|Publication number||US2152311 A|
|Publication date||Mar 28, 1939|
|Filing date||Jun 11, 1935|
|Priority date||Jun 11, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2152311 A, US 2152311A, US-A-2152311, US2152311 A, US2152311A|
|Original Assignee||Emanuel Jacobson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 28, 1939. E JACOBSQN 2,152,311
SEAMLESS RUBBER FIGURE Filed June 11, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l l 7l i za l N V E NTO R fnanuel Jacobson BY i ATTRN EY March 28, 1939. E. JAcoBsoN SEAMLESS RUBBER FIGURE l' Filed June 1l, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 b INVENTOR Emanuel .Jacobsen EXY ATTONEY Patented Mar. 28, 1939 PATENT .QFICE SEAMLESS RUBBER- FIGURE Emanuel Jacobson, New York, N. Y.
Application June 11, 1935, Serial No. 25,982
This invention relates to and is applicable to various types of inanimate figures such as dolls lsimulating a human or animal form, marionettes, mannikins, window advertising or display gures, artists dummies, puppets, statuettes and the like, and to the method of making such figures.
My invention contemplates the provision oi a doll or the like figure in which the body, limbs and head are either seamless and made in one integral piece, or in which the head or limbs or both are joined to the body by concealed and water-proof joints, whereby the entrance of water or other washing liquid into the interior of the gure is prevented.
In what follows and hereinbefore, by the Word seamless figure or part of such figure is meant a ligure or part of a single integral piece of material free of any joints, whether welded, cemented, or not, free of any overlap, and free of any ridges or ribs, projections or overflow or excess materials such as would be formed in a molding operation by the use of a multiple part mold. The joining together of two or more sheets or portions of material as practiced in the art of molding objects hitherto is unnecessary by my method and hence there is no line, ridge or excess material indicating the juncture of such separate sheets. A seamless rubber head made by my method has no seam or marking of any kind such as is visible in ordinery rubber dolls which are made by vulcanizing together two parts of the doll or by using two-piece molds.
The line of juncture or demarcation between the two parts of the material or the two parts of the mold is in such cases distinctly visible. Not only are such seams detrimental becauseof their unattractive appearance, but they require trimming and hence add to the cost of production. By making rubber dolls and doll parts seamless, therefore, I have solved an important problem that has been present in the art.
My invention further contemplates the provision f such a figure, that is, either seamless or integrally joined, in which the limbs and head are movable to various desired positions, and which is comparatively light, floats uporr water and uses a minimum amount of material.
My invention further contemplates the provision of a simple and efficient joint between the movable parts of such figures.
My invention further contemplates the-pro vision of an integral figure, accurately simulating the appearance, feel and details, to as high a degree as is desired, of a life-like original, imaginary, improved or legendary figure, and which can be painted or colored in any suitable lifelike colors, and wherein the painted surfaces are permanently protected against wear or deterioration over long periods of time and which sur- 5 faces are unaffected by washing or other manipulation.
My invention further contemplates the provision of a figure having an extremely thin, sepa'- rately formed rubber skin or casing, stuffed with l0 suitable material to maintain its contour, Said skin or casing being preformed into the desired shape and embodying the desired details of the features, limbs and extremities of the corresponding animate or other figure, including such del5 tails as wrinkles, hair, toes, toe nails, folds, dimples and even clothing of various types.
My invention further contemplates the provision of a method for making such iig-lires ori-he parts thereof, of the latex of rubber and of a A method of joining the parts of the figure together by a latex iilm in such a manner as to form an integral whole.
My invention further contemplates the provision of means and a method for effectively removing the one-piece iig-ure or part thereof from the mold in which it is formed without danger of damage to the mold ory the figure and at minimum cost and labor.
The various objects of my invention will be 3Q clear from the description which follows, and from the drawings, in which,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, partly broken away to show the interior structure, of a figure ernbodying my invention.
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a one-piece mold by means of which the body of the figure or doll oi.
Fig. l may be made.
Fig. 3 is a similar View of a. similar mold by 40 means of which the head for the figure or doll may be made.
Fig. 4 is a vertical fragmentary section of the head and part of the body showing one form of the means for adjustably and movably joining the head to the body and for integrally connecting `the head casing to the body casing.
Fig. 5 is a similar View of the same showing a modified form of said means.
Fig. 6 is asimilar view of another form of 50 joint between the parts of the figure applied particularly to the shoulder or arm joint.
Fig. 7 is a similar view of the same showing a somewhat modified form of the joint as it appears embodied in a leg joint, and further showing clothing details integrally formed in the casing.
Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are vertical sections of the head of the figure.- showing modified forms thereof.
Mg. 11 is a vertical section of one form of the joint parts adapted for use for any joint of the figure.
Fig. 12 is a top plan view of one of said parts.
Fig. 13 is va vertical section of a one-piece mold in which the entire figure may be cast of latex, an opening being left for the removal of the iigure from the mold, which opening is intended later to be sealed by a wig, hat or other suitable means after the figure has been stuffed.
Fig. 14 is a similar section of part of a head formed in the mold of Fig. 13, showing the sealing oi' the resulting opening of the figure by a wis.
Fig. 15 is a vertical section of a one-piece mold in which a casing has been formed showing means for separating the casing from the walls of the mold and for removing the casing from said mold.
Fig. 16 is a similar sectionof an arm as it appears cast in a one-piece mold and showing how a resilient brush may be used for separating and removing the arm from the mold.
In that practical embodiment of my invention which I have shown by way of example, the figure designated generally by the numeral I5, Fig. 1, is illustrated as being a simulation of the human figure though it will be understood that the ligure I5 may take any form desired, such as that of an animal.
As shown in Fig. 1, the gure I5 comprises the independent preformed separate rubber casing I6 constituting the body and limbs of the figure and having integral arms I1 and integral legs I 8. As shown in Fig. 13, however, an entire figure including the head may be made in a single piece in a suitable mold. 'I'he head casing I9 of the figure I5, however, is preferably separately cast and joined to the body casing I6 after the body and head have been stuifed with suitable stuffing material as 20. Said stufling may consist of cotton, wool, kapok, loose sponge rubber particles, cork dust, saw dust, excelsior or any other similar material customarily used for stuifing dolls, mannikins, or window display forms, though I prefer to use stulng material lighter than water to insure that the stuffed figure can float.
The head casing I9, in that form of my invention now being described, is preferably formed separately from the body casing I6 and is provided with all the desired surface and embossed detail cast integrally thereon such as nose, eyes, lips, hair, teeth, ears, tongue and the like and may be made of the same latex compound as the corresponding body casing I6 or of a different compound of latex compounded in such a manner as to produce a harder or softer rubber as may be found best suited for the particular ligure.
In any case, however, both of the casings I6 and I9 are extremely thin and seamless though provided with whatever detail it is desired to incorporate into the outer surface of the casing. Said detail in addition to or in place of simulating the various parts of the corresponding animate iigure may also take the form of articles of apparel, as will be more fully described hereinafter.
It will be appreciated that the casings comprising the rubber figure may be as thin or as thick as is found convenient or desirable. 'I'hicknesses aioaair within the range of M00 inch up to 1/zvinch are most practical, using a minimum amount of material while givingsuflicient strength to support the stuiling and providing suillcient material for the introduction of considerable 'surface detail such as wrinkles, clothing or the like, as has been hereinbefore indicated.
A figure produced of the proper compound of latex by my improved methods later to be described, though extremely thin, may be made selfsupporting against collapse even though unstuiled, 1ii' desired. Toward this end, I prefer to use a latex having a concentration of at least 30% rubber though it will be understood that latex of a lower concentration may be used with corresponding diminishment of .the self-supporting properties-,of the figure.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 4, I have 'there shown the head casing I9 integrally but movably joined to the Abody casing I6 toform an integral figure free of such joints as would permit the entrance of water therethrough into the interior of the figure. The joint2i between the head and the body of t figure at the neck thereof, permits the tiltin and rotation of the head to a substantial extent in any direction. Said joint 2i comprises the upper solid or hollow block 22 of any suitable comparatively hard and rigid material such as wood, cork, rubber, bre, sheet metal or the like having a preferably concave lower surface 23 provided with a series of projections, serrations or corrugations 24 of any suitable shape, such as conical, and spaced apart to provide a series of depressions 25 therebetween.
The head casing I9 is preferably formed with an integral neck portion 26 terminating in an inwardly extending annular peripheral portion 21, which may be omitted if desired. The annular portion 21 is adapted to ilt on to the concave surface 23 of the block 22 and in retaining said block in place, the block being inserted into the neck by stretching the neck portion 2l where such portion is used. Said block 22 may be cemented to the inner surface of the neck 26 being additionally retained in place by the stuffing of the head and the tension of the stretched rubber. Similarly, the body casing I6 is preformed with the inwardly extending peripheral portion 28 adapted to rest on or to be secured to the upper convex surface 29 of the block 30 which cooperates with the block 22. On said convex surface 29 is formed the series of spaced projections 3| similar to the projections 24 and similarlyproviding suitable indentations or depressions as 32 therebetween, it being understood that the projections 3| are intended to enter the depressions and that the projections 24 are similarly intended to Venter the depressions 32.
To secure the head to the body after said head and body have been suitably stuffed and after the blocks 2,2 and 30, respectively, have been arranged therein, the separately formed and completed head and body are brought together into their desired i'lnal positions with the projections of each of the blocks engaged in the depressions of the other block. The open space 33 between said blocks is then closed by a sheet as 34 of suitable thin iiexible and frangible material such as paper or the like. Thereafter, latex is sprayed or otherwise coated upon the sheet 34 and on to the respective adjacent neck portions 26 and 35 of the head and body to bridge the space 33 and to coalesce with the respective neck portions 26 and 35 of the head and body and to form a single integral piece therewith. It will be understood that I prefer to spray the bridging coat 39 oi the neck, to join the head and body together, -preferably at a time before the casings I9 and I9 have become thoroughly dried for the reason that a partly dried lm will permit the additional layer of the vulcanized latex to coalesce with the lm to i'orm an integral sheet of rubber therewith.
When the bridging coat 36 of latex has dried, it becomes practically an integral part of the casings I9 and I9 and tends to maintain said casings in the positions in which those parts have been rst assembled, thereby holding the blocks 22 and 30 in their normal positions shown in Fig. 4. It will be seen, however, that since the bridging coat 36 is of thin rubber, it is sufciently elastic to permit the vertical separation of said blocks apart a sufficient distance to withdraw the projections 24 and 3| from the corresponding depressions 25 and 32, whereby the head may be turned relatively to the body in any desired direction or tilted forwardly or backwardly. When the head and body are relatively released, the contraction of the bridging layer 36 carries the blocks 22 and 39 together, the various projections 24 and 3| entering the adjacent depressions in the adjacent block. During the rotating or tilting operation or both, it will be understood that the thin rubber layer 36 may be somewhat distorted or wrinkled, thereby enhancing the life-like appearance of the figure by more accurately simulating the wrinkles and folds assumed by the skin of an animate figure on the tilting or turning of its head.
It will also be understood that while I have described the method of forming and the use of the bridging coat or layer 36 in connection with a head casing and a body casing to join said casings integrally together, the same method and structure is also. intended for joining a limb casing such as an arm or leg, when made separately, to a torso casing, in an obvious manner.
In Figs. 11 and'12,` I have shown the blocks 31 and 38 constituting a jointadapted to be arranged anywhere in the ilgures where a joint is desirable. Said blocks are substantially identical, each being constricted to form a convex surface 39 provided with spaced projections 49. If desired, an opening as 4l may be made through each of the blocks for the reception of a member tending to hold said blocks together. By constricting the convex surfaces 39 relatively to the remaining dimensions of the block, it becomes possible to obtain a'substantial degree of relative adjustment between the blocks whereby the arms, legs or head may be tilted or rotated into any desired position relatively to the body of the gure, the thus adjusted parts being maintained in their adjusted positions by the interengagement of the projections 40 of the blocks.
As shown in Fig. 9,4 the block 42 constituting one part of the joint may take the form of an elongated member which may be made hollow as at 43 if desired, and entering the head casing 44 to a substantial extent and thereby permitting better manipulation of the head when the head is to be tilted. At its lower end, the block 42 is provided with the convex surface 45 toothed, roughened or corrugated or provided with suitable projections in the manner hereinbefore described in connection with the blocks 22, 30, 31 and 38. It will be understood that the block 42 is designed to cooperate with a block such as 30 or 38 to maintain the parts in their adjusted positions.
In Fig. 5 I have shown another form `oi? attaching means for securing the head rotatably to the body of the doll. In this form of my invention, a snap fastener arrangement such as the socket 46 is provided with an annular outer wall 41 from which are pressed a number of inwardly turned lugs 49. The base 49 of the socket, serves to connect the outer wall 41 to the socket proper, said base being preferably inclined downwardly and inwardly toward the socket, to provide an annular space 59 into which liquid rubber may be poured in a manner soon to be described. At the bend 59 of the socket a number of spaced slits 5| are made to permit the socket to yield under the pressure of a cooperating stud.
The stud 52 is preferably open at its top and may be of the resilient or non-resilient type as may be found convenient or desirable. The head of the stud is of greater outermost diameter than the smallest innermost diameter of the socket 46 but the outer diameter Vof the neck 53 of the stud is substantially equal to the innermost diameter of the socket. The base 54 of the stud is similar to the base of the socket and is similarly provided with inwardly bent lugs and with a space 55 for the reception of liquid rubber. The base is further provided with an upwardly and inwardly inclined wall 56 of generally conical shape connecting it to the neck of the stud.
To assemble the securing means in place, the
wall 41 of the socket is arranged within the neck Y with the outermost peripheral edge 58 of the wall spaced slightly from the extreme end edge 51 ofthe neck. 'I'he head is turned upside down and liquid rubber then poured into the space 59 to fill said spaceA and to c ohere and adhere to the` inner wall of the neck. It will be seen that when the liquid rubber has dried it forms substantially a single piece of rubber with the neck and substantially encloses the greater part of the socket. 'I'he lugs 48 become imbedded in the 'rubber thus formed and assist in resisting strain socket suiciently tov permit the passage of the enlarged head after which the socket part snaps into the constricted neck of the stud and resists separation of the parts. It will be seen, nevertheless, that the head may be rotated relatively to the body through any desired angle. It will also be understood that this form of attaching means may be used in connection with other body parts, such as for example to connect the legs to the body, or the arms to the body.
In Fig. 6, I have shown a joint SII similar to' that disclosed in Fig. 4 but used at the shoulder of a figure. It will be understood that the joint 60 as well as the joints hereinbefore described may be used elsewhere in the figure such as at the knees, ankles, wrists, elbows and elsewhere if desired without any material change in the structure thereof.
The joint 60 comprises the blocks 6|, 62 having respective openings B3 and 64 therethrough. 'I'he block 6l is toothed, serrated, corrugated or roughened at its outermost convex surface 65 as at 66, the block 62 being similarly serrated,
toothed, roughened or corrugated on its concave surface 81 as at 88. The curvature of the surfaces 65 and 81 are preferably of the same radius so that the blocks may be fitted together and rotated relatively to eachother in any direction in the manner of a universal joint.
To prevent displacement of the blocks 8| and 82 within the figure, said blocks may be cemented to the adjacent inner surface of the casing I8 and may also be secured togetherby suitable elastic means. As shown, the elastic means takes the form of an elastic member 89 passing through the openings 83 and 64 of the blocks and formed with an enlargement or knot as -1I and 1l at the respective ends thereof to prevent the member from being drawn into the openings when stretched.y After said member 89 has been passed through the opening 8l and stretched, it is knotted at 1I, so that it pulls the blocks together and maintains them in contact.
To adjust the arm I1 relatively to the body of the ligure, the armis pulled by slightly grasping the block 62 and pulling it. The casing I1 and the member 89 are thereby stretched suiliciently to permit separation of the blocks 62 and l6I and disengagement of the teeth or roughened surfaces thereof. The arm may then be turned about its own axis or tilted to the desired position after which it is released whereby contraction of the .casing and of the member 89 carries the blocks into engagement, the serrated or roughened surfaces of said blocks holding the blocks and the arm in their adjusted positions. If the .arm I1 is made separate from the body, a suitable bridging coat, such as has been hereinbefore described in connection with Fig. 4 may be used to join the arm casing tothe body casing.
As shown in Fig. '1, the meint 15, similar to the joint 60, but with the member 69 omitted, has been applied to the hip or leg joint of a gure. Since the blocks 1G, 11 of said joint are similar to and operate like the blocks 31, 88 of Fig. 1l, a detailed description of the joint 15 is deemed unnecessary. It will be noted that as shown in Fig. '7, the casing I6 may have formed thereon clothing details such as a blouse 18, belt 19, skirt 88 and the like. Said clothing and other details are formed on the casing I6 as has been hereinbefore indicated, by correspondingly shapingthe operative surface of the mold or form used in producing the casing. Other details may b e cast integrally with the casings I8 and I9 as, for example, the toes 8I, toe nails 83, fingers 82 (Fig. 1), wrinkles or folds 8l (Fig. 6), dimples 85 (Fig. l), hair lines 88 (Fig. 4),r and many other more or less intricate contours enhancing the artistic effect of the gure. 'Ihe features, body parts or clothing may be suitably colored if desired, in a manner to be later described. v
In order to form the rubber casings I6 and I9 in the desired shape, each as a seamless onepiece entity, I prefer to employ a seamless onepiece mold as 81 (Fig. 2). The mold may be made of plaster of Paris, porcelain or other compositions customarily used for forming latex rubber articles. I have found that plaster of Paris of the type adapted to receive and retain a smooth nish is satisfactory for my purpose. To produce the mold in one piece without the necessity for joints, seams or separate pieces therein, I prefer to first make a pattern ligure in the form of the desired rubber casing but of material which can be molten or disintegrated for removal from the mold. I have found parailin mixed with wax having a low melting point and containing rosin to give it strength suitable for this purpose though it will be understood that any suitable smooth disintegrable core material such as is frequently employed in the molding or casting of molds and other materials may be used if desired. The pattern figure is encased, except at the extreme top surface thereof. with plaster of Paris, an opening being preferably left in the mold at the neck either of the head or of the body, as the case may be, through which the casing may be removed from the mold. i
After the mold has thus been made in one piece and is properly set, it is warmed until the pattern figure melts. 'I'he molten material is then poured out of the mold through the opening therein, or otherwise removed, by pouring hot water into the mold and thus disintcgrating the pattern ligure. As shownV in Fig. 2, the mold 81 for the casing I6 contains impressions for the arms I1, the legs I8 and the neck 28. At the top of the neck, however, an undercut is made in the pattern figure to provide for the casting of the integral flange 28, the neck opening terminating in a constricted opening 88.
As shown in Fig. 3, the mold 89 is made from a removable pattern head having the various facial features thereon. The opening'90 of the mold through which the pattern figure is removed after it has been melted or disintegrated, is smaller than the neck opening in the finished head casing I9, being undercut as at 9| to provide the annular portion 21 of the head casing.
It will be understood that a hollow, seamless rubber gure filled with paraine, cork dust or dry powdered plaster of Paris, kapok, or other similar dry iiller or with a flowing pasty material or with liquid may be used as a permanent pattern for making molds in quantity, the parailine, filler, paste or liquid being poured out of the rubber pattern figure with or without the aid of heat or water to permit removal of said gure from the seamless mold after the mold material has set around the pattern figure.
The rubber casing forming the covering of my new gure is formed by pouring or spraying preferably vulcanized liquid latex into the hollow seamless mold 81, 89, to fill the entire mold and to permit some of the latex to overflow the openings 88, 90. 'Ihe latex, however, may be vulcanizable, that is, containing sulphur or other vulcanizing agents. 'Ihe preferably vulcanized latex is allowed to remain in the mold for a few minutes. after which all of it which is pourable, is poured out of the mold into a suitable container.
A film of coagulated latex, however, adheres to the walls of the mold cavity. Said film may be allowed to dry and'then removed, but I prefer to build up another layer of latex immediately before complete dryingv of the iirst lm to insure a greater thickness of the resulting casing. The same process may be usedwith vulcanizable latex. As many additional lms or layers may be added or thus built up as may be found desirable by repeating the filling and emptying of the mold successively before or after the drying of the previous lm. When the casing has been built up to the required thickness, it is permitted to dry. Evaporation of the moisture in the vulcanized latex in the mold leaves a vulcanized rubber illm and may be completed within one to three hours dependent upon the temperature and the air currents in the vicinity of the mold. Ordinary room temperature and pressure is suflicient to effect proper evaporation of the moisture in the latex. If it is desired to hasten the drying of the casing, warm air may be forced into and circulated within the mold as by means of a suitable nozzle.
Where vulcanizable latex is used, heat is applied to the mold or the coagulated layer to vulcanize the rubber or anyv other methods well known in the art of vulcanizing latex lms may be employed and hence need not be described.
After the casing in the mold hasbecome sufficiently dry, or after the vulcanizable latex layer has been vulcanized, it may be removed from the mold by gripping the overflow rubber at the mold opening 88 or 00 and separating it from the walls of the mold cavity.
By rst separating the neck of y the casing from the mold wall and then pulling evenly on the casing, the various parts of the casing may be separated from the cavity walls until the entire casing is released whereupon it maybe removed in its collapsed state. In order to reach into the mold to better remove the casing, I have shown in Figs; 15 and 16, different types of casing-engaging means.
After a. iilm of latex has formed on the mold |02, as shown in Fig. 15, the flexible strings or tapes |04 each having a weight |05 at its end such as solid rubber, leather or the like, may be inserted into thev mold through the neck opening |01 and allowedto drop to the extremity of the arm and to come in contact'with the lm and to adhere thereto as at |06, coalescing with said iilm when the latex dries. Similarly, strings or tapes ||2'and H3 may be inserted into the leg portions. After thel weight |05 has coalesced with the casing and sufficient time haselapsed for the rubber to thoroughly the arm portions of the rubbergure are separated from the mold by pulling on the string imbedded in the arm portion of the gure. The rubber arm may then be pulled out of the `arm of the mold manually. Similarly, the leg portions of the lgure may beseparated from the mold and the entire guremay then be pulled out manually by gripping the figure at the neck` portion and pulling said figureout of the mold.
Another method for separating the finished bristles and a handle ||0, the stiff bristles engaging the casing rmly at a constricted portion of the arm. By pulling the brush by means of the handle,v the bristles being in tight engagement with the rubber casing, said bristles tend to pull the rubber olf the walls of the mold, thus separating the casing from the mold. The arms of the gure may then be withdrawn from the arm portions `of the mold by pulling said rubber arms out manually. The same process may be repeated with the leg portions of the casing and the entire figure may then be drawn out of the mold manually.
It is advantageous to use a mold material' in seamless molds and secln'ed with or'wlthout a joint to the torso or remainder of the body as by the means described in Fig. 4 for securing theheadcasingtothebodycasing,thatis,by a bridging coat or film of latex or cement.
By bringing the outer surface of the casing into intimate and direct contact with the walls 'of the mold cavity, it becomes possible to duplicate exactly the details on .the mold cavity wall. It is obvious that the detail could not be so exactly duplicated if a form were dipped into a quantity of latex since it would be the inner surface of the figure produced by dipping which would have the detail while on the outer exposed surface, the details would be partly' obliterated by theA intervening layer of rubber between the formed surface and the exposed surface of the gure. Such details as hands and feet and head features have therefore customarily been produced by expensive metal molds in hot presses from dry rubber or plastic unvulcanized rubber and consequently, have resulted in the productionof objects or gures made of comparatively thick rubber with little or no undercut detail. By `means of my improved method as above described, however, a casing is produced out of a amount of material with as much detail, undercut or otherwise, as emsts in the mold itself and in the original pattern gure.
As has been hereinbefore mentioned, the resultng casing may be of sumcient sness tobe self-supporting against collapse, that is, the body casing i9 is made to stand on its feet, it preferably will not collapse but wili stand ug'pright, maintaining its proper contour. Similarly, if the head casing i9 is stood up onl the neck end thereof, it will not collapse but will be self-supporting. Both casings, however, are iiexible and yield under pressure. To maintain the proper contours of said casings under pressure, I prefer to stuff said casings with proper stulng material as 20 in the manner hereinbefore described, the stuffing being inserted into the casing through the neck opening thereof. In the case where the limbs are separately cast, the limbs are first stuffed with the stuiiing 20 through the opening of the limb before being joined to the torso.
my purpose is vulcanized latex concentrated to a viscosity suitable for pouring or spraying.
If desired, suitable dyes, pigments or iillers may be mixed with the latex in the presence of proper stabilizers in a manner well known in the art and hence need not be described. When such vulcanized latex has evaporated, it leaves a residue of tough highly elastic vulcanized rubber which may readily be pulled out of the mold `and stretched without danger of tearing.
In some cases, it may be desired to build up solid portions orthick layers at'selected parts of the casing. For example, in the casing shown in Fig. 9, the nose 02, lips 93 and other parts of the head casing 44 are shown as solid or of considerable thickness. To so build up the casing, I pre-A fer to use a mixture of vulcanized latex with vulcanized or unvulcanzedpowdered rubber having no aiiinity for water to form a paste. Said peste is applied to the selected area of the mold or to the rubber film pre-cast therein. The'rubber powder may contain vulcanizing agents and an accelerator. No stabilizer is necesary since the latex does not coagulate upon the introduction of the rubber powder into the latex. The powder does not absorb any moisture from the latex. Each I have found that the latex best' mutable for isis particle of the powder becomes coated with vulcanized latex. The evaporation of the latex forms a film around `each particle and adequately causes adhesion of said particles. 'I'he paste when dry, becomes a substantially solid rubber composition. If powdered rubber containing one or more vulcanizing agents is mixed with the latex, the composition becomes harder withage due to the action of the vulcanizing agent, especially where anV accelerator is incorporated `into the powder. A doughy solid feature may thus be built up at any selected area of the rubber film to simulate various features or to increase the thickness of the casing at points of excessive wear or for better maintaining the contour of any desired area.
Should it be desired to form the head casing and the body casing in a single integral piece, the mold 94 (Fig. 13) is used. Said mold is made with an opening as 95 therein near the top ofthe head through which the casing I B3 can be removed from the mold. The resulting head portion Si of the casing |03 (Fig. 14) has a hole as 91 therein. Said hole may be later covered if desired by a bridging coat of latex similar to the coat 36, or the opening 91 may be covered with a wig, hat or the like 98. vThe entire casing |03 is seamless and of a single piece having a seamless torso, seamless arms and legs and a seamless head except for the concealed covering for the opening $1.
In Fig. 8, I have shown a head with comparatively stiif or rigid features. In this case, the head casing i9 is reinforced with a comparatively stiff mask 99 shaped to conform tothe contour of the front part of the inner surface of the casing i9. Said mask may be made of buckram, wood pulp composition, hard rubber, Bakelite, metal, Celluloid or the like and is inserted into the casing through the neck opening, which opening may be suitably stretched for that purpose or the mask may be folded and inserted into the head without stretching the rubber head. The stuiiingmaterial 20 may then be inserted into the head, as well as the joint member 31.
As shown in Fig. 10, the head ill may be made with movable or plastic features ill in accordance with the disclosure of my prior Patent No. 1,942,- 370 and in my copending application Serial No.
' 648,865, backed preferablyy though not necessarily,
by the stiff backing 9S. y
Should itybe found in the formation of the casing I6 or I9 that a perfectly smooth finish has not been attained, or that there are flaws or defects in` the surface of the casing, such flaws or defects in the finish may be remedied by spraying or otherwise applying a thin coating of the latex to the outer surface of the figure at the Aflaw or over the entire limb, head or figure, and allowing the thus applied ilatex to dry. The new layer of latex leaves the surface of the figure smooth and glossy, making it attractive and easily washed.
Either of the casings I6 or I 9 may be colored throughout tosimulate esh or as nearly as possible the color"of the animate object which it is intended to represent. This is done by incorporating into the latex in its liquid state, suitable pigments or dyes though'it will be understood that the color may' be applied to the surface of the rubber casing, particularly on the face part of the casing I9 to represent thel eyes, mouth, cheeks or other parts. n i
When the coloring material is applied to the surface, I prefer to use an elastic enamel or paint having a rubber base or containing rubber as one of its main ingredients. Such paint or enamel when dry flexes and stretches with the rubber. I
mayalsospray colored latex on such portions of the figure where coloring is dirable. Bhould it be desired to protect the colors applied to the surface ofthe figure. a layer of-t rubberl may be applied over the coloring layerv by spraying, dipping or otherwise coating the casing and the colored or painted areas. The layer or coating of transparent rubber may also cover the entire figure if desired and permit the coloring material to be seen therethrough while forming a wearingcoat serving asanadequateprotectionto the colored areas which may therefore wear indefinitely without rubbing oi'f. While vulcanized transparent latex may be used for the protective coating, unvulcanized latex containing a vulcanizing agent may be used, the vulcanization being eifected by heat or by other curing methods which are well known in the art and hence need not be further described. This method of coloring rubber dolls has many advantages over the present method of applying a colored rubber cement or a dyegto the doll. The dye fades out and colored rubber cement is sticky. A rubber doll or figure colored by my method may be stretched or flexed almost indefinitely without adversely affecting the coloring material.
In place of painting with paint or enamel on the surface of the rubber casing, the surfaces may be properly colored by applying colored paper, fabric or rubber cutouts representing eyes and lips of the surface with suitable adhesive and then preferably spraying or otherwise coating thethus colored areas to sandwich the coloring sheets between the casing 'and' the transparent layer of latex, or the selected areas may be colored by spraying thereon vulcanized latex suitably colored with the proper` pigments with or without the additional cost of transparent latex.
The rubber casing may also .be colored by pouring transparent rubber latex into the mold to form the outer layer of the casing and after allowing the transparent latex lm to wholly or partially dry, `and then placing the preformed colored portions of the required shape and coloron the film in their proper positions after first covering the pre-cut colored portions with a small quantity ofk latex or cementfto fix the precut colored portionsv to the t latex. The operation of pouring or spraying the remaininglatex on to the transparent coatmaythen` be performed in the manner lhereinbefore described. Whenk the casing thus formed is withdrawn from the mold, the colored portions are firmly secured or sandwiched between the transparent rubber lm and the colored film in their proper places as though said portions were painted in the rubber.
It will be understood that the gure embodying my invention is much lighter than molded rubber figures of the same,size and that while heavy molded rubber figures with articulated limbs are customarily made with fillers incorporated thereinto for stiifening the rubber, the casings of my improved gllre mit? b e made of substantially pure latex without impurities or fillers other than the materials used for vulcanization, stabilization, acceleration, or coloring. Regardless of how thin the casing is made, the shape thereof may be adequately maintained by thestufiingusedtherein. Itwillalsobeseenthat I have,provided a seamless figure having no exposed joints for the entrance of water when the figure is washed or bathed; that I have provided seamless limbs, head and body for a rubber latex iigure;thatmyimprovedsurecaniloaton water; that it does not become soiled as easily as molded impure rubber; that it may be readily `washed and cleaned; and that it does not require the use of hot presses and expensive dies in the manufacture thereof.
It will also be seen that by making my improved casing from an aqueous solution of rubber or latex, I am able to dispense with the necessity for such equipment as metal dies. mixers, presses, heat vulcanizers and the like.
While I have shown and described certain preferred materials and certain preferred methods for manufacturing my invention, and while I have indicated some of the uses to which my invention may be applied. it will be understood that I contemplate the use of various equivalents of the materials and of the arrangements therein before described and therefore do not intend to limit myself to the specic material, arrangements and uses hereinbefore mentioned, but intend to reserve to myself my invention in its broadest aspect consistent with the prior art and the terms of the appended claims.
1. In a figure, a seamless cast rubber casing having integral limbs, the casing having representations thereon in the form of relative elevations and depressions, the lelevations and depressions in the outer surface of the casing being more sharply defined than the corresponding elevations and depressions on theinner surface thereof, pliable stuiiing material inserted in said casing and maintaining the normal contour thereof, and means inside the casing for maintaining the limbs in various set positions, said means including a pair of separable interengaging members secured to the casing.
2. In a figure, a seamless cast rubber head having facial features, a comparatively rigid backing member in the shape of a face mask inserted in said head to maintain the normal contour of the facial features, stumng material inserted in said head to maintain the backing member in close contact with the inner face of the head, and means arranged in the neck portion of said head for movably connecting the head to a body portion.
3. In a figure, the combination of a changeable rubber doll head having facial features adapted to be moved to temporarily set positions by manual pressure on the head, pliable stuffing material in said head to maintain the contour thereof, and means in the neck portion thereof for m'ivably connecting the head to a body for relatne movement in all directions, said means comprising a pair of members each provided with spaced projections.
4. In a figure, a seamless cast rubber latex body casing having a torso, arms and legs, a seamless cast rubber latex head. means for movably joining the casing to the head, and a layer of rubber coaiescing with and joining the outer surface of said casing to the outersurfaoe of said head, and having a smooth, uninterrupted outer surface, said rubber layer bridging any gap between the casing and the head.
5. In a ligure, a first hollow seamless rubber portion of a complete figure, and a second hol- 1ow seamless rubber portion, means secured to said portions to movably connect said portions, anda layer of vulcanized latex self-held on and enclosing adjacent peripheral ends of said portions and coalesced therewith, and having a smooth, uninterrupted outer surface continuous with the outer surfaces of said por-tions beyond said layer.
6. In a rubber figure, a first hollow seamless portion, a second hollow seamless portion, and a layer of rubber latex adhering directly to and coalesced with said portions and constituting` the solemeans for joining said portions to form an integral figure.
7. In a doll, a part comprising a separately preformed seamless soft rubber casing having an openingtherein, pliable stufiing material inserted into said casing and substantially enclosed thereby, and means arranged at the opening and including a member engaging the inner surface of the casing and held in place thereby for movably connecting the part to a similar casing, said member being providedwith spaced projections adapted to cooperate with similar projections on a corresponding member of said similar casing.
8. A soft rubber head mask having facial characteristics, separately preformed colored flexible sheets applied to the mask at selected areas and a film of transparent rubber superimposed on and adhering to the mask and adhering to and covering said sheets, said sheets being permanently sandwiched between the film and the mask.
9. In a figure, a first part of the figure comprising a thin stretchable seamless rubber casing having an opening, stuffing material inserted in said casing and substantially enclosed thereby, a second hollow seamless rubber casing part` having an opening, and cooperating means arranged in the respective openings of said parts for movably fastening said parts together, said means including a pair of members each engaging the inner surface of one of said casings and held in place thereby, and each being provided with spaced outstanding projections arranged to enter the spaces between the projections of the other member, said members being separable on the stretching of the casing.
10. In a ligure, a hollow, thin, soft rubber casing stretchable to a substantial extent, and a rigid member secured to an inner wall of the casing and provided with spaced projections adapted to en-ter the spaces between the projections of a similar member, said rigid member being separable from the similar member to disengage said projections from those of said similar member on the tensioning and stretching of the casing.
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|U.S. Classification||446/378, 264/318, 264/334, 264/132|