|Publication number||US2154263 A|
|Publication date||Apr 11, 1939|
|Filing date||Feb 21, 1930|
|Priority date||Feb 21, 1930|
|Publication number||US 2154263 A, US 2154263A, US-A-2154263, US2154263 A, US2154263A|
|Inventors||Carrier Willis H|
|Original Assignee||Carrier Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 11, 1939. w. H. CARRIER AIR CONDITIONING S YSTEM FOR RAILROAD CARS Filed Feb. 21, 1930 i E INVENTOR. L, w- H- M BY WORNEKS.
Patented Apr. 11, 1939 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR RAILROAD CARS Willis H. Carrier, Essex Fells, N. J., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Carrier Corporation, Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application February 21, 1930, Serial No. 430,210
This invention relates to methods of and means for cooling and conditioning enclosures, more particularly railroad cars.
The general object of the invention is to provide a system of air conditioning adapted to be installed in a railroad car of conventional design. Inasmuch as the requirements of operation and the traflic load of a railroad car are rarely constant, and in view of the mobile characterof m railroad carriages, the problem of air conditioning this equipment presents difficulties not ordinarily encountered. Thus, for example, the usual water supply available in the air conditioning of fixed plants is obviously not to be had for use 15 in railroad cars. As a result, if water is to be used in the system, it must be maintained and circulated in substantially closed circuits; No regular feed can be provided nor any additions be made except at periodic intervals for purposes 20 of replenishment.
A feature of the invention resides in the provision of an air conditioning system having a plurality of substantially closed water circuits, one of which is used for the conditioning of air and 25 another of which is itself changed in character by the action of a supply of air. The water used for conditioning air is refrigerated by means arranged to be located in any suitable space in the car. The water is routed through a condi- 3o tioner designed to intake outside air and to circulate retm'n air in a course through or around the conditioner.
Another feature of the invention, therefore, embraces the design and use of a conditioner 35 served by a plurality of air sources of difierent character. Control instruments are provided so that the volumes of outside and return air may be suitably proportioned to make allowance for variations in outside conditions and in refrigerat- 4 ing load.
' Another object of the invention is to provide a cooling tower of a design suitable for economical installation in an area ordinarily not used for passenger seating accommodation and whose efil- 45 cient operation is not dependent upon a continuous .supply of water from an outside source. Applicant has designed the cooling tower so that its operation is a function of outside air conditions and its efilciency unimpaired regardless of 50 fluctuations in said conditions. The cooling tower may be of a design similar to that of the conditioner used in the system, and hence manufacture of conditioning and cooling tower units is simplified and rendered relatively economical.
55 Since the operation of the cooling tower requires an outside air source, provision is made for routing desired large quantities of outside air through the cooling tower. Provision is also made for utilizing return air also, if operating expedience so demands.
A further feature of the invention, therefore, resides in the arrangement of a duct system in combination with a cooling tower, whereby a source of water routed to the cooling tower may be reduced in temperature and changed in character to a substantially fixed degree by contact with controlled amounts of air whose character may be fluctuating.
Further objects and features of the invention covering the arrangement and design of component parts used therein, and resulting in maximum efiiciency and economy of installation and operation will be more apparent from the following description of one form of the invention, to be read in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which- Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of an air conditioning system adapted for use in a railroad car;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view, to a larger scale, of a unit designed to be used as a conditioner or as a cooling tower; and
' Fig. 3 is a prospective fragmentary viewof a portion of a car, showing an illustrative installation of a cooling tower and its associated ducts.
Considering the drawing, similar designations referring to similar parts, numeral 4 refers generally to the combination of apparatus shown in Fig. 1 and the relation of the various components to each other. The system includes a compressor 5, which may be used for any desired refrigerant,
- condensers 6, evaporators la and lb, expansion valve 8, air conditioning unit 9, cooling tower unit It], pumps and auxiliary motors ll, l2 and the usual connecting linesand accessories ordinarily required for completing and assembling the system in an operating arrangement.
In the layout illustrated, any suitable refrigerant, such as ammonia, may be employed and the refrigerant circuit illustrated may be traced in a course including compressor 5, condensers 6, expansion valve 8, in parallel through coils within evaporators la and lb and back to the compressor.
The water circuit for the conditioning unit is substantially closed and follows a course, including pump l2, around the coils of evaporator la, through the air conditioning unit, within and around the coils of evaporator lb, and back to the pump.
The condenser water circuit proceeds from pump II to the condensers, then to the water tower unit l and back to the pump. 4
The pumps may be suitably associated with the traction equipment of the car and hence will be operated whenever the car is in motion. It
is obvious, of course, that any desired overflow device may be provided as well as connections for replenishing the water supply and otherwise servicing the apparatus.
Since the system is merely shown in diagrammatic form for illustrative purposes only, the general scheme of assembly and operation is indicated without including the numerous details usually included in the practical application and installation of the system.
In Fig. 2 unit l3, corresponding to air conditioning unit 9 of Fig. 1 includes an outer liquid reservoir I4, inner sump l5, pump l6 and auxiliary spray device II, the pump being mounted on shaft l8 of motor l9. The shaft also mounts a fan 20. Eliminators 2|, are provided for removing entrained moisture, prior to discharge of the air from the unit to distributing duct 22. Preferably, the unit is located at one end of the car. While the unit preferably extends substantially the height of the car, it is evident that it may be suitably arranged in any desired manner, preferably so that the usual water fountain and lavatory facilities may still be provided. The unit I3 is preferably positioned adjacent window 23 of the car. Intake opening 24 of the conditioner is connected to the window opening by a suitable duct or partition, so that air from outside may be drawn C through the window and within the conditioner by the suction of fan 20. Intake opening 25 of the conditioner is arranged to draw air from the car through the conditioner whereas recirculating opening 26 draws air from the car within the casing in a source by-passing the sprays. In the operation of the conditioning equipment, the pump and fan will be revolved by motor I 9. The pump will draw water supplied to sump l and eject it in the form of spray through the nozzles of device I! dueto the centrifugal action. The water from the spray will drop to reservoir I 4 and thence be removed from the conditioner. The
outside air and return air will be routed through the sprays by the fan and discharged to distributing duct22. The condition of the air after itleaves the sprays, regardless of whether it was originally outside or return air, is substantially the same. As the recirculating opening 26 allows air to enter, this conditioned air will be mixed with tion is under automatic control. Thus, the fresh air inlet will be opened more widely asthe number of people in the car increases. The return inlet 25 may be opened when'the temperature in the car tends to rise; while on the other hand if graduated type may be utilized for temperature and humidity control purposes.
In Fig. 3 a duct system is provided for removing the air routed through cooling tower l3. In this arrangement outside air from window 23 will be routed through the cooling tower in the same manner as illustrated in Fig. 2. If desired, return air from the car through inlet 28, will also be. intaken and routed through the cooling tower in combination with the outside air. The condenser water will thus be reduced in temperature due to its intimate contact in the form of spray with the large volumes of air passed through the cooling tower. If all outside air is used, the water will be cooled to a point approximating the outside wet bulb temperature. If return air is also used, the wet bulb temperature of the mixture will be the gauge of the cooling effect on the water. It is found that the di'fierential in temperature between the water at the condensers and its condition at the cooling tower is substantially constant regardless of outside conditions. In view of the necessity for routing large volumes of air through the tower, and for reducing flow reslstance to a minimum, applicant provides outlets 29 and 30 at the upper end of the service and toilet space on one side of the car and outlet 3| at the other side of the car. The duct to outlet 3| is alongthe roof of the car'in the vestibule space and hence inconspicuous. The appearance of the car is left preserved and the interior space is wholly reserved for its usual passenger accommodation purposes.
While applicant is illustrating the assembly of parts and the operation of 'the system as well as that of the conditioner and cooling tower, in certain and definite ways, it should be understood that the illustrations described herein are merely deemed representative. Any analogous means for carrying out similar objects are deemed within the purview of the invention.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. In an air conditioning system for a railroad c'ar, condensing equipment for effecting heat exchange from a refrigerant used in the system, a cooling tower having a reservoir in the bottom thereof, a water-circuit including said condensing equipment and, said reservoir, means for spraying water from said reservoir downwardly through said tower, another reservoir in the bottomof said tower for receiving the spray, an outlet from said other reservoir leading to the condensing equipment, said reservoirs being located one with-v in the other in the cooling tower.
2. The method of conditioning the air in a passenger vehicle, which consists in drawing the air into a unit, passing the air through a cold water spray in said unit to remove all foreign matter therefrom, and reducing the temperature of the air, regulating its moisture content, all of which is accomplished in said unit, and then distributing the conditioned air at a plurality of the said vehicle, and then cooling the said water for reuse and returning it to the spray.
3. The method of conditioning the air in a passenger vehicle, which consists in drawing the air into a unit, passing the air through a cold water spray in said unit. to remove all foreign matter therefrom, and reducing the temperature of the air, regulatingeits moisture content, and
' points into the space occupied by passengers in eliminating the entrained water from the air, all
of which is accomplished in said unit, and then occupied by passengers in said vehicle, removing the heat units from said spray water, and returning said cooled water to said spray, then dissipating these heat units-in a cooling tower.
4. The method of conditioning air in a passenger vehicle, which consists in drawing air into a unit, passing air through a cold water-spray in said unit to remove all foreign matter therefrom and reducing the temperature of the air, regulating its moisture content and eliminating the entrained water from the air. all of which is accomplished in said unit, distributing the condifirst inlet, a second inlet for admitting air from' the interior of said car to the interior of said casing, a fan for drawing upwardly through said casing air intaken through said first and second means, whereby air intaken through said third V inlet bypasses said spray, and means for supplying air intalren through all of said inlets to said 6. A heat transfer device including means forming a tower, means forming a reservoir proximate the bottom of said tower, means for supplying liquid to said reservoir, means forspraying liquid drawn from said reservoir downwardly through said tower, means for routing gas through said tower in contact with said sprayed liquid, means forming another reservoir within said tower and proximate the bottom thereof for receiving sprayed liquid, said reservoirs being located one within another and being segregated from each other, and means for withdrawing liquid from said second-mentioned reservoir.
W. H. CARRIER.
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|US2498818 *||Oct 3, 1947||Feb 28, 1950||Theodore Lawrence||Evaporative air cooler and conditioner|
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|US9080789||May 5, 2011||Jul 14, 2015||Greensleeves, LLC||Energy chassis and energy exchange device|
|US20060130495 *||Jul 13, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Dieckmann John T||System and method of refrigeration|
|U.S. Classification||62/93, 62/317, 165/42, 62/310, 165/60, 62/434, 261/91, 261/29, 96/284, 261/140.1, 62/311, 62/305|