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Publication numberUS2151987 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 28, 1939
Filing dateSep 1, 1934
Priority dateSep 1, 1934
Publication numberUS 2151987 A, US 2151987A, US-A-2151987, US2151987 A, US2151987A
InventorsPaulus Charles L, Perrine Lester E
Original AssigneeGen Motors Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Refrigerating apparatus
US 2151987 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March} 1939- L. E. PERRINE ET AL 2,151,987

REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 1, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet l -M ZM 13 89 h i a cazff 4 L. E. PERRINE ET AL March 28, 1939.

REFRIGERATING APPARATUS 7 Sheet-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 1, 1934 March 28, 1939. E. PERRINE ET AL REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 1, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 March 28, 1939. L. E. PERRINE ET AL 2,151,987-

REFRIGERATING APPARATUS March 1939- L. E. PERRINE ET AL REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Fil ed Sept. 1, 1934 '7 Sheets-Sheet II-N March 28, 1 939.

L. E. PERRiNE ET AL REFRIGERAT ING APPARAT US Filed Sept. 1, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 X MKQWQM.

March 1939- E. PERRINE ET AL 2,151,937-

REFRIGERAT ING APPARATUS Filed Sept. 1, 1934 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Patented. Mar. 28,1939

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Lester E. Perrine, Detroit, Mich., and Charles L.

Paulus, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation, a corporation of Delaware This invention relates to refrigeration and more particularly to refrigerating apparatus for conditioning air in vehicles and the like.

It is among the objects of this invention to provide a refrigerating apparatus which may be connected to rotating parts of the vehicle and which causes the refrigerating apparatus to be operated at proper speeds under varying speed conditions of the vehicle.

Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown.

In the drawings: 7

Fig. l is a plan view, somewhat diagrammatic, of a. portion of an apparatus embodying features of the invention with one of the shafts horizontally displaced to expose the same to view;

Fig. 2 is a vertical view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, but with two of the shafts shown in vertical alignment;

Fig. 3 is a view transverse to Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the driven pulley portion of the variable ratio drive;

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the driving member of the variable ratio drive;

Fig. 6 is a view of a portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 5, but in a different position;

Fig. '7 is a portion of. the apparatus shown in Fig. 4 but in a different position;

Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line H of Fig. 4; and

Fig. 9 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken along the line 9-9 of Fig. 4. v

In practicing this invention, a vehicle is provided with a variable ratio drive by which an apparatus, such as a compressor ll) of an air conditioning system, is driven at desired or permissible speeds notwithstanding the variations in the speed of travel of the vehicle. Preferably the variable ratio drive is interposed between the compressor and some rotating part of the vehicle which rotates in direct proportion to the speed of the vehicle. For example, the rotating part may be an axle II which carries a wheel l2 of the vehicle. The axle H actuates the driver portion iii of the variable ratio drive which in turn drives the driven portion M of the variable ratio drive from whence the power is transmitted by suitable instrumentalities to the compressor I0.

When this invention is applied to a railway car or the like, the axle II is preferably caused to drive a jack-shaft I 5 floatingly mounted on the vehicle by means of hangers IS. The drive between the axle H and the shaft l5 preferably takes the form of the belt drive II which drives the jack-shaft l5 at a greater rotational speed than the axle H. The drive I! may be of the multiple V-belt type as shown having pulleys Ila and llb on which the belts lic, operate.

The driven portion M of the variable speed drive may be mounted on a shaft l8 which in turn drives the compressor l0 through the medium of belts l9 interposed between the pulley 20 of the shaft l8 and the pulley 2| of the compressor ID. If desired, the shaft I8 may form a portion of the dynamo electric machine 22 hereinafter more fully described.

The variable ratio drive preferably includes frictionally connected rotating parts having variable effective power transmitting diameters and is provided with means for automatically varying these diameters to compensate for variations in the speed of travel of the vehicle. These frictionally connected rotating parts preferably take the form of one or more driving pulleys 23 and one or more driven pulleys 24 between which are placed one or more belts 25. One or more of the pulleys is provided with relatively movable flanges, the relative movement of which varies the effective belt diameter of the pulley or pulleys and thus varies the speed ratio between the axle I l and the compressor Ill.

In the preferred embodiment, the driving member I3 includes a pair of pulleys 23 each of which is provided with an axially fixed pair of coneshaped flanges 30 and 3| and a pair of axially movable cone-shaped flanges 32 and 33. The flanges 30 and 3| are directed in one axial direction and the flanges 32 and 33 are directed in the opposite axial direction thus to form the V-pulleys 23. Means are provided for automatically moving at least one of the pairs of flanges, such as flanges 32 and 33, in a manner to be more fully described in order to vary the effective belt drive diameter. This variation in diameter causes the belts I! to ride far out on the pulley as shown in Fig. 5 or nearer towards the center as shown in Fig. .6.

40 and 4| are directed in the same general direction .while the movable flanges 42 and 13' are directed in the opposite axial direction to form V-shaped grooves or pulleys. Here also automatic means are provided for causing relative movement between these flanges thus to cause the belts 25 to move axially inwardly or outwardly to vary the effective belt diameter.

The means for automatically varying the effective belt diameters of the pulleys preferably is speed responsive in character. Thus one or more centrifugal devices 45 are placed on either the driving member or the driven member to vary these diameters. In the preferred form, a plurality of centrifugal devices or rollers 45 are placed on the driven member l4. These centrifugal devices take the form of roller-like 'weights having independently movable frictional contact surfaces 46 and 41 which engage the slanting surfaces 48 and 49. When the 'centrifugal devices 45 fly outwardly they spread the flanges 48 and 43 apart as indicated in Fig. 7, .thus moving flanges 43 and 42 to the position shown in Fig. 7 to vary the effective belt driving diameter.

The flanges 42 and 43 are tied together by means of sleeves 58 which are secured-to these flanges and which ride on antifrictional devices 5| on the bolts 52 which are supported between the flanges 4| and the hub 60. The fixed flanges 40 and 4| are maintained in their fixed spaced positions by bolts 520. having enlarged portions 52b which together with the sleeves 52c lock the flanges 40 and 4| in their fixed relation. The entire pulley structure is locked to the hub 60 and is floatingly mounted on the shaft l8 by ball bearings 240. and 24b.

When the belts I 1 move outwardly from the position shown in Fig. 4 to the position shown in Fig. '7 the tension on the belts causes them to move inwardly on the driving member l3 from the position shown in Fig. 5 to the position shown in Fig. 6. Automatic means are provided for accomplishing this latter movement of the belt, and this automatic means preferably takes the form of a tensioning device or belt take-up now more fully described. A helical spring 53 is adjustably held by the nut 54 against a housing 55. This housing 55 is connected to the movable flange 33 by bolts 56, while the movable flange 33 is tied to the movable flange 32 by the sleeves 51 which ride on any antifrictional device 53 carried on the bolts 59. The auxiliary fixed flange 38 is tied to the fixed flange 3| by means of bolts 6| having enlarged portions 62 and sleeves 63 cooperating with a sleeve 64 keyed to the shaft l5. The bolts 59 and 6| are supported on the flange 30 which is also keyed on the shaft l5. Thus as the housing 55 is urged axially against the movable flanges 32 and 33 by the spring 53, the flanges 32 and 33 are permitted to move in response to varying tensions of the belt. By adjustment of the nut 54 the spring tension may be balanced with the force created by the centrifugal device 45 to obtain the desired variable ratio. The adjustment may be carried to such an extent that the shaft I8 is driven at a substantially constant speed regardless of variations in the car speed between any desired speed limits. It is to be understood, however, that the adjustment need not be carried further than to maintain the speed of shaft I8 between permissible limits rather than at a substantially constant speed.

The detailed construction of the centrifugal weights 45 will be more readily understood by reference to Figs. 4, 7, 8 and 9. Each of the weights 45 is a roller-like construction mounted on bolts 65 with antifriction devices 46 riding loosely on the bolts 65. The devices 45 are spaced by the antifriction device 41 which is formed by a cylindrical member having a plurality of holes 66 bored therein, this cylinder having smaller cylindrical protrusions 61 extending into the cuplike formations of the devices 46. One of the pulley flanges, such as flange 48, is provided with a stepped surface 49 adapted to cooperate with the antifriction device 41 while the flange 43 is provided with stepped surfaces 48 adapted to cooperate with the antifriction devices 46 of the centrifugal weight 45. Thus the device 41 rolls on surface 49 in one direction while the devices 46 roll on the surface 48 in the other direction. This permits the centrifugal weights 45 to move radially inwardly or outwardly with very little resistance due to friction against the pulley flanges.

Clutch means are provided permitting the compressor to be declutched from the axle II when the car is standing still or is running at speeds too low or too fast which are beyond the range of operation of the ratio changing device. In the preferred form, the clutch means cooperates with a flange 13 to clutch the edge of the disc 10. When the flanges 12 and 13 are brought together by the springs 14, the pulleys 24 are clutched to the shaft l8. When the flanges 12 and 13 are spread apart, the pulleys 24 are declutched from the shaft l8. This clutching and declutching operation thus affects the drive in the shaft l I and the compressor I0.

Pneumatic means are provided for actuating the clutch means. Thus a diaphragm I5 is provided at one edge of the chamber 16 which is connected by the opening IT with the air brake system. When pneumatic pressure is introduced into the chamber 16, the diaphragm 15 is pressed against the ring 18 which ring rides against the ball bearing 19. The reaction thus produced moves the casing towards the left in Fig. 4 and this in turn carries the thrust bearing 8| in the same direction and with it the flange structure 13 thus spreading apart theflanges 12 and 13. When the pneumatic pressure is relieved in the chamber 16, the springs are'permitted to clamp the clutch disc 18 between the flanges l2 and 13. Suitable control means may be provided for controlling the flow of air into the chamber 16.

The discharge from compressor l0, such as compressed refrigerant, may enter condensers and 88 which are mounted on the ends of a box structure 81 which is substantially air-tight except at the edges 88 and 89 and at the opening 90 where a fan 9| is placed. The fan 9| is of such a construction that when rotated in one direction it blows air inwardly into the box 81 through opening 98 and when it is rotated in an opposite direction it blows air outwardly from the box 81 through opening 98. When the air is thus blown inwardly into the box, the air leaves through the condensers and is discharged into the atmosphere along the edges 88 and 89 thus cooling the condensers. When the air is blown outwardly by the fan, the air enters the box 81 through the condensers along the edges 88 and 89 and goes out through the opening 90. The fan 9| may be driven by any suitable means such as by belts 92 driven from a shaft 93 which in turn is driven by belts 94 from the pulley 20.

The compressor may be supported under the car in any suitable manner.- Thus downwardly directed bolts 95 support the compressor H) at the bottom thereof. Suitable brace .bolts 96 prevent the compressor from swaying. The jack-shaft I 5,

is urged away from the axle II by a spring 91 as will be readilyunderstood. This provides for any necessary take-up in the belts l'lc. By running the shaft l5 at a higher speed than the axle II, it is possible to run the belts 25 at a relatively high speed and thus the size and number of the parts of the ratio transmitting device are reduced because of the relatively high speed of operation of the parts. The jack-shaft l5 extends through the housing 81 and the necessary opening therefor is sufficiently sealed by a sliding flange construction 98 so that the housing 81 is maintained substantially air-tight except at the edges 88 and 89 and opening 90.

By properly calibrating the length and strength of the spring 53 as well as its adjustment by the nut 54, it is possible to coordinate its action with that of the centrifugal means 45 in such a manner that the driven part of the variable ratio drive rotates at a substantially constant speed while the car is travelling at variable speeds but within reasonable limits. The compressor i0 therefore operates at a substantially constant speed and produces refrigeration for the car at a constant rate while the car is travelling at all normal speeds.

When the car is standing still or is operating at an abnormallylow or high speed, the compressor may be operated by the dynamo electric machine, which may be energized by battery or station current. During this type of operation, the compressor is declutched from the axle ll.

While the form of embodiment of the invention as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow. i

What is claimed is as follows:

I 1. A variable ratio drive including a compound pulley having a shaft, a pair of axially movable, relatively fixed flanges on said shaft, a pair of axially fixed flanges on said shaft, said flanges forming two V-shaped grooves on said pulley, a flange on one of said pairs cooperating with a flange on theother of said pairs to form diverging surfaces, a centrifugal weight between said diverging surfaces and acting to vary the width of said grooves, a plurality of rods around the shaft each supported by the shaft at two separated points, said relatively movable flanges being slidably mounted upon said rods.

2. A variable ratio drive including a driver pulley, a driven pulley, one of said pulleys having a pair of relatively movable flanges, centrifugal means for causing relative movement of said flanges including oppositely directed cone surfaces, a centrifugal weight between said surfaces having independently'movable anti-friction devices in contact with said surfaces, a shaft means upon which one of said'pulleys is rotatably mounted, and clutch means for connecting said shaft to said one pulley.

3. A variable ratio drive including a driving member, a driven member, a pair of belts between said members, a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed on one of said members directed in one direction, and a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed with respect to each other and movable on said last named member directed in the opposite direction forming a pair of V-shaped pulleys on said member for said belts,- and speed responsive means for axially moving the axially movable pair of flanges to vary the effective belt diameter of said pulleys including centrifugal means on one of said members and spring means on the other of said menibers, and externally accessible adjusting means for adjusting the tension of said spring means.\

4. A variable ratio drive including a driving member, a driven member, a pair of belts between said members, a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed on one of said members directed in one direction, and a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed with respect to each other and movable on said last named member directed in the opposite direction forming a pair of V-shaped pulleys on said member for said belts, and speed responsive means. for axially moving the axially movable pair of flanges to vary the effective belt diameter of said pulleys, including centrifugal means on one of said members and spring means on the other of said members, one of said pulleys being rotatably mounted upon one of said members, and clutch means for connecting said rotatably mounted pulley to its member.

5. A variable ratio drive including a driving member, a driven member, a pair of belts between said members, a pair of conically shaped flanges on one of said members axially fixed with respect to each other directed in one direction and a pair of conically shaped flanges on said last named for axially moving one of said pair of flanges to vary the eflective belt diameter of said pulleys, said speed responsive means including a centrifugally movable structure between and acting on said outwardly converging surfaces, all of the flanges upon one of said members being rotatably mounted thereon, and clutch means for connecting said flanges to said one member.

6. A variable ratio drive including a compound pulley having a shaft, a pair of axially movable, relatively fixed flanges on said shaft, a pair of axially fixed flanges on said shaft, said flanges forming two V-shaped grooves on said pulley, a flange on one of said pairs cooperating with a flange on the other of said pairs to form diverging surfaces, a centrifugal weight between said diverging surfaces and acting to vary to width of said grooves, and clutch means for drivingly connecting and disconnecting said flanges to said shaft.

7. 'A variable ratio drive including a driving member, a driven member, a pair of belts between said members, a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed on one of said members directed in one direction, and a pair of conically shaped flanges axially fixed with respect to each other and movable on said last named member directed in the opposite direction forming a pair of V- shaped pulleys on said member for said belts, and speed responsive means for axially moving the axially movable pair of flanges to vary the effective belt diameter of said pulleys including centrifugal means on one of-said members and spring means on the other of said members.

8. A variable ratio drive including a driving member, a driven member, a pair of belts between said members, a pair of conically shaped flanges on one of said members axially fixed with re-,

surface outwardly converging with respect to a surface on a flange of the other pair, and speed responsive means for axially moving one of said pair of flanges to vary the effective belt diameter of said pulleys, said speed responsive means including a centrifugally movable structure between and acting on said outwardly converging surfaces.

9. A variable ratio drive including a compound pulley having a shaft, a pair of axially movable, relatively fixed flanges on said shaft, a pair of axially fixed flanges on said shaft, said flanges forming two V-shaped grooves on said pulley, a flange on one of said pairs cooperating with a flange on the other of said pairs to form diverging surfaces, a centrifugal weight between said diverging surfaces and acting to vary the width of said grooves.

LESTER E. PERRINE. CHARLES L. PA'ULUS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2529743 *Apr 13, 1946Nov 14, 1950Salsbury CorpPower transmission
US2620636 *Jan 3, 1950Dec 9, 1952Robert E StantonAir conditioning system for automobiles
US2623400 *Jan 15, 1948Dec 30, 1952Davis Marion HPower transmission and centrifugal clutch
US2648498 *Sep 14, 1949Aug 11, 1953Brunsviga MasCalculating machine
US2678566 *Jan 7, 1950May 18, 1954Oehrli John WPower transmission apparatus
US2779163 *Aug 21, 1953Jan 29, 1957Gen Motors CorpVehicle refrigerating apparatus
US2905005 *Jul 11, 1955Sep 22, 1959Miner Pulley And TransmissionV-belt power transmission
US3108483 *Mar 7, 1961Oct 29, 1963Woods T B Sons CoVariable pitch sheaves having a large number of grooves
US3200660 *Mar 25, 1963Aug 17, 1965Woods T B Sons CoVariable pitch sheaves having a large number of grooves
US3220211 *Jul 29, 1964Nov 30, 1965Gen Motors CorpAutomobile air conditioning system
US4800730 *Jul 15, 1985Jan 31, 1989Suetrak Transportkaelte GmbhArrangement for influencing the speed of a compressor of a refrigerating system
US8794932Jun 7, 2011Aug 5, 2014Sooner B & B Inc.Hydraulic lift device
US20100054959 *Jul 1, 2009Mar 4, 2010Tracy RogersSystems and methods for driving a pumpjack
US20100054966 *Aug 29, 2008Mar 4, 2010Tracy RogersSystems and methods for driving a subterranean pump
WO1986000690A1 *Jul 15, 1985Jan 30, 1986Gp Konstruktions-GmbhArrangement for influencing the speed of a compressor of a refrigerating system
Classifications
U.S. Classification474/13, 36/34.00R, 62/133, 62/242
International ClassificationF16H61/662, B60H1/32, F16H61/66
Cooperative ClassificationF16H61/66245, B60H1/3222
European ClassificationB60H1/32C2, F16H61/662D6