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Publication numberUS2155343 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 18, 1939
Filing dateAug 31, 1935
Priority dateAug 31, 1935
Publication numberUS 2155343 A, US 2155343A, US-A-2155343, US2155343 A, US2155343A
InventorsBonanno Joseph L
Original AssigneeLionel Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Remote control system, method, and apparatus
US 2155343 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 18, 1939. .1 I. BONANNO 2,155,343

REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM, METHOD, AND APPARATUS Filed Aug. 31, 1935 r 2 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY April 18, 1939. J L, BONANNO REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM, METHOD} AND APPARATUS Fi led Aug. 31, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Jase-PH 1. BO/VA/V/VO.

7a ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 18, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM, LIETHOD, AND APPARATUS Application August 31, 1935, Serial No. 38,734

18 Claims.

The present invention relates to remote control systems, methods and apparatus.

In certain fields, such for example as the toy train art, it is desirable to provide the train with a remote controlled accessory such as a whistle, lights or bell in addition to'the propulsion motor.

The present invention is particularly designed to provide for the operation of a whistle or other accessory on toy trains, this operation being entirely independent of the operation of the propulsion motor. The remote control circuit is, however, suitable for general application where conditions arise which are analogous to those involved in toy train operation.

The present invention contemplates a circuit having a source of alternating current potential such as a transformer of predetermined maximum voltage for operating a load such for example as lamps or propulsion motor. In addition to the accessory, which is normally connected to one side only of the .current source, the circuit has a relay permanently connected in shunt with the load, this relay having contacts in the 25 accessory circuit and being of the high reactance type designed so as not to close this circuit on the maximum alternating current potential which can be applied to it from the transformer. According to the present invention, this relay is 30 adapted to function when a source of direct current of a small potential is introduced in series with the circuit. The direct current flows through'the transformer and relay coils and effects a closing of the relay circuit when the direct current potential is applied and its opening when the direct current potential is removed, and this is utilized to control the circuit of the auxiliary device or signal such as a blower motor or a whistle, the actuating mechanism of a bell or" any other current-consuming device adapted to operate on alternating current of the potential available.

The source of direct current for operating the relay may be a unidirectional conductor, such there is some resistance drop in the rectifier and shunt, and, as added current is necessary for 55 operating the relay controlled accessory, there would ordinarily be a drop in potential of the current supplied to the load causing the lamps to dim and the propulsion motor to slow down. To overcome this, the circuit is preferably provided with a choke coil which may be short-circuited when the rectifier is unshunted. A single switch may eflfect both operations. A small rectifier may be used, as the accessory is operated for short intervals only.

Instead of employing the rectifier to obtain a low direct current potential, it is also possible to introduce a battery such as an ordinary dry cell into the circuit, the battery then being in series with the transformer and relay coils so that the relay will be operated. The amount of energy drawn from the battery during the short intervals of time the device is operated is small, and the life of the battery is satisfactory.

Other and further objects of the invention will appear as the description proceeds.

The accompanying drawings show, for purposes of illustrating the present invention, several embodiments in which the invention may take form, it being understood that the drawings are illustrative of the invention rather than limiting the same.

In these drawings,

Figs. 1, 1a and 1b are circuit diagrams showing a remote control system utilizingrectifiers;

Fig. 2 is a wave form diagram illustrating the wave form of the currents employed;

Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram illustrating the utilization of a battery for obtaining the superposed direct current;

Fig. 4 is a diagram illustrating the superposing of the direct current on the alternating current wave; I

Fig. 5 is a side elevational view of a relay;

Fig. 6 is a sectional view through the relay;

Fig. 7 is an inverted plan view of the same; and

Fig. 8 illustrates an indexing type of relay.

In the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, the alternating current source such as a transformer is indicated at Ill. This transformer is indicated as having a variable voltage output, but for toy train operation is designed to give a maximum voltage of volts. The transformer is connected by the wire I i with one of the wheel-bearing rails I2 of a toy railroad track. The other side of the transformer is connected to the third rail it of the toy railroad track layout by an impedance ll, preferably an inductance or choke coil (on account of heating), a half-wave rectifier l5 (shunted by greases anormallyclosedswitchiandbyareslstance thelinebyaswitchfl. Iineemrmaeeries l1), wire it and manually operable train-controlling switch l9.

As the half-wave rectifier blocks out one half oi an alternating current wave, the power transmission would be halved it a resistor such as I! were not provided. This resistor carries a substantial portion of the power supply and insures more uniform operation of the load.

The structures diagrammatically illustrated at the right 01' the railroad track are those carried on the locomotive or train. The current is picked up by the usual current collector l9 bearing on the third rail and returned through the axles is". A load, indicated at L, may include lamps on the cars or locomotive indicated at 2|, and a propulsion motor 2i whose field and armature are interconnected with the supply line by a reversing switch 22. This reversing switch is electromagnetically operated and is preferably of the type which operates to stop the propulsion motor or reverse its direction of rotation when the manual train controlling switch I9 is manipulated This type of reversing switch does not aii'ect the train lights. It is in common use in this art.

The train also carries a relay 23 which is permanently connected to the terminals of the toy locomotive or car. This relay is shown more in detail in Figs. 5 to 8. It is constructed so that the maximum alternating current voltage available will not operate the relay so as to close the circuit indicated at 24, or operate an indexing mechanism. The contact 24 is in series with the accessory to.be operated when the relay functions. This is here indicated in the form of a motor having the usual field and armature. This motor may be employed to operate a blower for producing an air whistle, or any other form of current consuming device may be employed.

When the circuit parts are in normal position indicated in Fig. 1 of the drawings, alternating current is flowing through the choke coil i4, the shunt i6, wire is, switch i9, third rail ll, collector shoe i9, then through the load 20 and 2| and coil of the relay 2!, wheels I9", track rail and wire Ii to the other side of the transformer. If the switch It is pressed part-way down, the shunt about the rectifier I5 is opened and, owing to the drawing of current through the rectifier, it generates a direct current. This direct current potential is impressed upon the circuit, including the choke coil i4, transformer wire ii, track i2, relay coil and load, third rail ll, switch i9 and wire I 8. This direct current potential may be as low as one-half a volt and yet satisfactorily operate the relay 28. As long as the switch it is held part-way down, and these conditions maintain, the relay 23 holds the contact 24 so that the blower or other accessory is operated. The switch I6 is preferably provided with an additional contact 26 so that when the switch It is pressed all the way down, the choke coil I4 is shunted so as to ofiset the resistance drop in the rectifier l5 and resistance i1 and restore substantially the normal voltage to the load circuit.

Instead of a half-wave dry type rectifier, one may, as shown in Fig. 1a, employ a vibratory rectifier 21 connected across a shunting resistance 28, control being effected by shunting the resistance by a switch 29 or stopping the vibrator by a switch 29'.

Another means of introducing the equivalent of a direct current component is shown in Fig. lb. It employs a rectifier 34 and current limiting resistance 35 which may be connected across impedance I! may be inserted.

'Iheapproximatewaveiormsoithecurrents inthe circuit ofl'ig. 1 areindicatedinl'ig.2. phase shifting being ignored, and diii'erences in absolute values slightly exaggerated. The alternatingcurrentsinewaveflhasanaxisx. when the switch I4 is pressed part way down so as to un-shunt the rectifier, the wave form is that indicated at ll, producing distortion. The axis oi this wave is displaced, as indicated at s. The average direct current component is indicated by this displacement. When the switch I4 is pressed all the way down so that the coil I4 is shunted, the amplitude of the wave form I is increased as indicated at 22 and restored to the original eil'ective value.

When the train is standing still on the track. no current is drawn by the propulsion motor. The lamp load may be so small that insuiiicient direct current voltage is developed in the rectifler to operate the relay. In order to load the rectifier, the control box, which normally includes the structures between the transformer and the track, is provided with an auxiliary resistance 38 connected to a normally open switch 39. Closing switch 38 will load the rectifier and send the direct current through the relay so that the whistle or other accessory may be operated.

In the arrangement shown in Fig. 3, the rectifier and auxiliary circuits are replaced by a battery such as a dry cell for obtaining the direct current. Here the wire I! corresponding to the wire i8 01' Fig. 1 is connected to a switch arm 44 which is adapted to pass over three contacts 4|,

42 and 42. The switch arm is broad enough to bridge two adjacent contacts. Contact 4| is connected to the transformer lead 44 by a battery such as a dry cell 4!. The lead 44 is connected directly to the contact 42 by a wire indicated at 46, and is connected to the contact 42 through a small resistor 41.

When the switch arm 40 is in contact with 42, alternating current is supplied to the load circuit and when it is shifted so that it engages only the contact 4|, alternating current on which is superposed a small direct voltage is supplied to the load circuit. The impedance ofi'ered by the battery to the alternating current is very small so that the battery is not overheated thereby. In intermediate position, the battery 4| is short-circuited through the resistance 41 so that the circuit is not opened. The relay operates the same as above described.

In Fig. 4 the sinusoidal alternating current wave is indicated at 48, and the direct current potential at 4!. The resulting wave form is indicated at Bl.

In both the circuit arrangements above indicated, it will be noted that the operation or the whistle or other accessory is achieved without opening the load circuit. This is particularly important in toy trains having automatic reversing mechanism, as any opening of the circuit, even momentarily, will operate the reversing mechanism.

The relay 22, 24 is indicated in detail in Figs. 5, 6 and 7. It is provided with a coil 44 having one end connected by a wire II with an insulated terminal plate 62 and the other end grounded. This terminal plate is adapted to be connected by a wire 62 with the collector shoe bearing on the third rail. The terminal plate 42 is also connected through the field and armature oi the motor or other accessory 2!. The opposite side of this accessory is connected to an insulated relay contact 68 whose lower end is bent outwardly as indicated at 66.

The coil 66 is placed about a core and the core is mounted in between a U-shaped body or yoke 66 and magnetic shunt 61 having low residual magnetism. The core 66 carries copper lag rings 68 and a core-head 69. The armature is indicated at 10. It is secured to an armature spring H by rivets indicated at 12. The armature spring hasthe configuration shown in Fig. '7. It has two hinge-forming extensions 13, 13 adapted to pass through openings 14 in the hinge plate 15 and downwardly struck prongs 16 to prevent removal of the armature. These spring extensions are tensioned to exert a lifting action on the adjacent end of the armature and hold it against the yoke 66. The armature spring has a U-shaped slot indicated at' 11 and extends through a slot in the plate 19. It has a contact 80 opposite the extension 64 on the contact member 63 so as to ground the accessory 25.

For the purposes above described, the relay is designed so as not to close on any alternating current voltage obtainable from the transformer. Where the maximum normal voltage is 25 volts, the closing voltage for the relay is kept above 28 to 30 volts.

It will be noted that the relay has a path of low reluctance for the alternating current flux, and that the leakage fiux through the air gap to the armature is kept to a minimum by the design of the core head and the copper lag rings. In the design, the portion of the core passing through the lag rings is made of very small crosssection so as to increase the efllciency of the lag rings and produce a large drop in magnetomotive force through the air gap. On direct current the lag rings become ineffective and there is sufficient leakage flux in the air path (owing to the proportioning of the main core and shunt paths) to attract the armature mechanically and to hold the armature in the raised position.

Owing to the manner in which the armature is mounted at the pivot point, considerable lifting force is exerted at the hinge point by the springs 13 so as to obtain a good'electrical and magnetic contact between the armature and adjacent end of the yoke. This good magnetic contact is available without in any way affecting the pull required to raise the armature, except for the slight amount of friction introduced at the hinge.

In the arrangement shown in Fig. 8, the relay armature 8| is provided with an extension 82- carrying a ratchet pawl 83 cooperable with a ratchet wheel 84 on a drum 85. This drum may carry contacts for controlling auxiliary circuits in accordance with the position to which it is moved by the relay. With this type of relay, an operation is effected each time a direct current impulse is impressed on the line.

The electromagnetic device shown in Figures 5 to 8, inclusive, forms the subject matter of my divisional application, Serial No. 263,386 filed Mar. 22, 1939.

It is obvious that the invention may be embodied in many forms and constructions within the scope of the claims, and I wish it to be understood that the particular forms shown are but a few of the many forms. Various modifications and changes being possible, I do not otherwise limit myself in any way with respect thereto.

What is claimed is:

1. A remote control system having a load,

an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for operating said -load, a relay in shunt with the load, the relay being incapable of operating on said alternating current potential and frequency but operable on a small direct current potential, a resistance shunted rectifier in series with the relay, source, and load, a normally closed shunt about the rectifier whereby a small direct current potential may be introduced into the circuit when the normally closed shunt is opened, the resistance shunted rectifier then having insufificient reactance to interfere with operation of the load, and a translating device whose circuit is controlled by the relay when operated by said direct current source.

2. A remote control system as claimed in claim 1, having an impedance normally in series with the source, and a switch for short circuiting the impedance when the rectifier shunt is opened.

3. A remote control system as claimed in claim 1, having an impedance normally in series with the source, and a switch for short circuiting the impedance when the rectifier shunt is opened, the voltage drop in the impedance being substantially equal to the voltage drop in the rectifier so that the voltage supplied to the load is substantially the same when the rectifier is short circulted and the impedance not shunted as it is when the rectifier is not short circuited and the impedance is short circuited.

4. A remote control system as claimed in claim 1, having an artificial load for the rectifier whereby direct current may be had for operating the relay when the first mentioned load draws insufiicient current.

5. A remote control system having a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for operating said load, a relay in shunt with the load, the relay being incapable of operating on said alternating current potential and frequency but operable on a small direct current potential, a half wave rectifier provided with a resistance shunt and a normally closed shunt whereby a small direct current potential sufiicient for actuating the relay may be introduced into the circuit upon the opening of the normally closed shunt and while the alternating current is supplied to the load.

6. In combination, a track having two rails insulated from one another, a vehicle having current collectors, a vehicle carried propulsion motor and relay both connected to the track for energization when the track is energized, a vehicle carried accessory having one side of its circuit connected to one rail and the other side connected to the other rail only when the relay is energized, a source of alternating current connected to the track for-operating the motor, the alternating source being of uniform frequency and incapable of operating the relay to close the accessory circuit, and means to introduce a small direct current potential into the track supply circuit without opening said track supply circuit or interfering with the flow of power to the propulsion motor whereby the relay may be operated to connect the accessory to the alternating current source for operation thereby.

'7. The combination set forth in claim 6, wherein the direct current potential is derived from a rectifier connected between the alternating current source and one rail so as to be in series with the motor.

8. The combination set forth in claim 6, wherein the direct current potential is derived from a rectifier connected between the alternating current source and one track so as to be in series with the motor. and having in series therewith an impedance adapted to be shunted when the rectifier is operated.

9. The combination set forth in claim 6, wherein the direct current potential is derived from a rectifier connected between the alternating current source and one track so as to be in series with the motor, and having a supplemental load adapted to be connected to the rectifier when the propulsion motor is disconnected.

10. The combination set forth in claim 6, wherein the direct current potential is derived from a battery normally out of circuit but connected between the source and one rail through a switch.

11. In combination, a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for supplying power to said load, a relay comprising a coil connected to said source and in parallel with the load, a magnetic structure of low reluctance for alternating current flux, an armature unafl'ected by said alternating current flux whereby the coil may be continuously in circuit with said source, and circult controlling means actuated by the armature, an accessory in shunt with the coil and in circuit with said circuit controlling means and the alternating current source, and a source of low voltage direct current which may be introduced at will in series with the load and the coil without opening the load circuit or interfering with the flow of power to said load, the direct current source producing a direct current flux which attracts the armature and operates said means whereby the accessory is energized from said source.

12. A remote control system having a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for operating said load, a relay in shunt with the load, the relay being incapable of operating on said alternating current potential and frequency but operable on a small direct current potential whereby the relay may be continuously in circuit with said source, means adapted to be connected in series with the alternating current load and independent of the source for altering the wave form of the currents flowing through the relay and load without opening the circuit to said load or interfering with the flow of power to said load and whereby the equivalent of an unidirectional current is supplied to the relay windings effective to operate the relay while still subject to the alternating current, and a current consuming device operable by current from the alternating current source and whose circuit is controlled by the relay when operated by said unidirectional current.

13. A remote control system in accordance with claim 12, wherein the means for altering the wave form is a rectifier.

14. A remote control system in accordance with claim 12, wherein the means for altering the wave form is a battery.

15. In combination, a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for supplying power to said load, a relay comprising a coil connected to said source and in parallel with the load, a magnetic structure of low reluctance for alternating current flux, an armature unaflected by said alternating current flux whereby the coil may be continuously in circuit with said source, and circuit controlling means actuated by the armature, an accessory in shunt with the coil and in circuit with said circuit controlling means and the alternating current source, and a rectifier which may be introduced at will in series with the load and the coil without opening the load circuit or interfering with the flow of power to said load. the direct current source producing a direct current flux which attracts the armature and operates said means whereby the accessory is ener- S zed from said source.

16. In combination, a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for supplying power to said load, a relay comprising a coil connected to said source and in parallel with the load, a magnetic structure of low reluctance for alternating current flux, an armature unaffected by said alternating current flux, whereby the coil may be continuously in circuit with said source, and circuit controlling means actuated by the armature, an accessory in shunt with the coil and in circuit with said circuit controlling means and the alternating current source, and a battery which may be introduced at will in series with the load and the coil without opening the load circuit or interfering with the flow of power to said load, the direct current source producing a direct current flux which attracts the armature and operates said means whereby the accessory is energized from said source.

17. In combination, a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for supplying power to said load, a relay comprising a coil connected to said source and in parallel with the load, a magnetic structure of low reluctance for alternating current flux, an armature unaffected by said alternating current flux whereby the coil may be continuously in circuit with said source, and normally open relay contacts actuated by the armature, an accessory in shunt with the coil and in circuit with said contacts, and the alternating current source, and a source of low voltage direct current which may be introduced at will in series with the load and the coil without opening the load circuit or interfering with the flow of power to said load, the direct current source producing a direct current flux which attracts the armature and closes the relay contacts to energize the accessory from said source.

18. In combination, a load, an alternating current source of predetermined maximum potential and uniform frequency for supplying power to said load, a relay comprising a coil connected to said source and in parallel with the load, a magnetic structure of low reluctance for alternating current flux, an armature unaffected by said alternating current flux whereby the coil may be continuously in circuit with the said source, indexing mechanism actuated by the armature, and a circuit controller in series with the alternating current source and operated by the indexing mechanism, and a source of low voltage direct current which may be introduced at will in series with the load and the coil without opening the load circuit or interfering with the flow of power to said load, the direct current source producing a direct current flux which attracts the armature and operates the indexing mechanism.

JOSEPH L. BONANNO.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2465691 *Dec 12, 1945Mar 29, 1949Union Switch & Signal CoTrack circuit apparatus
US2850987 *Sep 4, 1953Sep 9, 1958Epergue Edmond GLimited two dimensional electric transmission system
US2872879 *May 10, 1954Feb 10, 1959Vierling Robert LModel railway system
US2941346 *Nov 2, 1953Jun 21, 1960Perry Edward GordonMethod and apparatus for the remote control of a lawn mower
US2961797 *Sep 19, 1955Nov 29, 1960Lionel CorpReversing vehicle toy
US3037461 *Oct 3, 1955Jun 5, 1962Barry Leonard DRailway control system
US4575031 *Nov 22, 1983Mar 11, 1986Sasib S.P.A.Device for detecting the unbalance between the two fractions of the return traction current in the rails of a railroad track
US4747351 *Dec 18, 1985May 31, 1988Baret David BSolid-state whistle and horn activation system for model railroads
US6616505 *Sep 3, 1999Sep 9, 2003Michael P. ReaganModel train sound board interface
DE937874C *Apr 7, 1950Jan 19, 1956Werner KuehnSteuerung und Schalteinrichtung fuer ein fernbetaetigtes, elektrisch betriebenes Spielzeug
DE966976C *Mar 10, 1949Sep 19, 1957Joachim KrebsFernsteuerung fuer ein elektrisch angetriebenes, an eine Fahrbahn gebundenes Fahrspielzeug
DE971869C *Oct 4, 1949Apr 9, 1959Maerklin & Cie Gmbh GebEinrichtung zur Speisung und Umsteuerung des Fahrmotors von Modellbahnen sowie zur Betaetigung einer Kupplung auf einem Fahrzeug
Classifications
U.S. Classification104/297, 307/26, 246/81, 318/263, 246/167.00R, 246/219
International ClassificationA63H19/14, A63H19/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63H19/14
European ClassificationA63H19/14