US 2160154 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 30, 1939. w. D. KELLOGG E-r Al.
METHOD FOR MAKING A PILE FABRIC Filed May 12, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATToRNEY May 30, l939- w` D. KELLOGG- ET AL 2,160,154
` METHOD FOR MAKING A PILE'FABRIC Filed May l2, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 929, Figil 32- y #4f ,21u67 l 36 y MXL-ivm,
May 30, 1939- wfD. Kl-:LLOGG A1. 2,160,154
METHOD FOR MAKING A PILE FABRIC .3 Sheets-Sheet 3v Filed May l2, 1937 ATTO RN EY;
Patented May 30, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD Foa mmc A PILE FABmc tion of New York Application May 12, 1937, Serial No. 142,120
This invention relates to the production of pile fabrics of the type commonly referred to as cemented pile fabrics, in which the pile surface is formed of loops of fibrous material, the bent 5 portions of which are affixed to a backing web by means of an adhesive. More particularly, the invention is concerned with a novel method for the production of such fabrics and with a machine by which that method can be practiced to l)Il produce fabrics rapidly and at low cost.
Cemented pile fabric is made in various ways, and machines of several different types have been developed for the production of this material. In one suchmachine, the pile material in the form of a sheet is advanced to folding mech'- anism which includes thin blades lying on opposite sides of the sheet and the blades are operated to fold the sheet transversely and produce a series of loops opening alternately in opposite directions. As the folding operation progresses, the folded material is confined between a pair of plates forming part of the folding devices, and beyond the ends of the plates, webs of suitable backing material are affixed by an adhesive g5 to the bent portions of the folds. The folded mass and backing webs, forming a compound fabric, are then passed through a heating chamber inwhich the adhesive is caused to set, and upon issuing from the chamber, the compound :10 fabric may be used in the condition in which it then exists, or it may be subdivided into two single pile fabrics by splitting mechanism which severs the connecting strands of pile material between the webs. The two single pile fabrics .",5 thus produced are alike, and each includes a backing and a pile surface formed of loops of fibrous pile material, the bent portions of which are secured to the webs.
In the machine described, the folding blades 41) are withdrawn from'the loops after the latter are formed, and in the space between the folding mechanism and the point Where the Webs are attached, the loops pack together without regularity of arrangement. This produces an excellent 45 product, since the pile surface has no spaces or visible lines such as would result if the loops were formed between spacing elements which remained in position imtil the webs were affixed.' However, until the first loop is secured to the backing material, there is no lateral support for the loops,
and as a consequence, diiculties have been encountered in starting the operationv of the machine. l
Heretofore, in the starting operation, it has been the practice to employ a support for the first few loops,`which is inserted in the machine from the rear, and, for this purpose, the splitting mechanism is partially dismantled, so that the support may pass through the mechanism and heating chamber and past the point of attachment of the webs to a position in which its end lies close to the folding blades. As the machine is started, the initially formed loops are forced against the end of the support by the folding devices, and the support is moved through the machine until the rst loop issues from the heating chamber. At this instant, the machine must be stopped and the support removed, so that the splitting mechanism may be put into condition to function. 'I'he stoppage of the machine incident to the use of the support results in loss of time and in output, but the support must be employed in the manner described each time a new piece of fabric' is started.
The present invention is, accordingly, directed to the provision of a novel method of producing fabrics of the type described and an apparatus by which the new method may be practiced, the use of the invention avoiding the difficulties which are encountered inthe operation of the prior machines.
According -to the invention as practiced on the machine, a sheet of fibrous material, which may be in the form of a batt, preferably carded, or of a plurality of strands of card roving or spun yarn laid side by side, is employed for the pile, and this sheet is folded by a mechanism which includes oppositely acting folding blades. At the start of operations, the end of the sheet is passed through the folding mechanism and just beyonda pair of strips of flexible material, such as felt or the like, are applied in alignment to opposite faces of the sheet. The strips used for the purpose have a substantial thickness -and extend the full width-of the sheet, so that their end portions provide support for the loops to be formed. f With the strips in the position described,
,K the machine is put into operation and the folded sheet and loop support are forced forward to the point wherethe webs of backing material are applied to the opposite faces of the folded sheet. If desired, the loop support may have a length, in the direction of the length of the sheet, such that the support extends from the mechanism to the point of attachment of the webs, and as the webs are drawn along by suitable means, the pressure of the aixing means against the faces of the loop support assists the folding mechanism in moving the folded sheet forward. The com` the loop support through the heating chamber and to the splitting means. Since the loop support is formed of two strips, the support moves past the splitting knife with the latter readily separating thestrips and then acting on the folded pile material. The two components of the compound fabric are then taken up in any desired manner, and finally, the two strips forming the loop support, together with the portions of the backing webs and sheet material adhering thereto, are detached from the single fabrics.
The use -of the two-part loop support in the manner described simplifies the starting of the machine and does not require any change or adjustment of the splitting device. Also, after the support is in place andthe operation of the machine begun, it is not necessary to stop the machine until a change in the fabric being produced is to be made. The support prevents loss of pile material, since the first loops formed are held in proper position for attachment to the webs, and since the application of the support is simple, starting of the machine and changing it over from one fabric to another do not entail any considerable delaywith resultant loss of production.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference may be had to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in longitudinal section, of a machine by which the method of the invention may be practiced;
Figure 2 is a plan view of a portion of the machine on the line 2-2 of- Figure 1;
Figures 3 and 4 are sectional views on the line 4-4 of Figure 2, illustrating the parts in different positions;
Figure 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-5 of Figure 2; and
Figures 6 to 12, inclusive, are diagrammatic views illustrating the operation of the folding mechanism.
Referring now to the drawings, the machine Aillustrated includes frame members 20 across which extends a main drive shaft 2| supported in suitable bearings and driven in any convenient manner, as by a motor or a belt from the main vdrive shaft of the mill. A shaft 22 mounted on the framework in 'suitable bearings is provided with a bevel gear 23 meshing with a similar gear on the main shaft 2|, and on shaft 22 is a worm 24 driving a worm wheel 25 on the shaft of a roll 26 mounted in brackets 21 attached to the frame. A roll 28 isv supported in the brackets 21 above roll 26, and the rolls serve as feed rolls for the sheet indicated at 29.
The sheet 23, which is to form the pile of the fabric to be produced, may be a batt of fibres,
preferably carded, or it may consist of a plurality of strands of card roving or spun yarn laid side by side, carded fibres or roving being preferred because of their lower cost. This sheet is advanced by the feed rolls 26 and 28 to the folding and feeding mechanism at the rate appropriate for the fabric to be produced.
The folding-and feeding vmechanism comprises upper and lower folding blades and complementary members associated therewith, the blades and members of thetwo sets being of similar construction and mode of operation. The lower blade 39 is secured to a folder bar 3| mounted in arms 32 fast on a shaft 33 pivotally mounted in the ends of arms 34 fast on a shaft 35 sup'- ported in brackets 36 on the framework. The shaft 35 is oscillated by means of a crank 31 thereon. this crank being connected by a link 38 to one end of a lever 39 pivoted in a bracket 40 attached to the framework. The other arm of lever 39 carries a cam roller 4| riding on the surface of the cam 42 on the main drive shaft 2|, the roller being held in contact with the surface of the cam by a spring 43 attached at one end to the lever and at the other to a pin on the frame. As the cam rotates, it acts through the connections described to `move the folder 30 back and forth in a horizontal direction.
During the horizontal movement of the folder 30, it is raised and lowered at appropriate instants, and for this purpose, links 44 are attached to the ends of the .folder bar 3| and to arms 45 fast on a shaft 46 supported in brackets 41 on the frame, and an arm 48 fast on shaft 46 is connected by a link 49 to one end of a lever 50 vpivotally mounted on a suitable part of the frame and carrying a roller 5| which rides on the surface of a cam 52 on the shaft 2|. A spring 53 attached at one end to the lever 50 and at the other end to a pin on the frame maintains and down during the operation of the machine.
The upper folder 54 is attached to a folder bar 55 lying above the sheet 23, and the bar is mounted in arms 56 fast on a shaft 51 pivotally mounted in arms l58 fast on a shaft 59 supported in suitable bearings attached to the frame. An arm 60 fast on shaft 59'is connected by a link 6| to a lever 62 pivotally mounted at 63 on bracket 40 and provided with a roller 64riding on the surface of a cam ori the main shaft 2|. The roller is held in contact with the cam by means of a spring v66 which is attached at one end to the lever 62 and at the other end to a suitable point on the frame. The cam 65 operates to move the upper folder back and forth horizontally, and during this movement, the folder is raised and lowered by means of links 61 connected to arms 68 fast on a shaft 69 mounted in suitable brackets on the frame. An arm 10 fast on shaft 69 is connected by a link 1|- to one end of a lever 12 pivoted at 13 on suitable brackets on the frame, the lever being provided with a roller 14 which rides on the surface of a cam 15 on the main drive shaft. A spring 16 connected at one end to the lever 12 and at the l member or'plate, which assists in the folding of the sheet and helps to confine the folded sheet as it passes to the point of attachment of the backing webs. The complementary member 11 is associated with a lower folder 30 and a similar member 18 with the upper folder 54. These members lie beyond the folders in the direction of movement of the sheet and they have,l faces of substantial area which contact with 'the bent portions ofthe loops. During the'operation of the machine, thecomplementary members move horizontally with their associated folding blades, but have no vertical movement, and for this purpose, the lower memberll is moved by links 19 loosely attached to the shaft 33 and the upper member 18 is moved by links 86 loosely attached to the shaft 51. As the arms 34 and 58, in which the shafts 33 and 51 are respectively mounted, are swung to move the folders horizontally, the complementary members are given a similar movement. The lower member 11 is` supported by having its ends received in slots 8| in side pieces 82 provided with outwardly projecting lugs 83 attached to brackets 84 on the side frame members, and the upper member 18 is supported by having its ends rest on top of the side pieces 82, the ends being guided in slots 85 formed'between the tops of the side pieces and overhanging projections 86 on lugs 81 having feet 88 which rest on the side pieces.
Beyond the complementary members, in the direction of travel of the fibrous material, are rolls 89, 90, the former being journalled in fixed brackets in the frame, while the latter has trunnions 90a.l journalled in the lugs 81, which are fast on a shaft 9| journalled in brackets 92 on the side frames. Webs 93, 94 of backing material, drawn from supplies not shown, are coated with adhesive and then passed around the rolls 89, 90. From its supply, web 93 passes to the roll 89 after having made contact with a coating roll 95 dipping into adhesive in a vessel 98. Web 94 passes from its supply over guide rolls 91, 98, and 99 on its way to roll 90, anc' `between rolls 91 and 98, the web contacts with a coating roll dipping into adhesive in a vessel |0|.
The adhesive employed for coating the webs may be of various kinds, but is preferably a water dispersion of rubber, such as rubber latex, which may or may not contain vulcanizing ingredients. The coating rolls apply to each backing web such a quantity of the adhesive that the loops of the pile material will be firmly secured thereto, and the coated webs are forced into contact with opposite faces of the folded material by the action of the rolls 89, 98.
Beyond the rolls 89, 90, the two backing webs with the folded fibrous sheet between them advance through a passage |02, the walls of which confine the webs in close contact with the folded material, and the passage leads through a heating chamber |03 within which are heating coils |04. In this chamber, the heat causes the adhesive to set so that the folded pile material is firmly secured to the backing webs.
The compound fabric consisting of the two webs with the folded pile material between them may be used in the condition in which it emerges from the heating chamber, but, ordinarily, the compound fabric will be split into two single ones by a splitting mechanism which may be part of the main machine or a separate apparatus. In the machine illustrated, the splitting mechanism includes upper and lower spacing members |05, |06, respectively, supported on brackets on a suitable part of the frame and the compound fabric passes between the members which hold it in place While the splitting is carried on. Any suitable cutting means may be employed for the purpose, and that illustrated conventionally includes a splitting knife |01 driven by appropriate means. The component single fabrics produced by the splitting operation are then passed around take-up rolls |08, |09, which are connected together by suitable gearing |||la, |||lb and driven from the main drive shaft by any convenient means and at a suitable speed to draw the compound fabric through the heating chamber and splitting mechanism at the desired rate.
In starting the machine, the sheet 29 is passed through the feed rolls 26, 28, and a loop support is then applied to the sheet at its end. This support consists of two strips of suitable flexible material, such, for example, as felt of substantial thickness, the strips being applied to opposite faces of the sheet in alignment. In order-to permit the application of the strips to the end of the sheet, one or the other of the folding devices is moved out of the position which it normally occupies, and in the machine lillustrated, the upper mechanism is thus moved. For this purpose, the actuating links 61 for the upper folderl bar 55 are disconnected therefrom, and the shaft 9| is rocked by means of a handle I2 attached thereto. The rocking of shaft 9| raises the lugs 81 in which the roll 90 is journalled, and the roll is thereby moved to the position illustrated in Figure 3. The upward movement of the roll and its bearing lugs 81 exposes the ends of the upper complementary member 18, and the operating arms 80 for the member may be rocked about the shaft 51 to raise the member from its normal position. When the parts are in the positions illustrated in Figure 3, the strips of flexible material constituting the loop support may be readily applied to the sheet and these strips are placed in such manner that their ends at the front of the machine lie beyond the folding blades 30, 54 in the direction of movement of the sheet. Preferably, the loop support is of substantial width so that it extends into the space between rolls 89 and 90 and is compressed between these rolls and the complementary members 11, 18, so as to be anchored rmly to opposite faces of the sheet. The upper folding device is now restored to normal position, the actuating rod 61 is then reconnected to the folder bar 55, and the machine is ready for normal operation. i
When the machine is started, the folders move up and down and also back and forth horizontally to perform the folding operation shown in Figures 6 to 12, inclusive. At that stage of operation of the folders illustrated in Figure 6, the lower folding blade 30 and its complementary member 11 are in the rear position and the folder has been raised so as to force the sheet 29 against the under surface of the' other complementary member 18,' while folder 54 is in elevated position. In the next operation (Fig. 7), folding blade 54 is moved down, thus forming a loop of sheet material around the upper end of a blade 30, and at the next step (Fig. 8), the blade 30 is moved down to withdraw it from the loop. Thereafter, blade 30 `and complementary member 11 move to the forward position (Fig. 9),
and the upper blade 54 and its complementary member 18 then move to the rear position (Fig. 10), with the blade depressed. The movement of the upper blade in this manner causes the previously made folds ||3 to be advanced through the space between the folders and in this operation, the folds are compacted against the ends of the loop support Since there are no spacing blades, as in certain prior machines, between the legs of each fold, the folds pack together without regularityl of arrangement, and the folds are maintained in vertical position by the loop support. At the next stage in the operation (Fig. 11), the lower blade 30 rises so as to fold the material around the lower end of upper blade 54, and, thereafter, blade 54 is raised out 0f the fold so formed. The lower blade 30 and its complementary member, 11 are then moved in the direction of feeding movement of the sheet and the upper blade and member are moved to the position illustrated in Figure 6. The cycle of operations is then repeated. l
As the operation of the machine continues, the loop support passes out from between rolls 89, 90 with the backing webs aflixed thereto and the webs are then attached to the bent portions of the loops of the pile material. In time, the loop support emerges from the passage through the heating chamber defined by the plates |02', the two strips forming the loop support are separated by the knife |01, and the latter begins to sever the portions of sheet material extending from one web tothe other.' This produces two single fabrics which pass around the take-up rolls |08, |09 and finally, the strips are detached from the webs, any pieces of sheet material adhering thereto are removed, and the strips are then in readiness for further use. The sections of backing webs to whchvthe strips have been attached and which are devoid of pile are then removed, and the production of the fabric in indefinite length continues.
If at any time in the operation of the machine, it is desired to change the pile material, the machine is stopped, the upper folding mechanism is raised, the end of the new sheet 29 is passed through the feed rolls, the strips constituting the loop support are attached, and the machine is again started. The operations involved in applying the loop support may be carried on in a relatively short time so that there is little delay and loss of production.
In the construction illustrated, the loop support is of such length in the direction of feeding movement as to span the space between the complementary members and the web applying rolls 89, 90, but a narrower loop support may be employed if desired, since the support is forced along by the action of the folding blades. Preferably, a support of the dimensions illustrated is employed, since the end of the support is initially affixed to the backing webs and the pull on these webs by the take-up rolls assists in advancing the support out from between the complementary members.
In the machine described, only one of the folding means is shifted'to permit the application of the loop support, but it will be understood that both folding mechanisms may be swung apart, if desired. Also, the machine illustrated includes one form of folding and advancing mechanism, but other well known types may Abe substituted therefor. Preferably, the folding of the pile material is carried on without the use of spacer elements, since this results in the loops of pile material being packed together irregularly, and in the finished fabric, the pile is dense and compact and there are no spaces corresponding to spacing elements, which produce visible lines in the pile surface.
1. A method of producing a fabric which comprises applying a support of substantial thickness to a fibrous sheet, folding the remainder of the sheet transversely to produce a series of loops opening alternately in opposite directions andv simultaneously advancing the folded portions of the sheet and the support through a passage engaging opposite faces of the support and the bent portions of the loops, the support being in` leading position in such advance and the loops packed against the rear end of the support, and aiiixing websy of backing material to the bent portions of the loops beyond the passage.
2. A method of producing a fabric which comprises applying a support of substantial thickness to a brous sheet, folding the remainder of the Vsheet transversely to produce a series of loops opening alternately in opposite directions and simultaneously advancing the folded portions of the sheet and the support through a passage engaging opposite faces of the support and the bent portions of the loops in the sheets, the support being in leading position in such advance and the loops packed against the rear end of the support, aflixing webs of backing material to the bent portions of the loops, severing the loops by a cut in a plane between the webs, and removing the support.
3. A method of producing a fabric which comprises applying strips of material to opposite faces of a fibrous sheet to form a support of substantial thickness, folding th'evremainder of the sheet transversely to produce a series of loops opening alternately in opposite directions and simultaneously advancing the folded portions of the sheet and the support through a passage engaging the tions of 'the loops, the support being in leading position in such advance and the loops packed against the rear end o f the support, and aixing webs of backing material to the bent portions of the loops on the faces of the folded sheet beyond the passage. p
4. A method of producing a fabric which comprises applying strips of material to opposite faces of a fibrous sheet to form a support of substantial thickness, folding the remainder of the sheet transversely to produce a series of loops opening alternately in opposite directions and simultaneously advancing the folded portions of opposite faces of the support and the bentporthe sheet and the support through a passage engaging the opposite faces of the support and the bent portions of the loops, the support being in leading position in such advance and the loops packed against the rear end of the support, aixing webs of backing material to the bent portions of the loops beyond the passage to produce a compound fabric, separating the strips forming the.
support, and severing the-loops by a cut in a plane between the webs.
5. A method of producing a fabric which comprises-applying strips of material to opposite faces .of a fibrous sheet to form a support of substantial thickness, folding the remainder of the sheet transversely to produce a series. of loops opening alternately in opposite directions and simultaneously advancing the folded portions of the sheet and the. support through a passage engaging the opposite faces of the support and the bent portions of the loops, the support being in leading position in such advance and the loops' packed against the rear end of the'support, aflixing webs of backing material to opposite faces of the support and to the bent portions of the loops beyond the passage, separating the strips forming the support, severing the loops by a cut in a plane between the webs, and detaching the strips from the webs.
WILLIAM D. HLLOGG.
HARRY C. EIGABROADT.