US 2156880 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 2, 1939- l. l. sLoMoN I2,156,880
APPAREL PROTECTOR AND INDICATOR Filed Dec. 2, 1937 @'17 viga/Z'- .Z'Orp op Patented May 2, 1939 UNITED sTATEs 15ans PATENT orifice 10 Claims.
This invention relates to apparel protectors.
The primary object of the invention is to provide a protecting device for apparel of that character which comes in contact with the body, to prevent the apparel from becoming soiled and shopworn through normal trial fittings toA which such apparel is subjected prior to the sale by the retail merchant.
Retail merchants of apparel have been embarrassed, nancially and otherwise, by the certain unethical practice in the consumer trade which entails great iinancial loss, and also loss of patronage. Such practice involves the purchase of apparel from the merchant, and the return of the apparel after wearing for a refund of the full sale price, with the purchaser avowing the apparel has never been worn. Under these conditions, the retail merchant is helpless to contradict the perdious purchaser without positive proof, for any argument, albeit justinable, causes loss of patronage. The merchant is obliged to accept the returned merchandise, refund the sale price, and sell it, as best he can, as seconds or as shop worn apparel at a great loss.
Another important feature of the present invention involves the construction of the protector to embody an indicator which remains inactive to body contact during trial iittings by the retail l merchant; but which may be rendered sensitive, at the time the apparel is sold, to abnormal wear beyond that period necessary for a normal trial tting by the purchaser.
Further objects of the invention are to provide HJ a device of the character referred to which is thoroughly reliable and eflicient for its intended use; that is easily manipulated by the sales person; that requires no particular or special knowledge to operate; that is easily and economically applied without appreciably detracting from the appearance of the apparel; that is positive in detecting apparel that has been subjected to wear other than normal trial fitting; and that is comparatively inexpensive to manufacture.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, the invention consists of a novel combination, assembly, and arrangement, as will hereinafter be more specifically described and illustrated in the accompanying speciiication and drawings, butl it is to be understood that changes, variations, and modifications may be resorted to without departing from the subjoined claims.
In the drawing wherein is disclosed the preferred embodiment of the invention, and wherein like reference characters indicate like parts throughout the several views:
Figure l is a front elevation of a person in upright posture bedecked with certain wearing apparel, illustrating the manner in which the protector may be combined with apparelwhich contacts the human body.
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view partly in section, in the area of a neck or the waist line respectively, ofthe waist and under pants of the apparel illustrated in Fig. 1, showing :inadaptation therewith, of the present invention.
Figure 3 is a partly exploded view similar to Fig. 1, showing the protector applied, and also showing the insensitive and impregnable cover partly removed, and also showing a partici' the indicating ply, layer, or strip prepared for sensitizing reaction upon coming in contact with the body.
Figures 4 and 5 are fragmentary plan views of the indicator ply, layer, or strip removed from the apparel, and showing the indicator after it has been sensitized or developed by contact with the body, and further showing two different designs or motifs on the indicator strip. 5
Figure 6 is a plan View of the protector applied to the inside smooth panel of apparel such as a stocking indicated at D in Figure 1.
Figure 7 is a View similar to Fig. 6, showing the insensitive or impregnable cover removed, and also showing the indicator strip after it has been sensitized or developed by contact with the body, and further showing another design in addition to those shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
It is the aim of the present invention to devise a protector for apparel of the character that comes in contact with the body of the person. The invention is adapted for use on all kinds of apparel, and although the invention is illustrated in connection with apparel worn by women, its adaptation to girls, boys and Lmens apparel is so obvious from the illustrations as to need no further illustration to teach its application to girls, boys and mens apparel. That is to say, illustrating the invention on the neck part of a ladys waist as shown in the drawing, teaches the application of the invention to the necks of under and outer shirts for men, Women, boys, and girls, because there is little7 if any, appreciable difference between the neck construcn tions of the different garments. It is also believed that in teaching the application of the invention to the arm hole structure in a ladys waist, it will be obvious that it is adaptable to arm hole structures in under-shirts, and outershirts, as well as dress shirts for men, women, boys, and girls. This arm-hole structure would also apply to incorporating the protector over the crotch of under and outer pants. Moreover, it is believed that teaching an application of the invention to stockings and under pants in the drawing, would make its adaptation to these garments clear to those skilled in the art, regardless of Whether the stockings and under parts are made for men, Women, boys or girls. Furthermore, it is to be noted that, in addition to the apparel specifically illustrated, the application of the invention to all other articles of apparel such as gloves, collars, coats, pants, corsets, brassires, petticoats, slips, hats and caps, will be obvious to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, a feature of the present invention to provide a protector, which is adaptable for embodiment in all articles of apparel that, in their customary position on the human body, come in contact with the body.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, it will be seen that 9 indicates generally a human body adorned by a Waist I0, constructed with customary neck opening II and an arm hole on the inside of the waist where the sleeve I2 joins the body of the waist.
One manner of applying the protector of the present invention is indicated at A, Where it is secured about the major portion of the neck opening II. The protector A consists of an indicator layer, ply, or strip I5 and an insensitive cover I6. In the customary construction of garments, such as a waist, in the illustration in Fig. 1 of the drawing, the edge of the fabric I8 is folded back upon itself at I3 about the neck opening and secured by one or more rows o-f permanent stitching I4, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The indicator layer, ply, or strip I5 in this application of the invention to the neck of a garment is made to overlap the folded part I3 of the fabric and conforms generally to the shape of the same. The insensitive or impregnable cover part I6 conforms in shape to the indicator strip I5 and overlaps the strip to form a protective sealing sheath to prevent accidental exposure of the indicator strip to contact with the body of the person. Both the indicator ply, strip or layer I5 and the insensitive cover part I6 are stitched to the fold with a specially treated deteriorating or frangible temporary thread I'I which will be afterward explained. The width of the indicator strip I5 and its insensitive covering is about the width of the fold I3 so as to overlap the fold and promote economy of construction and a pleasing appearance.
It will be obvious that the protector B may be applied to the upper edge of the waist line of the under pants in the same manner as is described in applying protector A to the neck opening of the waist. The construction at the upper edge of the waist line of the under pants will be identical with that construction at the neck of the waist opening II, shown in Fig. 2, and a repetition of the construction is believed to be unnecessary for a clear understanding of the invention applied to under pants.
It is the custom to provide temporary arrn shields in apparel such as dresses, while the garments are being tried on by the potential purchaser in making the selection. Another adaptation of the invention is shown at C in Fig. 1. In this form of the invention, the indicator strip similar to indicator strip I5 overlaps the crotch seam and extends over the margins of the fabric on both sides of the crotch seam. Part of the indicator strip will extend onto the sleeve, and a part will extend down the inside of the body of the waist or other garment. Then the insensitive cover similar to cover I6 in Figs. 2 and 3 Will overlap the indicator strip which cover is also similar to that shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The indicator strip and cover therefore are secured over the crotch of the arm hole by stitching with special thread similar in all respects to the thread I'I'. It will be obvious that the adaptation of the invention to the crotches of arm holes is applicable to the crotches o-f under and outer pants. It will thus be seen that where the protector is applied to the crotch of arm holes that the custom of supplying trial shields by the merchants may be dispensed with, for it performs the function of a dress shield to prevent body contact with the apparel.
Another adaptation of the invention is shown at D in Fig. 1, and is shown in detail in Figs. 6 and 7. This application of the inveention is adaptable to any smooth surface of apparel which contacts the body, such as a slip, underwear, sweat-bands of hats and caps, corsets, as well as to stockings, where it is desirable to place the protector inwardly from an edge or angular surface of the apparel.
In this application of the invention illustrated at D, the ply, layer, or strip I5 is placed on the side of the fabric I8 of the stocking next to the body. Then over the top of the indicator strip I5' is placed the insensitive cover panel I5. A
row of stitching secures both cover I6' and ins dicator I 5 to the fabric of the apparel by special thread I'I. The strips I5', cover I6 and thread I1' are formed of the same materials as the strip I5, cover I6, and thread I1 explained in connection with other forms of the invention. The shape of the strip I5 is immaterial as long as it will contact the body of the person, and for economy in assembly, it is desirable to have the cover IB conform with the selected shape of the indicator strip I5 so that when they are stitched to the fabric I8', the cover I6 shall seal the indicator strip I5 from contact with the body of the person.
It is the purpose of the present invention to make the indicator strip I5 or I5 perform some character of change from its original state when it comes into contact with the body of a person during a period of considerable wearing. For example, the material of the indicator strip should be such as to resist change if the apparel is tried on for a short period of a trial fitting; yet the indicator strip will change upon exposure to body contact over a period of wear from one day, or one evening.
The indicator strip may be made of fabric or paper saturated with material that will change color and remain changed after contact with perspiration of the body. Many dyes will serve this purpose and are well known to those skilled in the art. Such a dye is disclosed in Patent 1,975,340, October 2, 1934. 'I'he indicator strip may be impregnated with hygroscopic indicators Well known in the art, which change color upon coming in contact with the moisture of the skin. Such hygroscopic indicators may be made by saturating fabric or gauze with solutions of a salt of cobalt, such as cobalt chloride, or copper sulfate and thereafter drying the fabric or paper. Upon contact with the moisture of -the skin, the indicator strip will change color indicating to the merchant that the apparel has been worn for a considerable period of time.
The indicating strip I or I5 may also function by a change oi color based uponthe acid or alkaline, or both acid and alkaline constituents of perspiration. According to Foster (revised edition) in the publication entitled Textbook of Physiology .at page 560:
When sweat is scanty, the reaction is generally acid, but when abundant, is alkaline; and when a portion of the skin is well Washed the sweat which is collected immediately afterward is usually alkaline. From this, we may infer that the secretion of the sweat-glands is naturally alkaline, but that when mixed, sweat is acid; the .acidity due to fatty (or o-ther) acids of the sebum.
Based upon the acid and alkaline constitution of perspiration, the indicator strip- I5 or I5' may be a fabric saturated over the entire area; in
spots I9, in Fig. 4; in a design 20 in Fig. 5; or ina legend Used indicated at 2l, in Fig. 7 with any desirable chemical color indicator for acids or alkalies, or both, which are well known in the art, and thereafter the strip may be dried. The strip I5 or I5 may leave different parts, alternate spots, or alternate designs and legends, impregnated one for acid and the other for alkali so as to meet the requirements of the entire range of the constituents of humanv perspiration. The well known chemical indicators change the color of the indicator strip I5 or I5 from one color to another depending upon the indicator selected, and the constituents of the perspiration of the particular person whose skin is contacted thereby. The known chemical colo-r indicators to designate acid and alkaline contents of human perspiration offer a wide variety of selection both as to sensitivity to .acid and alkali, and as to color. Referring t0 the hydrogen ion concentration table as a standard of selection where pH '7 is the theoretical neutral Zone with the scale, some of the suitabie indicators and the-ir interval of change will be set out, although they may be selected from page '701, The Handbook of Chemistry by Lange, published in 1934. It will be seen that phenolphthalein is` red to alkaline and colorless to acid perspiration having an interval of change in the pH range from 8 to 9.6. Thymolphthalein is yellow to acid andblue to .alkaline perspiration which has an interval of change from 9.3 to 10.5 in the pH scale. M Cresol Purple has a color change within the pH range 7.4 to 9; 'I'hymol Blue has a color change in the pH range from 1.2 to 2.8; Methyl Red has a color change in the pH range from 4.4 to 6.2. It will thus be seen that the indicating strip I5 or I5 may be treated to produce any color or variety of colors, and `for any desirable acid and alkaline concentration of thehuman vperspiration within the limits of known color indicators.
The indicator 'strip I5 or I5 may be made from any of the well known commercial indicator papers, which change color in acid and alkaline perspiration according to the character of paper selected and the concentration of the acid or alkaline constituents of the perspiration. A wide range of selection is offered at page 227, in the publication by Kalthoif Si Furman, entitled Indicators and published by John Wiley & Sons in 1926. Here it will be` seen that there is a color change in Methyl Orange paper within the pH interval from 2.4 to 3.8; Brown Phenol Blue paper changes color in the pH interval 3.4 to 4.6; alizarin paper changes color in the pH interval 4.0 to 6.0; azolitmin paper changes color in the pI-I range 6.2 to 8.0; while Neutral Red paper changes color in the pI-I range from '7.0 to 9.0. The original color and resultant change in color upon contact of the various papers with the perspiration of the skin may be selected as the fancy desires, within the limits of known indicator papers.
It may also be desirable to have the indicator strip I5 or I5 react in response to the heat of the body. In this event, the strip is made from a solid which is substantially rigid at room temperatures and plastic at body temperatures. A wax, rosin, rubber or pyroxylin composition Will serve the purpose. From this aspect of the invention, when the indicator I5 or I5 contacts the body, the strip will become plastic resulting in deformation, distortion, .and change from its original shape or form. When the indicator combined with the garment is removed from Contact with the body, the deformation congeals to substantial rigidity notifying the merchant that the garment has been worn a considerable length of time. In using wax, rosin, or pyroxylin compositions, the edges of the strip I5 or I5 may be perforated to admit the needle in stitching it to the garment. If other fastening means are used to attach the strip to the apparel such as separable fasteners, the male or female part of the fastener may be anchored to the strip and its counterpart secured to the fabric of the apparel by any suitable means. Openings for the reception of pins and rivets may be made in the Wax or p-yroxylin strip I5 or I5' in event it vis desired to attach the same in this manner to the fabric of the apparel. It is within the contemplation of the invention to use any faste-ning means to secure the indicating strip and its cover to the apparel.
The cover layer I6 or IB may be made of water-proof and moistureproof regenerated cellulose or gelatin lms, the former being known by the trade name Cellophane Thus, it will be seen that as long as the cover I5 or I6 encloses or seals the perspiration sensitive indicator I5 or I5 from contact with the body, the indicator will not function. When the cover is removed however, moisture from the body for a considerable period, such as a whole evening, or a day, will change the color of the indicator strip. In that case, where the indicator strip I5 or I5 is impregnated with acid or alkali responsive chemicals, the color of the strip will change upon exposure to the perspiration for a considerable period of time, such as an entire evening, when the color I6 or I' is removed. A color change will also occur in the indicator strip I5 or I5 impregnated with a dye which changes color upon contact with the acid or alkaline constituents of the perspiration when the cover I5 or I5 is removed. It is also pointed out that the cover I6 or I6 being waterproof, it will be unpregnable to the perspiration of the body. Being so, the cover protects the garment from perspiration during trial ttings and acts like the customary protector shield in lieu of which it has been substituted, and at the same time prevents the indicator strip covered thereby from functioning. The cellulose and gelatin ilm cover I5 and I6' are only used where it is desired to cover that class of indicator strips which react to moisture and perspiration.
Where indicator strips are made of the materials thermoplastic to body temperatures, the cover I6 or IB of sheet asbestos, cork, or other heat insulating materials is used. The covers in this case are easily removed because they are flexible and have little tensile strength, all of which admits of easy removal. Such a covering is impregnable, or substantially so, to heat from the body, in which case, the indicator strip of thermoplastic material responsive to body temperatures will not function while the cover I6 or I6 envelops or seals it.
The deteriorating, frangible, specially treated temporary thread I1 and I1 which is used solely to secure the indicator ply or strip I and l5 with its cover I6 and I6 is prepared from commercial cotton thread of customary tensile strength. The commercial thread is treated with a mineral or organic acid of a strength suitable for this purpose, such as sulphuric acid. The treatment with the acid results in a thread which has only sufiicient tensile strength to hold the cover and indicator to the apparel under ordinary conditions of trial fittings, in the retail store or the home. The specially treated thread I1 and l1 will deteriorate in a certain period of' time determinable by the average turnover of the particular apparel by the retail merchant. At the same time, the acid treatment of the thread reduces the tensile strength so as to permit easy removal by tearing or ripping the cover I6 and I6 which is selected to admit such removal.
At the same time, the specially treated thread l1 and I1 has a peculiar construction that may be detected under the naked eye, which is entirely different from commercial threads. By using the specially treated thread I1 and I1', the unscrupulous purchaser having in mind the return of the garment after wearing the same for one day, or one evening, will be frustrated in the attempt to remove the indicator strip and cover during the unauthorized wearing of the garment, because the specially treated thread cannot be readily obtained by the purchaser. Thus, if the indicator strip l5 and l5 could be removed by the unscrupulous purchaser and then sewed back in place when the garment was returned to the retail merchant, the different kind of thread used in sewing the indicator strip on the apparel again would be readily apparent to the merchant. It will thus be seen that the specially treated thread I'l and I1 has a peculiar telltale function in addition to being a fastening means to secure the indicator strip and its cover to the apparel.
It may be desirable under certain conditions to attach the indicator strip and cover, in all forms of the invention, by other means, than sewing, in which event, the cover and strip may be secured to the fabric and to each other by separate separable fasteners, or pins, the application of which is believed to be obvious to those skilled in the art without a detailed illustration thereof.
'Ihe apparel protector may be applied to the apparel at the factory or in the retail merchants stores. When applied to the garment and placed on display for sale, the indicator strip and its cover appear as shown in Figs. 2 and 6 of the drawing. That is to say, the indicator strip I5 or I5 lies under and is sealed by the cover I6 or I6. In this condition, the device of the present invention acts as a protector to prevent the skin of the person trying on the apparel from contacting the fabric thereof. It will thus be seen that the try-on protectors such as dress shields and the like may be dispensed with.
However, when the sales person makes the sale,
the cover l5 or I6 is removed by tearing or rupturing the entire cover or a considerable portion thereof free from the indicator strip l5 or I5.
The apparel is delivered then to the residence of the purchaser with the indicator strip ready for development or exposure to the body of the purchaser. Should the purchaser make a bona fide trial of the apparel after the same is delivered to the residence, such a short period of trial will not sensitize or develop the indicator. However, should the apparel be worn for any considerable period of time, such as a day or a whole evening, the indicator will function by distortion or change of color readily apparent to the merchant. It will thus be seen that when the apparel is returned by the unscrupulous purchaser, with the avowal that the apparel has never been worn, the merchant has positive proof to refute the contention.
Having described my invention, what I claim 1. In combination, a piece of Wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin of the wearer, indicator means reactive to contact with the skin, a removable cover disposed over the indicator means insensitive to the influence of the skin providing a seal between the indicator means and the skin, and means for attaching the indicator means and cover to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin.
2. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin of the wearer, a skin actuated structurally changeable indicator connected to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, and a removable means also connected to the aforesaid skin contacting portion of the apparel to render the indicator inoperative to the influence of the skin.
3. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin of the wearer, and a skin actuated structually changeable indicator connected to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, said indicator being a part in addition to the functional parts of the apparel.
4. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin, a dyed indicating means changeable in color upon contact with the skin, a removable cover over the indicating means sealing the indicating means from the influence of the skin, `and means for connecting the indicating means and cover to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin.
5. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin, an indicator normally rigid at room temperature and plastic upon contact with the skin and connected to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, and a heat insulating removable cover disposed over the indicator and also connected to the aforesaid portion of the apparel to resist deformation of the indicator.
6. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin, a thermoplastic indicator deformable at body temperatures and connected to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, and a heat insulating cover also connected to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin over the indicator to-y seal the same from heat radiated from the skin.
7. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin,
an indicator means responsive to contact with the skin, said indicator means being adapted for attachment to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, said indicator means being a part in addition to the functional parts of the apparel, and a removable cover insensitive to the influence of the skin adapted for mounting on the apparel in a manner to seal the indicator means from contact with the skin.
8. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin, a skin sensitive indicator member adapted to be attached to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin and adapted to contact the skin of the wearer and be subjected to the charaoteristics of the body to detect when the article of apparel has been worn a predetermined time, said indicator member being a part in addition to the functional parts of the apparel to which it is attached.
9. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin, a skin sensitive indicator member adapted to be attached to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin and adapted to contact the skin of the wearer and be subjected to the characteristics of the body to detect when the article of apparel has been worn a predetermined time, said indicator member being a part in addition to the functional parts of the apparel to which it is attached, and a removable cover insensitive to the characteristics of the skin disposed over the indicator member and adapted to protect the article of apparel from contact with the skin.
10. In combination, a piece of wearing apparel, a portion of which normally contacts the skin of the wearer, indicator means reactive to co-ntact with the skin, a removable cover disposed over the indicator means insensitive to the influence of the skin providing a seal between` the indicator means and the skin, and means for attaching the indicator means and cover to said portion of the apparel that contacts the skin, said attaching means including stitching with a chemically treated brous thread.
IRA I. SLOMON.