US 2154721 A
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Patented Apr. 18, 1939 UNITED STATES AUTOMOBILE POLISH Arthur L. Blount, Palos Verdes Estates, and Marcellus T. Flaxman, Wilmington, Calif., assignors to Union Oil Company of California, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California No Drawing. Application February 12, 1935, Serial No. 6,268
This invention relates to polishing compositions of liquid character especially adapted for use on painted, lacquered and enamelled surfaces with special adaptability to the polishing of automobile finishes.
i The object of the invention is to produce a p01- possessing the stated characteristics which contains an appropriate quantity of a fine abrasive such as silica flour, an oxidized fatty oil such as 20 blown castor oil adapted to leave a gloss upon the polished surface, a quantity of light mineral oil such as mineral seal oil, and a mineral absorbent such as diatomaceous earth adapted to take up .the oils during cleaning operations and 25 to insure easy removal of polish when dry. While this earth may be omitted in some instances, it
is always preferable. In addition, it is desirable to include a wetting and spreading agent in the form of one of the aliphatic alcohols, preferably 30 iso-propyl alcohol. Also a quantity of glycerin is preferred to offset the tendency of the alcohol to increase the drying properties, and thereby 5 retard drying to an optimum rate so that a g sufiicient abrasion may be accomplished before 35, drying is completed. At the same time, it is I also preferable to include a very small quantity of an emulsified, preferably a gum, such as gum tragacanth. In any case water is employed in conjunction with the gum to produce the desired 40 consistency, for example 50% or 60% of water in the total composition.
In practicing the invention, we ordinarily employ materials in approximately the following proportions:
45 Parts Fine abrasive about 8 Oxidized vegetable oil, e. g. blown castor oil about 1 Light mineral oil, such as mineral seal oil 50 about 4 Mineral absorbent, such as diatomaceous earth about 2 ifiliphatic alcohol e. g. iso-propyl about 2 Glycerine about 2 55 Gum emulsifier about V Preservative for the gum about [5 Water about 30 As previously indicated, the absorbent material 60 may in some instances be, omitted. Also there are instances in which the gum, alcohol, glycerin and preservative may be omitted but for optimum results all these materials are required and are employed preferably in approximately the indicated proportions. Obviously, the proportions may be varied more or less, depending upon results (desired. Thus, increase or decrease in the abrasive will increase or decrease the abrasive characteristics. Similarly the mineral absorbent may be increased or decreased and particularly this absorbent material will be increased if the abrasive is decreased in order to obtain the desired body and absorptive characteristics. stated proportion of mineral seal oil, that is about 40% by weight of the combined abrasive and absorbent, is in general the optimum. However, this proportion may be varied by reduction to the point where the polish becomes too difficult of removal or by increase up to the point where the tendency toward greasiness becomes evident; these conditions begin to appear upon substantial variation from the proportions indicated. As to the gum, alcohol, glycerin and preservative, these may be varied from perhaps one-half the stated proportions to perhaps double those proportions, the variations being accompanied in general by corresponding modification in the characteristics of the product.
With respect to the functions and equivalents of the various materials, these have, to some extent, been indicated above. In addition to the silica flour mentioned, any other suitably fine abrasive material may be employed capable, for example, of cutting down and removing decomposed lacquer. The diatomaceous earth has also a certain abrasive function and thereby acts as a cleaner, especially for the removal of grime, its abrasive characteristics aiding the cleaning action. Similar materials such as chalk, could in some instances be substituted with similar results. On the other hand, insofar as the silica or other abrasive material may be relied upon to perform the necessary functions, the absorbent material may be omitted. The blown castor oil furnishes the ultimate gloss; other oxidized fatty oils, such as blown rapeseed oil, blown soya bean oil, or blown .fish oil, may be substituted therefor, although less satisfactorily. The oxidized fatty oils are preferably those of limited or no solubility in petroleum oils, as may be regulated to some extent by the degree of blowing. The mineral seal oil, which is a light petroleum fraction between the kerosene and gas oil ranges, may be replaced with a heavy kerosene or with a well refined gas oil or light lubricating oil. This oil serves functions of removing grease and the like and of producing a characteristic in the dried polish which facilitates its being readily wiped off. The mineral seal oil, or equivalent, and the blown castor-oil, are both emulsified in the water The.
solution of the gum to produce a sort of threephase emulsion having superior cleansing and polishing characteristics, The diatomaceous earth has a much better absorbing property for the oils and oil emulsions than the silica fiour. One of its desirable functions is by such absorption to maintain an adequate distribution of these oils.
The gum tragacanth, in addition to acting.as an emulsifying agent for the oils, performs the additional function of thickening or of increasing the viscosity of the mixture. This therefore, provides a means for controlling the viscosity of the product; it also controls stability inasmuch as such thickening inhibits settling of the abrasive materials. In preferred use, a large part of the gum is produced as small gel particles which perform the stated functions and give body to the product. The gum thus becomes an emulsifier and thickener, eliminates settling of the abrasive and holds the oils in emulsion form. For practical purposes, the gum or an equivalent, should not be omitted; only in those cases where separation of the solid materials is not objectionable and where emulsions are not necessary, may such an emulsifier and thickener be-omitted. Equivalents of the gum tragacanth are other vegetable gums, such as gum arabic, pectin, Indian gum, ammonium alginate and the like, which perform the same functions.
The use of the aliphatic alcohol is also essential for practical purposes inasmuch as we have discovered that such an alcohol is necessary to maintain the desired stability in the product. We have found that if this alcohol is omitted the stability of the product is so greatly reduced as to be very objectionable. Also the alcohol at the same time performs the necessary wetting and spreading functions, which are lost if the alcohol is not employed. In-addition to the isopropyl alcohol mentioned, other water-soluble aliphatic alcohols, such as normal propyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol, may be employed. Somewhat larger amounts of the lower molecular weight alcohols, such as ethyl alcohol, are required because of their poorer wetting actions in dilute aqueous solution; All of these alcohols possess the additional highly desirable function of decreasing the mucilaginous characteristics of the gum solution to avoid the difilculty of removal of the polish from a clean surface which is otherwise imparted by the gum. The addition of glycerin in the indicated proportions is for the purpose of overcoming the tendency imparted by the alcohol for the polish to dry too rapidly, the glycerin therefore facilitating distribution and removal.
As a preferred embodiment which we have found to be especially suitable as a polish for automobile lacquers, the following is given:-
Percent by weight Silica flour 15 Mineral seal oil 8 Blown castor oil 2.5 Diatomaceous earth air floated 4 Gum tragacanth 0.2 to 0. 3 Isopropyl alcohol 5 Glycerin 5 Orthophenyl phenol 0. 3 Water about 60 Instead of the oil-soluble preservative, orthointroduced if desired. With reference to the blown castor oil, the preferred grade is insoluble in water and in the mineral seal oil and has low acid number not exceeding 20 mg. KOH per gram.
In preparing a polish according to this invention, a preferable procedure is to swell the gum tragacanth in about 70% or of the total water required, and then to add to this solution the glycerin, the silica, fiour and diatomaceous earth in connection with fairly vigorous agitation until a smooth mixture is obtained. Then, the remainder of the water, and the alcohol are added together, this dilution of the alcohol avoiding any possible precipitation of the gum traga- 'canth. The mineral seal oil and the blown castor oil are then introduced with vigorous agitation which is continued until a smooth product results. The preservative, if oil-soluble as in the case of Orthophenyl phenol, is dissolved in the mineral seal oil, or if water-soluble as in the case of formaldehyde, is dissolved in water, such solution taking place prior to commencement of the compounding operation.
The polish produced by the above formula-and procedure is a stable material which is particularly effective in removing grime, grease, and decomposed lacquer from automobile finishes and in imparting to the clean surface a high luster of considerable durability.
It is to be understood that the above dis-4 closures are not to be taken as limiting of the invention herein claimed but merely as illustrative.
We claim: a
1. A polish comprising a fine abrasive, an'oxidized fatty oil to act as a glossin'g agent, a gum emulsifier and thickener, an aliphatic alcohol as a wetting and spreading agent, and a quantity of water.
2. A polish for painted and lacquered surfaces according to claim 1 containing a quantity of light mineral oil to facilitate removal of the polish when dry, and a quantity of glycerin to retard drying.
3. A polish for painted and lacquered surfaces comprising a fine abrasive, blown castor oil in a small quantity, a light mineral oil. a mineral absorbent for the oil other than the abrasive in quantity sufilcient to avoid material greasiness, a small quantity of gum thickener, a quantity of alcohol to serve as a wetting and spreading agent, and water to give the desired consistency.
4. A polish according to claim 3 containing a quantity of glycerin to retard drying during application.
'5. A liquid polish forautomobile paints, lacquers, and the like, comprising silica flour about eight parts, mineral seal oil about 4 parts, blown castor oil about 1 part, diatomaceous earth about 2 parts, isopropyl alcohol about 2 parts, gylcerin about 2, parts, a fraction of one part each of a I vegetable gum and a preservative for the gum,
5i. A polish comprising a fine abrasive and absorbent material together with a quantity of mineral oil sumcient to insure ready removal of the absorbent and insufficient to produce evident reasiness.
7. A polish comprising anabrasive, a quantity of mineral oil, an absorbent for the mineral oil, a quantity of blown fatty oil, water and a gum emulsifier for the two oils, the quantity of oils being insuflicient to impart evident greasiness.
8. A polish according to claim 7 containing an aliphatic alcohol to promote stability.
9. A polish comprising a fine abrasive about 15%, a light mineral oil about 8%, a blown fatty 011 about 2 a mineral absorbent about 4%, a gum emulsifier for the two oils of less than 1%, a stabilizing alcohol about 5%, and water.
10. A composition comprising a fine abrasive material, a fine mineral absorbent other than said abrasive, and a light mineral oil in quantity suflicient to effect ready removal of the polish but insuflicient to produce substantial greasiness, said mineral oil being present in the order of about A to of the combined abrasive and absorbent.
11. A polishing composition for painted and lacquered surfaces oil, a fine silica abrasive, a mineral absorbent of the type of diatomaceous earth, and a light mineral oil in quantity sufficient to effect ready removal of the polish but insufficient to produce substantial greasiness, that is the mineral oil being in the order of about one-fourth to about one-half of the combined abrasive and absorbent.
12. A polishing composition .comprising a fine mineral abrasive material and a fine mineral ab sorbent material other than the abrasive, the abrasive and absorbent material totalling roughly 20%, a quantity of a light mineral oil approximating one-half of the combined abrasive and absorbent material, a relatively small quantity in the order of a few percent of an oxidized fatty oil, a small quantityof an emulsifier, and at least about water.
13. A composition according to claim 12 containing also a small quantity in the order of a few percent each of glycerin and of a wetting and spreading agent.
14. A polishing composition comprising a fine abrasive material, a fine mineral absorbent other than said abrasive, an oxidized fatty oil in quancomprising an oxidized fatty tity sufficient to afford gloss when used. a light mineral oil proportioned to the combined quantity of abrasive and absorbent to avoid material greasiness. I
15. A composition according to claim 14 including a relatively large quantity of water and a thickening agent.
16. A composition according to claim 14 and a small quantity of an aliphatic alcohol to impart wetting and spreading properties and a small quantity of glycerine to retard drying.
1'7. A composition according to claim 14 and a relatively large proportion of water, gum to aid suspension, a relatively small proportion of aliphatic alcohol to impart wetting and spreading properties and a relatively small proportion of glycerine to retard drying.
18. A composition according to claim 10 containing a substantial proportion of water and a relatively small proportion of a thickening and emulsifying agent.
19. A composition according to claim 10 containing a substantial proportion of water, a relatively small proportion of a thickening agent to aid suspension, a relatively small proportion of an alcohol to impart wetting and spreading properties, and a relatively small proportion'of glycerine to retard drying.
20. A polishing composition according to claim 6 including a relatively large proportion of water, l
and gum to aid suspension.
21. A polishing composition according to claim 6 and a relatively large proportion of water, gum to aid suspension, a relatively small proportion of aliphatic alcohol to impart wetting and spreading properties, and a relatively small proportion of glycerin to retard drying.
ARTHUR L. BLOUNT. MARCELLUS 'I'. FLAXIVIAN.