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Publication numberUS2159693 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 23, 1939
Filing dateDec 20, 1937
Priority dateDec 20, 1937
Publication numberUS 2159693 A, US 2159693A, US-A-2159693, US2159693 A, US2159693A
InventorsJr William Standish Gaylord
Original AssigneeJr William Standish Gaylord
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Transfer
US 2159693 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 23 1939. w. s. GAYLORD, JR 2,159,693

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Patented 23,

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE kinds, metal and metal foils, plastics of all types, 2 q painted, lacquered and varnished surfaces, cloth a 5 and textiles of all weaves and patterns, glass, f and in general all'kinds and types of surfaces and materials. Decorations by this method are effected, by means of a transfer operating under [heat and pressure. The transfer may be applied by high speed machinery to any of the above mention d surfaces and materials. The transfer liquid, as in the case of ordinary decalcomanias, nor is it dependent upon a fusible material con- .decorated. It is in these respects, among others, that it possesses novelty and special utility. A principal object of this invention is to pro- 20. vide an inexpensive and practical transfer. e Another important object is. the manufacture of' a transfer capable of mechanical application 1 at high production speeds. By my method, the

graphic or planographic. The transfer may be printed eitherinsheets or rolls, and if printed in sought to bedecorated by means of a mechanizocally driven heatedcylinder operating at high.

v transferred to base materials by means of either a heated cylinder or; aheated platen of the .plate t pe. i e r .135 Still another important object of this invenflterials which 1m well-known, inexpensive and readily obtainable, Commercial grades of printing inks are used without modificationor addi- I non of other elements. Commercial grades, of paper are used as temporary carrying or, backer sheets. l i

. g I Another important object of this invention has been the adaptation of the process to existing {45 machinery, rather than the construction .of if ispecial machinery for the manufacture of trans- :ture to a minimum and have produced a'transfer Flowhich can be manufactured in any ordinary operation does not depend upon the use of a f ltained inthe pigmented decorative medium, nor upon prior processing of thelbase material to be transfer designs may be printed upon any known 5 type of printing machine, whether intaglio, typo- [rolls may beqtransferredto the base material speed. If printed insheets, the designs may be] tion is the" manufacture of a transfer from mayIhave reduced special processing in manufac printing shop. Theonly limitations. upon thev 1 .William with Games, In, Summit, N. J.

Application December 20, 1937, Serial No. 180,885

11 Claims. (01.4143) This invention relates to a new 'method of, decoration in one or more colors for woods of all heretofore been perfected wherein the best features of a decalcomania were combined with the best features of a heat transfer. That is to say, decalcomanias, i. e., that type of transfer which is applied by means of water soluble adhe- 5 sive orits equivalent, have been free from such problems as loss of color in application, bleeding of the ink, and the like. It has been possible to print fine screen work on a wet type decalcomania paper and to reproduce multicolor work of in- 10 tricate and detailed design. It has not been possible, however, to apply this type of transfer to basematerials economically by ,mechanical means. Heat transfers, on the other hand, have permitted easy and speedy application, but with 1 definite limitations as to the scope of printing, the faithfulness ofreproducing detailed designs on thebase material owing to the fusible substance contained in the decorative medium used in their manufacture, and the application to non- 2o porous surfaces, by which I mean glass, metal and the like. My invention combines the best features of each type of transfer with no limitations a ing drawing, the present invention is characterized by a temporary carrier or backer sheet of paper I;' a film 2 of thermoplastic lacquer or synthetic resin; a design layer 3 applied to the lacquer or synthetic resin and preferably composed of ordinary printing inks; a film 4 of pigmented ink, lacquer or varnish; and a film 5 of thermoplastic cement or adhesive which is fusible under heat and pressure.

To effect a transferto a base material 6, the 40 transfer is placed with the exposed surface of the thermoplastic cement or adhesive film 5 contacting the surface of the base material. Heat and pressure are then applied to the exposedplain face of the carrier member or backer sheet I 5 I by means of a heated cylinder or platen 1 and a cooperating pressure member or roll 8. The heat from the cylinder or platen 1 softens the thermoplastic lacquer film 2 so as to release it from the backer sheet I, and causes the thermoplastic cementor adhesive film 5 to fuse and grip the base 'material, forming a quick, strong and uniform film of thermoplastic lacquer or synthetic resin 2 which acted as a printing surface while attached to the backer sheet I, but which has now become a tough, resilient, protective coating over the ink film or design 3, giving to the design permanence v and strength which makes it resistant to friction,

solvent action, and wear of other kinds.

Using a mechanically driven cylinder heated to a temperature of 200 to 250 degrees F., I have decorated 20 to 30 linear feet per minute of base material the width of the cylinder.

A platen press with aplate heated to to degrees F. and one to two seconds application of pressure may be used where the base material willlnot stand rolling pressure.

For the carrier or backer sheet of paper i my tests have proven that any base paper stock can be adapted, so long as it will produce a carrier which is impervious to the thermoplastic lacquer. However, some paper stock is better for the purpose than others. A glassine sheet, with a base weight of from 30 to 50 pounds to the ream, is satisfactory. Standard gummed stock, such as is ordinarily sold in rolls to be used in wrapping packages, is also very satisfactory. Without limiting myself to any one paper, I have found that the best results are obtained, from the point of view of strength and ease of handling, with the use of a dense kraft sheet, weighing about 30 pounds to the standard ream, and coated with the following formula:

In 400 parts by weight of water, I heat until dissolved by weight 30 parts gelatin, 1 part vegetable oil soap, 2 parts glycerine, 15 parts dextrine, 2 parts carbonate of soda, 2 parts boric acid, and 5 parts potash alum. After a smooth suspension is obtained and the temperature of the mixture has returned to 100 degrees F., I add to the above 5 parts egg albumin in 100 parts water.

This gives a coating material basically'a colloid, the viscosity of which may be varied by more or less water, so as to control thepenetration of it into the carrier or backer sheet I, and thus control the finish of the sheet itself when coated.

By varying the viscosity of the coating, I can give the backer sheet any finish I may desire, from a mat finish to a high gloss, which finish will in turn be transmitted to the film of lacquer or synthetic resin 2 when a transfer is made to a base material. Four dehydrated pounds of the above solution to a standard ream, 25 inches by 38 inches and 30-lb., of paper will produce a transfer with a dull mat finish. A more viscous solution, depositing say 16 pounds of coating to the ream as above, gives a glossy finish to the transferred design. The above weights, 1. e., 4 and 16 pounds, designate the increase in the weight of the paper after coating and after the coating has dried, and thus indicate the amount of solid material added to the ream.

This solution can be applied to the paper in a standard gumming machine. Glassine paper and the standard gummed stock mentioned above do not require any additional coating and may be used as ordinarily purchased commercially. The object of thiscoating is to prevent penetration of the thermoplastic lacquer or synthetic resin film 2 intothe carrier or backer sheet of paper, and this fact, of course, gives me an infinite variety of paper stock to choose from which I For the thermoplastic lacquer or synthetic resin I film. 2, I have obtained good resultswith nitro cellulose and cellulose acetate base lacquers of commercial grade. Pyroxylin lacquer will also serve, as will a lacquer made of a co-polymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate in acetone and amyl acetate.

A commercial synthetic resin of this nature is Vinylite" which is manufactured by the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. It is my practice to dissolve this resin in metho-iso-butylketone and thin it with toluol.

Improved results of a very high order have been obtained with this vinyl type lacquer. It will soften under a low heat. This property permits it to be used as a laminating agent of itself. It possesses great internal cohesion and tensile strength, which properties allow it to be stripped from a hacker sheet without breaking. The elasticity of the lacquer is sufiicient to permit the decorated work to be shaped or even embossed without injury to the protective film on the face of the transfer.

Another desirable attribute of the lacquer which has been described is that it is impervious to water,-alcohol, and many of the common solvents. For this reason it affords excellent protection to the transferred design.

The lacquers or synthetic resins of film 2 may be made of the proper viscosity to be applied to the carrier or backer paper I by means of a commercial varnishing machine, gumming machine or printing machine.

The thermoplastic lacquer or synthetic resin film 2 should be clear, sheet-forming and tough. A film which will re-harden readily upon exposure to air after fusing and removal of its backer sheet is ideal for many purposes to which my invention is adapted. In some cases it may be founddesirable to use a rubbing and polishing lacquer where the base material to be decorated is afterwards to be refinished.

As I have already intimated, the printing or decorating medium termed design 3 may be printing ink of commercial grade. A typical printing ink will be found to contain lamp-black or aniline dyes and linseed oil or mineral oils. As is well known, such inks are indelible. I have used many types of commercial printing inks in the development of this invention and .have found all of them to be usable without the addition of special ingredients. The general requirements for the ink are those required by the type of printing being done. Inks are used as though the printing were being done on any commercial printing job. Any one skilled in the art of making printing inkcan readily supply an ink possessing suitable characteristics for this purpose.

The background film I of pigmented ink, lacquer or varnish may be applied to make the design 3 sufiiciently opaque to obliterate completely the base material towhich it is transferred. Where a dark background is being decorated, it is sometimes necessary to increase the opacity of the design in order to obtain the desired brilliance of color. This also is accomplished by the use of the film 4. On the other hand, where for example fine wood grains are being decorated by this process. it may be desirable to have the grain of the wood a part of the design. In this instance, the opacity is not desirable and the film lis omitted. There are no particular re- .quirements for this film, good commercial grades of any of the media used for the purpose being easily obtainable as standard products from reputable ink and paint manufacturers.

The film of thermoplastic cement or adhesive 5 may be omitted in cases where it is not essential to the satisfactory application of the transfer. If the base materialto be decorated is a .closely woven cloth or ground cork, for example, where the surface is porous and uniform and highly absorptive, and if a thermoplastic lacquer such as synthetic vinyl co-polymeris used as the lacquer film 2, it will be found that with the applicationof pressure and sufficient heat to the back of the carrier paper I, the ink design 3 and the thermoplastic vinyl resin film 2 will bond to the base material without the use of a thermoplastic cement or adhesive such as the film 5. Under sufficient heat the lacquer film 2does not merely soften to release the backer sheet paper .should preferably be fusible at temperatures of 200 to 250 degrees F. It should dry rapidly and hard at room temperature and remain in such condition at shipping and handling temperatures. It should be of'such viscosity as to permit of its handlingin a standard roller coating machine; or preferably in a printing press. It

should be resistant to abrasion and chemical action.

I have found that lower melting resins of the phenol aldehyde group 65 parts, tri-cresyl phosphate 3 parts, tri-phenyl phosphate 6 parts, dissolved in 65 parts "Solvesso No. (a commercial solvent manufactured by the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey) and the whole emulsified in 30 parts water gives a very strong adhesive.

Pine rosin plasticized with gum mastic in the proportion 10 rosin to 1 mastic, dissolved in fSolvesso No. 1 to the proper viscosity gives a satisfactory fusible cement.

By the same treatment I have adapted guttapercha, rubber latex, and animal glue plasticized with glycerine.

I have also made good thermoplastic cements by using a film of overprint varnish or magnesium ground in No. 1 linseed oil dusted with 60 to 80 mesh, low-melting, powdered resins, both natural and synthetic. For this last adhesive, the varnish or magnesium film must be fresh so as to hold the powder on its moist surface.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire tose'cure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A transfer of the heat and pressure type comprising an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic lacquer film on said'backer sheet, a printed design on the side of the lacquer film which is opposite the backer sheet, a background film of pigment covering the printed design, and

a film of thermoplastic adhesive overlying the film of pigment. 2. The combination defined in claim 1 with a backer sheet which has beenrendered impervious by the application of a colloidal sizing composed of gelatin, vegetable oil soap, glycerine, dextrine, carbonate of soda, boric acid, albumin, and potash alum.

3. In a transfer of the heat and pressure type, the'combination comprising an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic lacquer film on said backer sheet, a printed design on the side of the lacquer film opposite the backer sheet, and-a background film of pigment over said printed design. i

4. The combination defined in claim 3 having a backer sheet coated with a colloidal sizing of gelatin, vegetable oil soap, glycerine, dextrine, carbonate of soda, boric acid, albumin, and potash alum. a

5. A transfer of the heat and pressure type which includes an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic lacquer film on said backer sheet,

. a design printed on the side of the lacquer film which is opposite the backer sheet, and a film of thermoplastic adhesive overlying said design.

6. A transfer of the heat and pressure type which includes, in combination, an impervious backer member, a thermoplastic lacquer film on said backer member, a design layer on the side of the lacquer film which is opposite the hacker member, and a film of thermoplastic adhesive overlying said design layer.

7. The combination defined in claim 5 with a backer sheet which has been rendered impervious by the application of a colloidal sizing composed of gelatin, vegetable oil soap, glycerine,

dextrine, carbonate of soda, boric acid, albumin,

and potash alum.

8. .A heat and pressure type of transfer which includes an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic lacquer film on said backer sheet, and a printed design on the side of the lacquer film whichis opposite the backer sheet..

9. In the combination recited in claim 8, a backer sheet which has been rendered impervious by the application of a colloidal sizing composed of gelatin, vegetable oil soap, gi ceilue, dextrine, carbonate. of soda, boric acid, albumin, and potash alum.

10. In a transfer of the heat and pressure type, the combination comprising an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic vinyl resin lacquer film on said backer sheet, a printed design on said film on the side opposite the backer sheet,

and a film of thermoplastic adhesive overlying.

said design.

11. In a transfer of the heat and pressure type, the combination which includes an impervious backer sheet, a thermoplastic lacquer fllm comprising a co-polymer of vinylchloride and vinyl acetate on said backer sheet, and a printed design on the film on the side opposite the hacker-! sheet. i

WILLIAM STANDISH GAYLORD, JR.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2416673 *Jun 3, 1943Mar 4, 1947Dennison Mfg CoDecalcomania and method of making
US2745436 *Oct 3, 1950May 15, 1956Douglas Aircraft Co IncSolvent proof marking for conduits
US3870539 *Oct 4, 1972Mar 11, 1975Noridem SaTemporary printing carriers
US3926707 *Nov 11, 1974Dec 16, 1975Noridem SaUse of temporary printing carriers
US4037008 *Apr 3, 1972Jul 19, 1977Photo-Lith InternationalTransfer printing process and article
US5707697 *Mar 13, 1995Jan 13, 1998Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer product having high DOI automotive paint coat
US5725712 *Mar 13, 1995Mar 10, 1998Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer process for making high DOI automotive body panels
US5916643 *Apr 7, 1995Jun 29, 1999Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer-laminated body panels having deep-draw high DOI automotive paint coat
US6551432Dec 6, 1999Apr 22, 2003Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer process and product
US6579397Mar 13, 1995Jun 17, 2003Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer process for making deep draw high DOI automotive body panels
US6649003Mar 13, 1995Nov 18, 2003Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer lamination process for making high DOI automotive body panels
US6835267Nov 29, 1994Dec 28, 2004Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer process and product
US6838130Apr 11, 1995Jan 4, 2005Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer process and product
US6966962Apr 3, 2003Nov 22, 2005Avery Dennison CorporationDry paint transfer-lamination process for making high DOI automotive body panels
US6984280May 8, 2003Jan 10, 2006Avery Dennison CoporationDry paint transfer process for making deep-draw high doi automotive body panels
US9643449Aug 7, 2015May 9, 2017Yugen Kaisha KowatechnoaTransfer printing method of electronic image and transfer sheet
US20040123941 *Apr 3, 2003Jul 1, 2004Spain Patrick L.Dry paint transfer-lamination process for making high doi automotive body panels
US20040123942 *May 8, 2003Jul 1, 2004Spain Patrick L.Dry paint transfer process for making deep-draw high doi automotive body panels
US20050235593 *Jan 21, 2005Oct 27, 2005Hendrik HechtFlooring panel
CN100464659CAug 22, 2003Mar 4, 2009法科股份有限公司A hair decorating method and a device thereof
EP0147966A2 *Dec 7, 1984Jul 10, 1985Sony CorporationFilm laminating apparatus
EP0147966A3 *Dec 7, 1984Aug 5, 1987Sony CorporationFilm laminating apparatus
EP2711197A1 *May 18, 2011Mar 26, 2014Yugen Kaisha KowatechnoaTransfer printing method for electronic image and transfer sheet
EP2711197A4 *May 18, 2011Dec 3, 2014Yugen Kaisha KowatechnoaTransfer printing method for electronic image and transfer sheet
WO2004019724A2 *Aug 22, 2003Mar 11, 2004Faco S.A.Hair decorating method and device therefor
WO2004019724A3 *Aug 22, 2003Mar 16, 2006Faco SaHair decorating method and device therefor
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/204, 132/73, 428/914, 106/144.71, 428/207, 428/205
International ClassificationD06P5/24, B44C1/17
Cooperative ClassificationD06P5/003, Y10S428/914, B44C1/1712
European ClassificationB44C1/17F, D06P5/00T