US 2154641 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1939- D. J. SEAMAN 2,154,641
DOORWAY CONSTRUCTION I Original Filed Sept. 3, 1936 David J. Seaman Grimm;
Patented Apr. 18, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Application September 3, 1936, Serial No. 99,272
Renewed September 9, 1938 i 3 Claims.
The present invention relates to improvements in door construction being particularly adapted for use in stores and buildings handling heavy pedestrian trafiic.
It is well recognized that in large-department stores and ofiice buildings there is considerable confusion resulting from persons attempting to pass through doors in opposite directions at the same time. Such confusion and resultingv congestion is attributable to the fact that door construction now in use does not suggest or assist the pedestrian in selecting the proper door when there are in and out doors. Also where a single door is used for both in and out going trafilc present door structure is not of a design assisting persons desiring to pass through the door to step back or to one side to permit the other person or persons to pass through the .door without interference. Thus it becomes one of the objects of the present invention to provide door construction which not only overcomes .the above mentioned difliculties but at the same time is attractive in appearance and embodies safety features which are not found in door construction now in use.
A further object of this invention is to provide an improved door frame and jamb which eliminates the danger of a person being injured by having his fingers crushed between the door and door jamb in the locality of the vertical axis about which the door is swung.
These and other objects and advantages re siding in the construction and arrangement and combination of parts will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the consideration of the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing wherein:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of one form of my improved door construction,
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken through the swivel about which the door is swung in operation,
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of another vform of my improved door construction,
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken on line IVIV of Fig. 4, and
Fig. 6 is a detailed enlargement of the construction of the door lamb shown insFig. 5.
Referring to the drawing, in Fig. 1 is shown a double door construction consisting of double doors I and I2 supported in jambs l4 and It for swinging movement in opposite directions as indi- Assuming Fig. 1 to be an elevation of the door construction as viewed from the outside, the door l2 will become the door to receive the ingoing traffic and the concavity of the same, as it appears to the ingoing pedestrian, immediately suggests and assists him to select the correct door. This can be attributed to the fact that the ingoing door presents what might be termed a recess to which he is directed by .the convexity of the door Ill or the outgoing door and, moreover, it has what might be termed an inviting or directing aspect. For similar reasons the concavity of the door III, as itappears to the outgoing pedestrian, directs him through the correct door and in this manner confusion and interference resulting from persons attempting to pass through the same door in opposite directions is avoided to a considerable extent.
Aside from the assistance and suggestion to correct selection and passage of ingoing and outgoing traflic through the doors I0 and I2 the curvilinearity of construction of the doors themselves possess further advantages. One of these resides in the fact that when the door I! is swung open cold air from the outside, because of the curvilinearity of the door is directed along the wall structure in which the door is located and where the radiators are usually found rather than being directed inwardly subjecting the area directly opposite the door to uncomfortable draft and sudden changes in temperature in cold weather.
Another advantage resides in the fact that the concavity presented by the doors l0 and I2 on opposite sides provides a recess for a person to stand who is loaded with bundles or otherwise unable to open the intended door for passage and gives him an opportunity to pass through the opposite door as the same is opened by another person either leaving or entering, as the case may be.
In the preferred form of the invention the vertical frame portions 18 and 20 of the doors I 0 and I! are semi-cylindrical and swing in corresponding sockets defined by the jambs l4 and i6. concentrically located with respect to the vertical frame portions l8 and 20 are pins 24 which project into a socket defined by the bearing plates 26 secured in position in a suitable recess by screws 28 in the door frame 29. Similar structure is provided at bo h the top and bottom of each door and it will be obvious that the door will swing around the pins 24 upon being opened and closed. To permit installation of the door the pin 24 is slidably received in a bore 30 opening into a recess 32 in the frame portion It. A plug 34 is removably secured in position by screws 35 and 3G and when in position acts as means for supporting the pin 24 in the elevated position shown in Fig. 3 coacting with the bearing plate door and provide free swinging. It should be obvious that with the jamb and frame construe-U tion just described that the door may be readily hung in position or removed and that it is impossible for a person to injure himself upon the opening or closing of the door in the event his fingers were placed in the locality of the jamb and at the adjacent edge of the door as is possible and frequently happens in conventional door construction. 1
In Fig. 4 is illustrated another form of the invention in which there is but a single door. As
illustrated the door 38 is vertically curvilinear and swings about an axi adjacent the jamb 48. Between the outer edge of the door 38 and opposite jamb 42 is imposed a jamb 44 with which the door 38 directly cooperates. Between jambs 42 and 44 is preferably located a window 46 which may be opened inwardly by swinging the same about suitable hinges 48. A screen 58 is illustrated as disposed between the jambs 42 and 44.
-As will more clearly appear from Fig. 5 the structure disposed between the jambs 42 and 44 carries out the general curvilinearity of the door 38. The edge of the door 54, adjacent the jamb 40, is illustrated as being semi-cylindrical and has what might be referred to as ball and socket action within the recess 52 of the jamb 48 as more clearly shown in Fig. 6 when the door is opened and closed. If desired a channel 58 may be vertically disposed in the jamb 4D to receive a vertically disposed weather strip 58 which will coact with the side edge of the door 54 to provide a seal. Preferably the door 38 is supported for swinging movement in the manner disclosed with reference to the door construction shown in Fig. 1.
With .the door construction shown in Fig. 4 installed to open inwardly, although the same may be installed to open outwardly where fire regulations with respect to public buildings so demand, the curvilinearity presented by the door and doorway presents a very attractive and inviting portal. Moreover, it should be readily apparent that when two persons attempt to pass through the door at the same time in opposite directions that the person toward whom the door is swung in going from closed to open position does not have to step back as far to avoid the outer swinging edge of the door as in the case of the conventional straight door. In view of this fact less confusion and congestion results. In addition the curvilinear portion of the doorway defined between the jambs 42 and 44 defines a recess such as at 60 into which a person desiring to pass out of the door may step to permit someone entering to pass through ahead of him. The presence of the recess 60 has a self-suggesting effect of directing a person thereinto to permit the person entering to pass through the door first. This is not the case of the conventional straight door in which a straight wall is flush with the jamb of the door and offers no opportunity for conveniently stepping aside. As in case oi: the door l2 the curvilinearity of the door 88 has the effect of directing cold air from the outside along the wall rather than directly into the interior of the buildin structure to which the door provides an opening. The swinging window 46 provides a convenient method of ventilation through the doorway in warm weather with the door 38 closed and avoids the necessity of providing a screen door in connection with the door 88.
From the foregoing, description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing it should become apparent that the present invention constitutes a considerable departure from the conventional door structure and by so doing has not only resulted in providing an attractive doorway but a door construction possessing inherent characteristics tending to assist in directing incoming and outgoing trafllc therethrough with minimum confusion and conestion.
It should also be readily apparent that the construction of the door jamb and coacting portion of the door frame as herein disclosed is such as to avoid any possibility of injury resulting from persons accidentally placing their fingers between the jamb and the adjacent door frame when the same is being opened or closed as often takes place in connection with the conventional door wherein vertically disposed gaps between the door structure and the jamb are enlarged and reduced upon the operation of the door.
It is also to be understood that I anticipate the use of door constructions herein disclosed in connection with private residences as its attractiveness readily renders it to such use separate and distinct from the inherent features of the door construction which make it particularly adaptable for use in congested entrances. The ventilation features of the construction shown in Figs. 4 and 5 have the same advantages in private residences as in the case of stores and public buildings. It is also conceivable that this construction has application in window constructions, particularly the construction now commonly known as bay windows.
Having thus described my invention what I desire to protect by Letters Patent and claim is:
1. A doorway for pedestrian traffic comprising spaced door jambs, a pair of doors, supported adjacent said jambs for independent operation, adapted to swing in opposite directions around vertical axes, said doors being curvilinear in cross-section and when closed presenting a concavo-convex surface, each of said doors presenting upon opposite sides of the doorway a concavity into which pedestrians are directed by the construction of said doors, such concavity and direction of traflic conforming to the direction in which said doors are opened.
2. A doorway for pedestrian tramc comprising a double door, each door being adapted to swing in opposite directions on vertical axes, said doors when closed being disposed in the same general plane, said doors being curvilinear in cross-section and presenting when closed a concavo-convex surface, each of said doors presenting upon opposite sides of the doorway a concavity into which pedestrians are directed by the construction of said doors, such concavity and direction of traffic conforming to the direction in which said doors are designed to be opened.
3. A doorway for pedestrian ttaflic comprising a pair of swinging doors, said doors being designed to be swung said doors in cross-section being curvilinear and in opposite directions whereby each of said doors presents on opposite sides of the doorway a concavity in which pedestrians are directed, such concavity and direction of traiflc conforming to the direction in which said doors are designed to be opened.
. DAVID J. SEAMAN.
in opposite directions, each of