprising a conduit at the discharge end of the first mentioned space for conducting the air discharged therefrom to a distant point, said conduit having an opening in direct communication with the room, and means for varying the eiective area of the opening whereby any desired portion of the air passing through the conduit can be discharged directly into the room.
10. An air conditioning apparatus, comprising in combination, a radiator having a plurality of tubular members open at both ends and spaced apart by heads which divide the spaces outside of the tubes from the spaces within the tubes, the' spaces within the tubes being in communication with a room to be cooled, a, single means, com` prising afan, for circulating air through both spaces, means within the space surrounding and in communication with the outside of the tubes, comprising a moist surface, for eiecting a cooling of the tubes by means of rapid evaporation, means comprising a conduit located on the d ischarge side of the last mentioned space for conducting any desired portion of the air from said space to a distanty point, and for discharging the remainder directly into the room being cooled without first mixing it with air from the first space.