US 2153870 A
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April 11, 1939. c A LEE 2,153,870
EXPLOSIVE ENGINE Filed May 13, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR dh'a A TTORNEY April 11, 1939. c LE 2,153,870
v EXPLOSIVE ENGINE Filed May 13, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 l/IV/ 11v Vazvroze Wm 6147M JI 'M ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 11, 1939 UNITED STATES FATENT GFFEQE Application May 13,
My invention relates to improvements in explosive engines, particularly of the opposed cylinders type.
One of the objects of my invention is the provision in an engine of the reciprocative piston type, of novel means for converting the reciprocative piston movement to a rotary movement in a driven member.
A further object of my invention is the provision of novel means by which the power of a plurality of reciprocative pistons can be employed to continuously revolve in one direction a shaft having spiral driving means.
Another object of my invention is the provision of novel means by which the rotary driven shaft may be propelled in synchro-nism with the piston movement and held from overrunning.
A further object of my invention is the provision in an engine embodying a plurality of pistons of reciprocative type and a rotary shaft having spiral driving means, of novel means including a reciprocative cross head by which a shaft having spiral driving means is continuously rotated in one direction by the single cross head and retained in synchronism therewith.
My invention provides further in an explosive engine of the reciprocative type, of a novel cross head, novel means for eifecting reciprocation of the cross head, novel means actuated by the cross head for actuating the engine valve operating means which controls the explosions and exhausts, and novel means by which the cross head in reciprocating efiects continuous rotation in one direction of a driven shaft in synchronism with the cross head.
Still another object of my invention is the pro vision of an engine of the kind described, which is simple, compact, durable, not liable to get out of order, which has all parts readily accessible for replacement or repairs when needed, and which is efficient in operation and cheaply operated.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate the preferred embodiment of my invention,
Fig. 1 is a vertical central longitudinal View of my improved engine, parts being broken away.
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section, partly broken away, taken on the horizontal plane of the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a reduced end elevation, partly broken away of my improved engine.
Fig. 4 is a side elevation, of the cross head and some of the parts connected therewith, the gear 55 wheels which are shown in'Figs. 1 and 2 and 1935, Serial No. 21,173
which connect the crank shaft with the shaft having the spiral driving means, being removed.
Fig. is an enlarged section on the line 55 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged section on the line 6-6 of Fig. 4.
Fig. '7 is an under view, partly broken away, of the engine.
Fig. 8 is a section on the line 8-8 of Fig. 9.
Fig. 9 is a section, enlarged, on the line 99 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 10 is an enlarged section on the line 16-40 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 11 is a section on the line Ii-H of Fig. 10.
Fig. 12 is an enlarged section on the line l2l2 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 13 is'a longitudinal sectional view of one of the pistons, its connecting rod and one arm of the cross head, enlarged.
Figs. 14 and 15 are respectively cross sections on the lines l l-M and Iii-i5 of Fig. 13.
Similar characters of reference designate similar parts in the difierent views.
i designates a rectangular casing having an opening in the top normally closed by a removable cover 2.
The engine shown in the drawings is provided with four horizontal cylinders 23, i, 5 and 6 arranged in pairs respectively fastened at opposite ends of the casing, said cylinders having open ends respectively registering with openings through the adjacent end walls.
The outer closed ends of the cylinders have respectively extending through them spark plugs 7 which respectively project into the explosion chambers 8 of the cylinders, in which chambers are respectively disposed the inlet valves 9 and the exhaust valves l0, Figs. 1 and 2.
Pistons H, i2, i3 and it are respectively reciprocative in the cylinders 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Connecting rods it have one set of ends respectively connected by universal joints to the inner ends of the pistons 3, l, 5 and 6, the other ends of said connecting rods being respectively connected by universal joints to four arms E6 of a U shaped cross head ll, reciprocative in and lengthwise of the casing i on two supporting guide bars l8 disposed horizontally one above the other in the casing I, and having their opposite ends respectively fastened to the ends of the casing,' Figs. 1 and 2.
Each of the universal joints which connect the pistons 3, t, 5 and 6 to the cross head arms l6 consists of a pair of plates l9 disposed at opposite sides of and embracing a spherical head 20 on the adjacent end of one of the connecting rods I5, the plates I9 being bolted to the cylinder or cross head, as the case may be, and having arcuate receses which register with a semi-spherical recess in the member to which the plates are bolted, in which recesses the head 20 is adapted for universal turning movement, see Figs. 2, 13, 14 and 15.
2| designates a driven shaft extending longitudinally through opposite ends of the casing I and through the arms of the cross head I'I parallel with the planes of movement of the pistons II, I2, I3 and I4, and which at opposite ends has secured thereon and rotatable therewith two power take off pulleys 22, Fig. 2.
The power take off driven shaft 2! is provided with spiral driving means by which it is rotated comprising two sleeves 23 and 24, which respectively extend through the arms of the cross head I7, and which are respectively provided with oppositely arranged peripheral longitudinal spiral flanges 25 and 26.
Respectively rotatable on the sleeves 23 and 24 which are respectively disposed in two transverse holes 21 and 28 which are provided respectively in the arms of the cross head II, Figs. 1 and 4, are two tubular ratchet members 29 and 30 opposite ends of which are respectively provided with two circular rows of ratchet teeth 3I and 32 similarly disposed.
The ratchet teeth of the ratchet members 29 and 30 are each engaged by one or more pawls 33, which are alike, one of which and its spring actuating means being shown in side elevation in Fig. 8. Each pawl 33 has a stem 34 which is encircled by a coil spring 35 which has one end bearing against the rear end of the pawl, its other end bearing against a screw abutment 36 fitted in a threaded hole 3! through one arm of the cross head Il, the pawl being longitudinally slidable in the hole 31 toward and from the adjacent ratchet teeth with which it is adapted to have holding engagement that permits the ratchet member to revolve in but one direction.
When the cross head I! is moved to the right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, it carries with it the sleeve 29 having a radial threaded hole 38, Figs. 4, 10 and 11, as has the sleeve 30, in which is fitted a screw 39 which retains in the hole 38 two balls disposed respectively at opposite sides of the spiral flange 25, and which by bearing thereon, revolve the sleeve 29 and with it the driven shaft 2I in one direction.
In the hole 38 in the sleeve 30 is also disposed a screw 39 which retains in the hole two balls 4I disposed respectively at opposite sides of the spiral flange 26, Figs. 10 and 11, which balls, when the pistons I3 and I4 move the cross head I"! to the left, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, by engaging the flange 26, revolve the sleeve 30 in the same direction as the balls 40 revolve the sleeve 29, whereby upon the reciprocation of the cross head, the shaft 2I is rotated constantly in one direction. As the balls 40 and M are insertible into and removable outwardly from the threaded holes 38, when the screws 29 are removed, new balls may be readily replaced for those which become broken in use, without disassembling of the other parts.
The pawls 33 which engage the teeth 3| of the sleeve 29 hold the sleeve from revolving when the cross head I1 is moved to the right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, but the pawls permit the sleeve to revolve when the cross head revolves in the opposite direction. In like manner the pawls 33 which engage the ratchet teeth 32 of the sleeve 30 hold the latter from revolving when the cross head moves to the left, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, but permit of its rotation when the cross head moves to the right.
In order that some one of the pawls 33 which engage either of the ratchet sleeves 29 and 30 may constantly be in position for driving engagement with the ratchet teeth of the sleeve, the pawls 33 are disposed with reference to the teeth 3| or 32, as the case may be, so that one of the three teeth is operatively engaged with one of the teeth. For this disposal of the balls, they are arranged in staggered relation to the teeth, as shown in Fig. 6.
For opening the intake valves 9 and the outlet valves III at their proper times for the different cylinders 3, 4, 5 and 3 respectively, I provide suitable means by which the valves of opposed cylinders, as the cylinders 4 and 5, and the cylinders 3 and 6, are so operated that the valves of one of the opposed cylinders are closed when either of the valves of the other of the opposed cylinders is open, as will be described hereinafter.
As arranged the engine is operated as a four cycle engine, thus, when a charge is being fired in cylinder 3, the valves 9 and I0 of the latter are closed, as shown in Fig. 2. At this time cylinder 4 is intaking and the intake valve 9 is open and the exhaust valve I6 of cylinder 4 is closed. At the same time the charge in cylinder 5 is being compressed, and its valves 9 and I0 are closed. Simultaneously the charge in cylinder 6 is being exhausted and the exhaust valve It is open, as shown, and the intake valve thereof is closed. As stated above any suitable means may be employed for operating the valves to ellect this routine in the intaking, compressing, firing and exhausting of the charges.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, I provide two horizontal cam shafts 42 and 43 which are disposed closely adjacent to the ends of the casing I within the latter and with their ends revolubly mounted in the side walls of the casing. On the cam shaft 42 at the left, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, are provided cams 44 and 45 which respectively actuate the valves I0 and 9 of the cylinder 3. On the shaft 42 two cams 46 and 41, which respectively actuate the valves 9 and II], of the cylinder 4, are provided.
On the shaft 43 are provided two cams 48 and 49 which respectively actuate the valves 9 and I0 of the cylinder 5, and on the same shaft are provided two cams 50 and 5| which respectively actuate the valves Ill and 8 of cylinder 6. The usual coil springs 52, Figs. 1 and '7, normally respectively retract the valves 9 and III of the different cylinders.
I will be noted that the shaft 43 is extended through one side of the casing I, Figs. 2, 3 and '7 for driving connection with timing mechanism, not shown.
For revolving the cam shafts 42 and 43, and for providing power take off means, there is provided a horizontal crank shaft 53 which extends transversely through opposite side walls of the casing I, between the arms of the cross head I'I. Outside the casing I, the crank shaft 53 has mounted on it respectively adjacent to its ends two fly wheels 54 from which power may be taken if desired. One end of the crank shaft 53, outside the casing I, is provided with a transverse pin 55 having projecting ends, whereby a crank may be applied to such end of the crank shaft to manually revolve it for cranking the engine by hand.
The crank shaft 53 is provided with two cranks 56 to which are respectively pivoted two pairs of connecting rods 51. The rods 51 of one pair are respectively pivoted to two laterally extending projections 58 at one side of the arms respectively of the cross head 1?. The other two connecting rods 51 are respectively pivoted to two projections 58 on the opposite side of the two arms respectively of the cross head Fig. 2.
When the cross head i1 is reciprocated, it will revolve the crank shaft 53 through the intermediacy of the connecting rods 51. Keyed to the crank shaft 53 in the casing I is a spur gear wheel 59, Fig. 2, which is between and meshes with two intermediate spur gear wheels 60, which in turn respectively mesh with two spur gear wheels 6| which are respectively keyed on the cam shafts 42 and 43. The gear wheels 6| are twice the diameter of the gear wheel 59, so that the cam shafts 42 and 43 make one revolution for two revolutions of the crank shaft 53 and during two reciprocations of the pistons I2, l3 and M, and of the cross head When the cross head moves to the right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, the ratchet sleeve 29 moves with the cross head and the balls 40 carried by the sleeve 29 will operatively engage the flange 25 of the sleeve 23, and, as one of the adjacent pawls 33 will be in holding engagement with the teeth 3| of the ratchet sleeve 29, the latter will through the balls 40 and the flange 25 and sleeve 23 revolve the driven shaft 2| clockwise, as viewed in Fig. 3.
While the cross head ll is moving to the right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, the spiral flange 26 on the sleeve 24 will, throughthe balls 4| revolve the ratchet sleeve 36, the adjacent pawls 33 engaging the teeth 32 permitting free revolution of the sleeve 30 in the direction in which it will be driven by the flange 26 and balls 4|.
While the cross head is thus moving to the right, it will through the connecting rods 51 revolve the crank shaft 53 and spur gear wheel 59 clockwise, as viewed in Fig. i.' The gear wheels 59, 6|) and 6| will at the same time effect revolution of the cam shafts 42 and 43 in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 1.
When the cross head ll moves to the left, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, the ratchet sleeve 30, being held by one of the adjacent pawls 33 from revolving in one direction, will, through the balls 4|, spiral flange 2B, and sleeve 24, cause the driven shaft 2| to continue its revolution in the same'direction in which it was revolved when the cross head moved in the opposite direction.
As the ratchet sleeves 29 and 36 are permitted by the pawls 33 which engage them to freely revolve in the direction in which they consecutively revolve the driven shaft 2 l, the latter, unless checked, can coast or free wheel, which for some uses of the engine, as for airplane driving, is desirable.
For effecting synchronism of revolution of the shaft 2| and the other running parts of the engine, it has keyed upon it a gear wheel 62 which meshes with a gear wheel 63 keyed on the crank shaft 53 between the cranks 56, Figs. 1 and 2. The gear wheel 63 is twice the diameter of the gear wheel 62, so that the relative rotations of the shafts 2| and 53 will be as 2 to 1. With the provision of the gear wheels 62 and 63, connecting the crank shaft 53 with the driven shaft 2|, the latter can not free wheel. By eliminating the gear wheels 62 and 63, as shown in Fig. 4, the shaft 2| will be permitted to overrun.
In the operation of the engine, the timing mechanism, not shown, and the cams 44, 45, 46, 41, 48, 49, 50 and 5| are arranged, so that with the pistons l2, l3 and I4 having completed their strokes to the right, as viewed in Fig. 2, firing of the charge in cylinder 3 will just have occurred, a charge will just have been intaken in cylinder 4, and the one in cylinder 5 will have been compressed, while the charge in cylinder 6 will have been exhausted.
Upon the next stroke in the opposite direction, the charge in cylinder 3 will be exhausted, the charge in cylinder 4 will be compressed, the charge in cylinder 5 will be fired, and a fresh charge will be taken into cylinder 6.
In the next stroke to the right, a fresh charge will be taken into cylinder 3, the one in cylinder 4 fired, that in cylinder 5 exhausted, and. the one in cylinder 6 compressed.
On the succeeding stroke to the left, the charge in cylinder 3 will be compressed, that in cylinder 4 exhausted, a fresh charge taken into cylinder 5 and the one in cylinder 6 fired, thus completing a four cycle operation.
In case it should be desired, the sleeves 23, 24 29 and 30 can be eliminated and the power taken off be that derived solely through the crank shaft 53. In that case, if the gear wheels 62 and 63 are retained in their operative relationship, the shaft 2| will be rotated through these gears from the crank shaft 53. Or the gear wheels 62 and 63 may also be eliminated and power taken from one or both of the fly wheels 54.
While I have illustrated my invention as applied to a four cylinder engine, the principles involved are applicable to an engine with less or more cylinders. 1
By connecting each of the pistons with the cross head I! by means of a rod l5, as best shown in Fig. 13, which rod has universal or ball joint connections with the piston and the cross head, a very flexible structure is afforded, and which will enable the elimination of very fine adjustments and a cheap construction, while retaining the advantages of a carefully constructed structure.
Many modifications of my invention, within the scope of the appended claims, may be made without departing from its spirit.
What I claim is:
1. In an engine, the combination with a reciprocative cross head and a driven shaft extending therethrough and rotatable therein and having peripheral spiral driving means, of a tubular member revoluble on said cross head and around said shaft and having a radial hole from its periphery to its interior in register with said spiral driving means, a ball carried by said tubular member in said hole and removable radially outwardly from said hole and having driving engagement with said spiral driving means, and a screw having threaded engagement with said tubular member in said hole and removable radially outwardly from said hole and engaging and retaining said ball in said driving engagement.
2. In an engine, the combination with a reciprocative crosss head and a driven shaft extending therethrough and rotatable therein and having a peripheral spiral driving flange, of a tubular member revoluble on said cross head and around said shaft and having a threaded radial hole from its periphery to its interior in register with said flange, two balls carried by said tubular member revoluble on said cross head and around said shaft and having a radial hole from its periphery to its interior in register with said spiral driving means, a ball carried by said tubular member in said hole and removable outwardly therefrom and having driving engagement with said spiral driving means, and means releasably retaining said ball in said driving engagement.
CHARLES A. LEE.