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Publication numberUS2159744 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 23, 1939
Filing dateAug 26, 1936
Priority dateAug 26, 1936
Publication numberUS 2159744 A, US 2159744A, US-A-2159744, US2159744 A, US2159744A
InventorsMaglott George F
Original AssigneeBrown & Sharpe Mfg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gear pump
US 2159744 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented May 23, 1939 U ITE STATES GEAR rum George F. Maglott. Wrentharn, Mara, assignmto Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company, a corporation of Rhode Island Application Am 20. 1936, Serial No. 97,910

BCIaImI.

This invention. relates to a gear. pump; and has for one of its objects the improved emciency of the pump by eliminatingtrapping of the pumped liquid and thereby reducing bearing load and preventing wear, chattering and noise of the gears during their pumping action, by an arrangement whereby the intermeshing teeth as they contact on one side of the tooth eliminate thepocket formed across the space between the teeth and yet the shape of a tooth is such that a driving action will be had from one gear to the other.

Another object of the invention is to provide a driving action ofthe gears of a gear pump one to the other and at the same time provide a nontrapping form of tooth having a maximum displacement by adding a smooth, rounding contour on the tip of invoiute teeth, the curve being generated or derived from a circular arc and providing an improved seal between pressure and intake sides of the gear pump.

Another object of this invention is to secure uniform flow of fluid such as may be had with helical teeth and at the same time providing the minimum helical advance thus reducing the helical leakage or slip through the gears to a minimum.

Another and more specific object of this invention is the advance of the helical teeth across the '30 face of the gear, an amount equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth, this advance occurring regularly and yet providingan advance less than that which has heretofore been considered necessary in all formations of pumps of this type which have heretofore come to my attention.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists of certain novel features of construction, as will be more fully described, and

, particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

In the accompanying drawing:

Fig. 1 is a sectional view through a gear pump; Fig. 2 Ba fragmental sectional view showing the intermeshing relation of the gear teeth in one position;

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing the gearteeth in a different relative position;

Fig. 4 is a similar view showing the gear teeth in a still difierent relative position; I

Fig. 5 is an enlarged somewhat diagrammatic view illustrating the shape of one of the gear teeth;

Fig. 6 is a top plan view of one of the gears; Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic sectional development 5 of the gear teeth along the pitch line thereof Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view showing a relation of pressures developed in the gears.

In the use of gear pumps having the usual invoiute teeth liquid is trapped between the teeth in a sealed pocket, formed between the crest of the teeth on one rotor member and the roots of the teeth on the cooperating rotor member, whereby a back pressure and chattering or vibra- I tion is caused due to the tremendous pressure exerted on the gears, and where the spiral or helical gear is provided an endwise motion also sometimes results. The back pressure is somewhat relieved in Patent No. 1,976,227 with which ,I am familiar, but in the present invention the back pressure or trapping instead of being relieved is entirely eliminated as no sealed pockets are formed due to a specific low continuityof the tooth profiles, whereby I prevent the trapping of the liquid in these spaces between teeth as one tooth contactswith the next tooth, because the opposite side of this tooth opens up a space whereby the liquid is discharged ahead of the point of contact, by an action similar to rolling. It has been discovered and can be demonstrated mathematically that with a form of conjugate tooth profile,- particularly involute, trapping does not occur when the continuity is anything less than one-half and conversely trapping does occur in proportion after continuity exceeds one-half. Continuity may be definedas the property in involute or conjugate tooth profiles whereby the driving tooth transmits power smoothly to the driven tooth, for instance, a continuity of 1.0 is that condition whereby the approaching teeth of the gears just forms contact at the instant the receding teeth of the pair break contact.

However, with a continuity of only one-half, with regard to spur gear, a continuous driving action is not realized. In spur gears a continuity of not less than one is necessary for a continuous driving action. Further, it is known that where the spur type of gears are provided, although a pumping action occurs, relatively free from leakage through the gears, it gives an intermittent or pulsating displacement; and in order that the displacement may be continuous the teeth may be formed helically. However, if the helical advance of the teeth is too great an unrestricted flow occurs back through the gears which is undesirable; and I have found, that by using helical gears, provided with a helical advance equal to one-half the circular pitch and a continuity of one-half a continuous pumping action results, and a uniform displacement of fluid is realized, but no trapping is formed betailed description of the present embodimentoi' ,this invention by which these advantageous resuits may be accomplished:

with reference to the drawing, l designates the body or casing 'of a usual type of gear pump having an inlet opening II and a discharge opening i2, although the character of the rotor members which I employ enable these inlet and discharge openings to be reversed; that is, the inlet openings may be l2 and the discharge opening H. A pair of shafts i3 and I4 are rotatably mounted in'bearings in the casing and gears l5 and I5 of identical construction are mounted on these shafts in an intermeshing relation, such as shown in Fig. 1, and are of acharacter such that one may drive the other. Inasmuch as these gears are of identical formation, either shaft can be a driving shaft and the gear mounted thereon be a driving gear, while the gear intermeshing with it becomes the driven gear. J The shape of all of the teeth on a section perpendicular to the axis is the same and is shown in an enlarged form in Fig. 5. In order that the teeth of the driving gear may transmit driving movement to the teeth of the driven gear with which it intermeshes, a portion of the surface of this tooth is of involute form. The involute section or portion of both the leading and trailing surfaces of the tooth is designated I6 in Fig. 5, and these involute surfaces on the opposite sides of each tooth are joined by the are I! of a circle which has a center l8 above the pitch line [9 of the tooth. The involute surfaces l6 between adjacent teeth are joined by the arc of a circle which has its center below the pitch line l9. By reason of this formation, the teeth of one gear will drive the teeth of the other gear and by reason of the fact that each gear is of identical formation, it is immaterial which gear is the driving gear and which gear the driven gear. Also, as the teeth are perfectly symmetrical with respect to a central radial line through the tooth,

it is immaterial in which direction the gears are' driven.

This particular formation of teeth provides a continuity of only one-half and thus there will be no trapping of liquid as the gears rotate and intermesh one with the other. The relationship of the teeth in a profile at right angles to the axis is as shown in one position in Fig. 2, in which the tooth A of gear I5 is driving the tooth A of gear 15, there being a freedom of flow of the liquid from the space 22 as the intermeshing of the teeth takes place. The gears in further advanced position are shown in-Fig. 3, in which the tooth A is between the teeth A and B of the gear I5, and these gears in a similar but more advanced relation are shown in Fig. 4. At no times does the space designated in Fig. 4 as 23 completely close and therefore there is no sealed pockets of the liquid formed to trap the liquid in a space between the teeth; and due to curved ends and roots of the teeth each tooth has its maximum displacement, the slightly greater radius at the base of the teeth with reference to the tip providing a practical arrangement for manufacturing purposes to prevent binding and noise. Where the continuity is one-half or less while no trapping occurs, if the spur type gear were so formed, there would be an intermittent transmission of drive from one gear to the other as the continuity must be 1.0 for continuous or uniform transmission of power; and to, avoid this undesirable result I have formed the teeth helically withan advance across theface of the gear equal to one-half the circular pitch so that a continuous driving action of one gear to the other or a continuous pumping action results. ,Further, by this arrangement in contrast to the gear pump where the teeth extend across the face of the gear parallel to the axis of the gear and provide afree fromleakage but pulsating pumping action, the helical advance of the .teeth serve to reduce this pulsating action, although some leakage may occur. If the helical advance of the teeth is made too great leakage of the liquid through the gears is permitted, which is undesirable. It is, therefore,

desirable to have the helical advance as short.

as possible and "yet afford an, even pumping action. In gear pumps of this helical type of gear it has always heretofoie been accepted that this advance should be equal to the pitch of the teeth; that is, the distance between the centers of the teeth. I have found, however, that a still lesser advance than the pitch of the teeth can be had and that an advance of one-half the pitch may be used; and accordingly, I have shown in Fig. '7 somewhat diagrammatically a development along the pitch line of the gear. The advance is shown as one-half the pitch, the pitch being designated by dotted lines 25, 26 with advance of the tooth across the face of the gear in. the direction of the axis equal to one-half of this amount. I

By reason of the continuity of the teeth being one-half, the variations of pressure due to displacement of the liquid by one tooth entering between two other teeth will follow a curve such as represented at X in Fig. 8, in which the maximum and minimum lobes of the curve are one the complement of the other, while at the same time where the teeth of the gears are given a. helical advance in the amount stated of one-half the pitch the variations in pressure due to this advance will follow a similar curve such as represented at Y in Fig. 8, and these curves will be related one to the other so that a uniform pressure results if these curves are added one to the other at any point of time in the relative positions of {the gears.

The foregoing: description is directed solely towards the construction illustrated; but I desire it to be understoodthat I reserve the privilege of resorting to all the mechanical changes to which the device is susceptible, the invention being defined and limited only by the terms of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a gear pump, intermeshing helical toothed gears, the respective helical teeth of the gears having anangle of advance on the face of the gears equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth and a continuity to provide a continuous driving action between the engaging teeth, the profile of each tooth being involute along a portion of the leading and trailing faces and extendahead of the point of contact as the intermeshing of the teeth takes place.

2. In a gear pump, a toothed rotor having the profile of the teeth on a section perpendicular to a the axis provided with a continuity equal to onehalt, and a helicaladvance across the face of the rotor equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth.

3. In a gear pump, intermeshing helical gears one gear driving the other, the respective helical teeth of the gears having an angle of advance on the face of the gears equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth, the profile of the teeth on a section perpendicular to the axis shaped to prevent trapping and being involute along a portion 01' the leading and trailing faces with arcs of a single circle joining said involute portions.

4. In a gear pump, a toothed rotor having the profile of the teeth on a section perpendicular to the axis being shaped to prevent trapping and being substantially involute in form over portions of their extent, the involute portions being joined by curves generated or derived from a circular are, said teeth being helical, and advancing on the face of the gear an amount equal to onehalf the circular pitch of the teeth.

5. In a gear pump, a toothed rotor having the profile of the teeth on a section perpendicular to the axis being shaped to prevent trapping and being substantially involute in form over portions of their extent, the involute portions of each tooth at its tip being joined by curves generated or derived from a circular arc, and the involute por tions of adjacent teeth at the base of the teeth being joined by curves generated or derived from a circular arc, said teeth being helical and advancing on the base of the gear an amount equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth.

6. In a gear pump, a toothed rotor having the profile of the teeth on a section perpendicular to the axis being shaped to prevent trapping and being involute in form over portions of their extent, the involute portions of each tooth at its tip being joined by the arc of a single circle and the involute portions of adjacent teeth at the base of the teeth being joined by the arc of a single circle, the arc at the tip of each tooth being of a radius smaller than the are joining adjacent teeth at the base of the teeth, said teeth being helical and advancing on the base of the gear an amount equal to one-half the circular pitch of the teeth.

GEORGE F. MAGLOTI.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2601003 *May 17, 1946Jun 17, 1952Bendix Aviat CorpGear pump
US2601004 *Jul 19, 1946Jun 17, 1952Bendix Aviat CorpGear pump
US2604051 *Jan 26, 1948Jul 22, 1952Keelavite Co LtdRotary pump
US2645903 *Feb 20, 1947Jul 21, 1953Elkins Douglas AVariable ratio rotary pump and motor hydraulic transmission
US3164099 *Jul 31, 1962Jan 5, 1965Hitosi IyoiToothed profiles of rotors of gear pump
US3166238 *Aug 1, 1962Jan 19, 1965Ingersoll Rand CoAxial compressor
US3209611 *May 2, 1961Oct 5, 1965Hitosi IyoiTeeth profiles of rotors for gear pumps of rotary type
US3349713 *Sep 10, 1965Oct 31, 1967Glanzstoff Koln G M B HProcess and device for mixing liquids of differing viscosities
US3640650 *Jul 15, 1969Feb 8, 1972Maag Zahnraeder & Maschinen AgGear tooth system for gear pumps
US3865523 *Mar 16, 1973Feb 11, 1975Baehr Samuel JContinuous flow rotary pump
US4210410 *Apr 14, 1978Jul 1, 1980Tokico Ltd.Volumetric type flowmeter having circular and involute tooth shape rotors
US4265606 *Nov 21, 1979May 5, 1981Lehnus Edward LFositive displacement pulse free rotary fluid pump
US4329130 *Jul 2, 1979May 11, 1982Oval Engineering Company LimitedFlow meter with helical toothed rotors having no pulsation and zero contact pressure
US4548562 *Sep 7, 1982Oct 22, 1985Ford Motor CompanyHelical gear pump with specific helix angle, tooth contact length and circular base pitch relationship
US5108275 *Dec 17, 1990Apr 28, 1992Sager William FRotary pump having helical gear teeth with a small angle of wrap
US5845617 *Dec 2, 1996Dec 8, 1998Sager Innovations Inc.Rotary gear pump with vanes
US6655344 *Mar 5, 2002Dec 2, 2003William F. SagerMultiple pairs of rotatable meshing gears in coaxial relation defining spaced teeth which extend helically in the direction of the axis of each gear, chambers formed by meshing gears
US6769891 *Jun 3, 2003Aug 3, 2004Mario Antonio MorselliRotary positive-displacement pump with meshing gear wheels without encapsulation, and gear wheel for such a positive-displacement pump
US8556609 *Mar 14, 2008Oct 15, 2013Mario Antonio MorselliGeared hydraulic apparatus
US8827668Dec 1, 2009Sep 9, 2014Marzocchi Pompe S.P.A.Tooth profile for rotors of positive displacement external gear pumps
US20100104463 *Mar 14, 2008Apr 29, 2010Settima Meccanica S.R.L.Geared hydraulic apparatus
CN102227560BDec 1, 2009Apr 2, 2014马尔佐基蓬佩股份公司Tooth profile for rotors of positive displacement external gear pumps
CN102678829BMay 28, 2012Aug 20, 2014阜新德尔汽车部件股份有限公司液压装置用圆弧形齿廓螺旋齿轮
EP2317144A2Oct 29, 2010May 4, 2011Mario Antonio MorselliGear for an hydraulic gear machine
WO2010063705A1 *Dec 1, 2009Jun 10, 2010Marzocchi Pompe S.P.A.Tooth profile for rotors of positive displacement external gear pumps
Classifications
U.S. Classification418/201.3
International ClassificationF04C2/08, F04C2/00
Cooperative ClassificationF04C2/084
European ClassificationF04C2/08B2