|Publication number||US2158642 A|
|Publication date||May 16, 1939|
|Filing date||Sep 2, 1936|
|Priority date||Sep 6, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2158642 A, US 2158642A, US-A-2158642, US2158642 A, US2158642A|
|Inventors||Tartrais Eugene Henri|
|Original Assignee||Tartrais Eugene Henri|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (7), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 16, 1939. E. H. TARTRAIS 2,158,642
APPARATUS FOR CORRECTING THE DEFECTS OF ACCOMMODATION OF THE EYE Filed Sept. 2, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet l May 16, 1939. HaTARTRAls 2,158,642
APPARATUS FOR CORRECTING THE DEFECTS OF ACCOMMODATION OF THE EYE Filed Spt. 2, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .FieJS. 47
HENRI TARTRAIS 2; ATTORNEV5 Patented May 16, 1939 UNITED STATES APPARATUS FOR CORRECTING THE FECTS OF ACCOMMODATION OF THE EYE Eugene Henri Tartrais, Montmorency, France Application September 2, 1936, SerialNo. 99,048 In France September 6, 1935 6 Claims.
This invention relates to means for correcting defects in the accommodation of the eye.
Whether myopia, hypermetropia, or presbyopia is concerned, the eye partially or completely deprived of its faculty of accommodation can no longer see distinct images of objects situated, according to circumstances, beyond or on the near side of its limit distance of accommodation. From this distance, either farther away or closer, the shape of the eyeball remains invariable. The result is that such an eye cannot be corrected by a single lens. An infinite number of lenses would theoretically be necessary, one for each of the distances not included in the limit of accommodation. Practically, a much lesser number is used. Persons who simply have to read and write just use a pair of spectacles. But the exercise of a great number of professions is impossible with such a simple apparatus. If we consider 20 for instance the case of a skilled presbyopic workman who must, for writing, use a pair of spec-- tacles provided with glasses of 4 diopters, in some cases, it will be necessary for him to look at his work from a short distance, or at his model from a longer distance, and, finally, to rapidly locate a tool or a member situated still farther away, that is to say, this time, in his, field of accommodation. In other words, three corrections at the minimum (2, 4 and 6 diopters) are necessary for him, this making four conditions with the absence of any correction, that is to say the removal of the spectacles. In fact, this workman has to adjust a pair of spectacles, then to remove it and to replace it by another, then to put on the two together, finally to remove the whole, and this incessantly, so that this gymnastic performance takes four fifths of his time, in the most favorable case, that is to say if this wor man uses both his hands and keeps them clean.
Otherwise, no work is possible for this man who may be in full possession of his faculties and talent. Nothing has been done for remedying this situation.
It sufiices however, as will be explained and 45 described hereinafter, to take the two pairs of spectacles of the workman in questionor a greater numberand to provide their branches or bows with a device allowing them to rock about small joint pivots which are located on the temples and are rigid with a mounting secured firmly to the head. It is thus possible, with a single hand, clean or dirty, or even with a single finger, to raise to the forehead or to lower in front of the eyes either pair of spectacles or both. The operation, whatever it may be,
requiresonly a; fraction of a second. The spectacles are held in the desired position by suitable means, for instance by friction members arranged on the pivots.
In the accompanying drawings, given by way 5 of example only:
Fig. l is a general'elevation'of an embodiment of a correcting apparatus made accordingto the invention and disposed in position for use.
Fig. 2 is a corresponding plan View;
Figs; 3 and-Ba-illustrate, on an enlarged scale, inaxial and cross sections, respectively, the detail of the'joint pivots of the spectacles.
Figs. igand 4a'sh-ow-in sectional elevation and planview, respectively, a noncurved' forehead l5 band of the first modified embodiment.
Figs. 5 and5a show insectional elevation and plan View, respectively, a second modified embodiment of a forehead band.
Fig. 6 is a detail of a temporal plate with a 20 Cardan pivot.
Figs; '7and la-show in sectional elevationand plan view, respectively, a temporal plate provided with a spherical joint.
Fig; 8 is an elevation of a mounting.
Fig. 9 shows the end of a branch or bow of the spectacles.
Fig. 10' is a cross section of the pivot.
Fig; ll is-adetailed section through the Cardan pivot. 30
Fig. 12' is an elevation of'another embodiment of an apparatus made according to the invention and comprising three spectacles.
Fig; 13 is a section, on an enlarged scale, taken on line XIII-XIII of' the preceding figure.
Fig. 14 is" a side view corresponding to Fig. 13, with partial section taken on line XIV-XIV of this figure.
Fig. 15 is a section, on an enlarged. scale, taken on line XV-XV of. Fig. 12;
Fig. 16 is a section taken on line XVI-XVI of Fig. 15,
Fig. 1'7is a plan view corresponding to Fig. 16.
Fig. 18 is a partial section, onan enlarged scale, taken online XVlIL-XVIII of Fig. 12 and showing how the. glasses are mounted.
Fig. l9.-is an elevation. of another. form of constructionof a mounting forming a. helmet.
Fig. 20 is an elevation of. another embodiment.
Fig. 21 is a section taken on line XXI-XXI of the preceding. figure.
Fig. 1 shows the principle of the apparatus in one of its embodiments and assumedto comprise two pairs of spectacles only. The pivots I are rigid. with a metal. band 2 held on, the head by 5 a resilient strip 3 passed through rings 4. The two pairs of spectacles are indicated at and 6. Fig. 2 shows, in plan view, the apparatus of Fig. l, with the same reference numbers.
Figs. 3 and 3a respectively illustrate, on an enlarged scale, in axial and cross sections, the detail of the joint pivots of the spectacles. These figures will be understood from the following explanation: at l is located the pivot which is secured, by a nut ll to the hook ll] of the mounting 2. The hook Ill receives the ring 4 on which the elastic ribbon 3 is secured by means of a metal plate 12 forming a clamp. The pivot l is provided with a groove l3 which receives the claws l4, l5 of friction washers 52, 53 arranged between the branches [6, I! of the spectacles 5 and 6. The whole is held by a milled nut l8 which bears on a Belleville or spring washer IS. The claws prevent the washers from rotating, and it will be understood that the rocking movement of one pair of spectacles does not cause any rocking movement of the other pair of spectacles and cannot tighten or loosen the nut l8.
The apparatus, such as it has been described above, is exactly similar to that first constructed by the inventor himself for his personal use, and it operates perfectly. But, it has been made, so to speak, to measure. It could only by chance fit the shape of the head of another person because: first, the band 2 would not have the required curvature; second, the branches or bows of the spectacles would be too long or too short, and third, the pivots I would not be in line. There is no question of the spacing apart of the bows, because they are sufficiently resilient to adapt themselves to the common differences in sizes of heads and, moreover, it is easy to shape them by hand, as is commonly done for ordinary spectacles.
The two first inconveniences will be eliminated by the means described hereinafter which all have a comon feature, i. e., the band 2 is composed of three members, viz; a band proper and two temporal plates.
In a first embodiment, the forehead band, secured to the temporal plates by a readily detachable connection (hooks for instance), is made of a very malleable metal (annealed pure aluminium for instance) and a plurality of these bands of different lengths are supplied to the client who chooses the most suitable. For shaping it, it suffices to press it on the forehead. In a second embodiment, the forehead band is either metallic and, in this case, Very thin and very resilient, or it is made of very strong fabric, such as Webbing, and the temporal plates slide on this band, with, preferably, a stop device in order that when the adjustment is once made, it cannot be disarranged or only with difficulty. In a third embodiment which, in fact, is only a modification of the second one, the forehead band is made of fabric. It is attached to the temporal plates exactly as stated for the rear elastic ribbon, and it is provided with a stretcher similar to those used for braces, suspenders, wrist watches, etc.
The third of the inconveniences above mentionedlack of alignment of the pivots-will be avoided by connecting the pivots to the temporal plates by spherical joints or Cardan joints. Thus, the alignment is automatic when the spectacles are placed in position. These joints can then be locked, or, on the contrary, they can remain free.
The improvement which has just been indicated will be described in greater detail.
Figs. 4 and 4a respectively illustrate, in elevation and plan view, a noncurved forehead band 2 of the first embodiment. It is bent at its ends for constituting hooks 2B which engage, with slight clamping action, in hooks 2! of the temporal plates 22 illustrated herein as being provided with a pivot 23 mounted on a spherical member and locked by a nut 24, after said band has been placed in position, which step is rendered possible by the clearance 25.
For locking the nut 24, use is made of a special spanner wrench which is inserted in holes 44, and the pivot is held stationary by means of another wrench fitting on the square shaped member 45. The elastic ribbon 3 is passed through an opening 26.
Figs. 5 and 5a respectively illustrate, in elevation and plan view, a forehead band of the second embodiment. In these figures, the ribbon 30, made of metal or of fabric, is passed through openings 2?, 28 and 27 and 28. For preventing it from moving when once adjusted, it is clamped by powerful springs 29, 29'. In the plan view the spring 29 is removed for more clear showing of the ribbon 30.
Fig. 6 shows the detail of a temporal plate provided with a Cardan pivot. 3| designates the Cardan socket secured to the temporal plate 32 by a fork-piece 33, 33. On the other hand, a fork-piece 34, 34 is rigid with a further pivot 35. 35 designates the hook receiving the forehead band 2, and 3'? designates another hook adapted to receive the ring of the elastic ribbon.
Figs. '7 and 7a respectively illustrate, in elevation and plan view, a temporal plate provided with a spherical joint, as in the case of Fig. 4, but with a device by means of which it is not necessary to lock the pivot after adjustment. The nut 24 of Fig. 4 is replaced in Fig. 7 by a washer 38 forcibly fitted on the pivot l and abutting against a shoulder of said pivot, so that the spherical part 39 of the temporal plate is not locked between the washer 38 and the head 4!] of the pivot I. The pivot is therefore movable in the limits permitted by the clearance 4!. For preventing it from rotating, the washer 38 is provided with a buttonhole member 42 receiving a claw 63 secured to the temporal plate. The system therefore remains free, but it can also be locked by replacing the claw 43 by a locking screw.
The experiment which has been made with the apparatus made in accordance with Figs. 1, 2 and 3 has shown that, even after a very long time of use, it does not cause any fatigue or any discomfort. The tightening stress to be exerted on the elastic ribbon is insignificant, and can well be adjustable, as stated for the forehead band. Moreover, all the metal parts bearing on the skin can be lined with a plastic or resilient material (cork, leather, rubber, etc.) If, however, notwithstanding these precautions, some particularly sensitive persons could not endure the apparatus such as has been described, it would be necessary for these persons to use the type of mounting shown in Fig. 8. This mounting is shaped so as to ex-' actly fit the head, as a hat. It is composed of a band 46 passing all round the head, and of a second band 41 secured to the first one and connecting the frontal region to the occipital region. The whole is exactly shaped, and does not comprise any tightening device, and is internally lined with resilient or plastic material. This mounting can, if need be, be taken to pieces and assembled in any suitable manner, so that it can be more easily arranged in a box for transport.
At this latter point of view: for the arrangement in a box and for the transport, it is. advantageous to use, for the spectacles, hinged branches, according to the usual technics. The spectacles takento pieces can thus be folded and placed fiatwise in the. case or box. But it is then necessary to adopt a special device. for fitting the bows or branches on the pivots.
In order that this fitting up operation should be rapidly effected, it must not be necessary to remove the friction washers and they should also not be removed either because they would risk falling and being lost. It will be seen how this result is obtained.
Fig. 9 illustrates the end of the branch of a pair of spectacles. It will be seen that the eyepiece 48 is cut away at 49. On the other hand, the pivot illustrated in cross section in Fig. 10, is provided, not with a groove as indicated at l3 (Fig. 3). but with two vertically arranged flats 50, 50, the friction washers having of course an exactly corresponding shape. For putting on the spectacles, it suffices: first, to slightly loosen the friction members; second, to fit the notches 49 on the flats 50, that is to say with the branches in vertical position; third, to restore said branches to the horizontal position, thus no longer allowing them to fall off, and fourth, to retighten the friction members.
For completing this device, an abutment 5|, shown in Fig. 11, is arranged at the end of the pivot. It prevents removal of nut l8 and washers I9, 52, 53, while allowing sufiicient loosening of the same for assembling the spectacles.
In all the foregoing, it has been assumed that the apparatus comprises only two pairs of spectacles, but, as stated, it can not only comprise a greater number of spectacles, but it can also be provided with a single pair of spectacles, as the device rocking on the temporal pivots is advantageous even in this case. Finally, the glasses of the spectacles are not necessarily lenses, as they can consist of coloured glasses. Moreover, if lenses are used, they can be bifocal, as is common practice today.
Fig. 12 illustrates a form of construction of a helmet which can be taken to pieces and which comprises a band 46 composed of a plurality of parts, and passing all around the head, and a band 41, also made of a plurality of parts, secured to the first band and connecting the frontal region to the occipital region. This helmet comprises three spectacles 5, 5 and 5 the numbers of the glasses (diopters) of which are in the ratio 1, 2, 4. The manipulation of these spectacles is rapidly effected and with the greatest facility. The bands 46 and 41 preferably have a trapezoidal shape. The pins l are provided with a Cardan joint. The socket 3| carries a pin 60 on which the pin I is pivoted, and this socket 3| is pivoted on a pin 6| at right angles to the first pin 60. This pin 6| consists of a bolt on which are fitted on either side of the socket 3|, two members 64 and 65 engaging with the trapezoidal band 46, the tightening being effected by a nut 56. This very simple arrangement allows of easily removing the pivot and of adjusting it in position.
The band 46 is made of two side parts the ends of which are assembled in the front and rear members 10 and H having locking nuts 12 and 13. This arrangement allows a slight adjustment of the length of these side bands, while ensuring the removability of the same.
The band 41 is made of two parts 4! and 41 connected by an intermediate member 11 provided, like. themembers 10 and. H, withslides allowing removal and adjustment, the locking in position being ensured by nuts 18. The bands 41 and 4'1. are rigidly or. removably secured to the members 10 and H.
Fig. l9; illustrates a form of construction of a helmet which cannot be. taken to pieces and which comprises two bands 46 and 41, preferably made.- of annealed metaLso-as to more easily fit the head of the user. The temporal plates 85, having a section of trapezoidal shape, receive the entire set of Cardan pivots, as illustrated in Figs. 13 and 14.
Figs. 20 and 21 illustrate another embodiment in which use is made of a frontal band 2, devised, either as stated with reference to the helmet, or, as shown in Figs. 20 and 21, composed of a very thin band on which are secured (by riveting or welding) small plates 8t! for receiving the Cardan pivots, as illustrated in Figs. 13 and 14. This frontal band is bent at its ends to form hooks 82 for bar rings 4 into which the ends of an elastic band 3 are passed, the ends 3 of which are concealed by rubber sheaths 85 fitted on the ends of the band 2.
It is obvious that the embodiments described and illustrated are given herein by way of indication only and not in a limiting sense. All changes or modifications which do not alter in any way the main features above set forth and the desired result, remain included in the scope of the present invention.
What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In an apparatus for correcting the defects of accommodation of the eye, in combination: a support made to adapt itself on the users head and to fit onto the temporal regions of the latter, at least two pairs of spectacles the numbers of the glasses of which, in diopters, are different and which are constructed with lateral arms, and means for pivoting the said branches of the spectacles on the temporal regions of the said support in such a manner that the said spectacles can be separately or simultaneously brought in front of the users eyes by swinging said spectacles about the said pivoting means.
2. In an apparatus for correcting the defects of accommodation of the eye, in combination: a support made to adapt itself on the users head and to fit onto the temporal regions of the latter, at least two pairs of spectacles the numbers of the glasses of which, in diopters, are different and which are constructed with lateral arms which are of different lengths from one pair to the other, and pivot pins which are common respectively to the right hand branches and the left hand branches of said spectacles, to pivot said branches on the temporal regions of the support, in such a manner that said spectacles can be separately or simultaneously brought in front of the users eyes by swinging said spectacles about the said pivot pins.
3. In an apparatus for correcting the defects of accommodation of the eye, as claimed in claim 2, in combination: friction means for the pivotal connection of the branches of said spectacles on the pivot pins fixed in the temporal regions of the support.
4. In an apparatus for correcting the defects of accommodation of the eye, as claimed in claim 2, in combination: means for adjusting the pivot pins on the support.
5. In an apparatus for correcting the defects of m tacles the numbers of the glasses of which, in diopters, are different and which are constructed With lateral arms, and means for pivoting the said branches of the spectacles on the temporal regions of the said support in such a manner that the said spectacles can be separately or simultaneously brought in front of the users eyes by swinging said spectacles about the said pivoting means.
EUGENE HENRI TARTRAIS.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2459021 *||Nov 10, 1944||Jan 11, 1949||Frommer Moses||Binocular loupe|
|US3045544 *||Jun 20, 1957||Jul 24, 1962||Arno G Schmidt||Stereoscopic spectacle loupe|
|US3182658 *||Oct 19, 1962||May 11, 1965||Electric Storage Battery Co||Spectacle mounting for gas mask|
|US4681413 *||Feb 5, 1985||Jul 21, 1987||Propper Manufacturing Co., Inc.||Headband with optical device adjustably coupled thereto|
|DE1165899B *||Sep 5, 1958||Mar 19, 1964||Arno G Schmidt||Einstellvorrichtung bei einer stereoskopischen Brillenlupe|
|DE1200570B *||Sep 5, 1958||Sep 9, 1965||Arno G Schmidt||Stereoskopische Brillen- oder Kopfbandlupe|
|EP2128683A1 *||May 19, 2009||Dec 2, 2009||Diaz Rosa Patricia Bravo||Double spectacle frame|
|U.S. Classification||351/58, 351/156|
|International Classification||G02C9/02, G02C7/08|
|Cooperative Classification||G02C3/003, G02C7/086, G02C9/02|
|European Classification||G02C7/08N, G02C3/00B, G02C9/02|