|Publication number||US2160845 A|
|Publication date||Jun 6, 1939|
|Filing date||Jun 1, 1935|
|Priority date||Jun 1, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2160845 A, US 2160845A, US-A-2160845, US2160845 A, US2160845A|
|Inventors||Lanier Eason Sidney|
|Original Assignee||Lanier Eason Sidney|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (11), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June-6,1939. SLEAS-ON 2,1 ,8
ROOFING OR SURFACING MATERIAL Filed June 1, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet l June 6, 1939. s. EASON 2,160,345
ROOFING OR SURFACING MATERIAL 7 Filed June 1, 1935 2 Sheets-Shet 2 III/II mm 7 9 I U l k \l 9 9 a 4 k A Ewan-502* aworinzy v Patented June 6, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ROOFING R SURFACING MATERIAL Sidney Lanier Eason, Charleston, S. C.
Application June 1, 1935, Serial No. 24,533
. 4 Claims.
This inventionrelates to roofing or surfacing material and is a continuation in part of my prior application Serial'No. 683,130, filed August 1, 1933,
V now Patent No. 2,003,503, granted June 4, 1935.
In general, it embodies certain features which were disclosed but not specifically claimed in said prior application as well as certain improvements and refinements thereon.
,In the accompanying drawings:-
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a roll of roofing equipped with seam reinforcing and/ or flap strips on both longitudinal edges thereof so that when the roofing is rolled into roll form for shipment and storage, I obtain a compact, balanced, cylindrical and symmetrical package which may be stood upright equally well on either end.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the roll of roofing partly unrolled to expose the reinforcing end/or fiap strips which extend along both longitudinal edges from end to end thereof. In this figure,
the length of roofing material is further optionally provided with reinforcing and/or flap strips at each end thereofand at convenient intervals intermediate of its ends.
Fig. 3 is a characteristic cross-section which 2 may be assumed to have been taken on any of the indicated section lines designated at 3-3 in Fig. 2. This figure is also characteristic of the section which results when the length of roofing material'is cut transversely along the indicated line of cut of Fig. 2 at one of the intermediate reinforcing and/or flap strips with which the length of roofing material is optionally provided.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary perspective illustrating the manner of interfolding and sealing the flaps of adjacent overlapping courses of my roofing material to provide a fabric to fabric seal which doubly reinforces i. e. the under and upper sheets, and protects the seam or joint. This figure also shows a preferred sealing method in which a hot iron or its equivalent is first passed over the interfolded flaps to seal them fast and securely together after which the sealed-down flaps are given a top coating of cement or equivalent material, if desired.
Fig. 5 is an exaggerated cross-section on the line 5-5 through the joint thus produced.
Fig. 6 is an exaggerated cross-section through the joint which is produced when the adjacent courses of roofing material are abutted rather than overlapped as in Figs. 4 and 5, and wherein the free or foldable area, constituting the sealing flaps of the reinforcing and/or flap strips are approximately twice the width of the attaching areas of the strips.
Fig. 7 is an exaggerated cross-section on the line 1-1 of Fig. 4 before the flaps are interfolded.
In Fig.7 the flap area of the strip carried by one course of roofing material may be considered as having been so constructed or treated as to render 5 it impervious to moisture so as to make a water tight edge where it laps the edge of the adjacent course of roofing material without the necessity of applying a cement or of sealing by means of a hot iron, the cooperating flap of said adjacent 10 course being either pervious or impervious as desired. v
Fig. 8 is an exaggerated cross-section. through the joint produced by the structure of Fig. '7 when the flaps are interfolded. 15
Fig. 9 shows a further variant in which they roofing sheet, is provided with a cover layer, of composition, fabric, metal or analogous material which may or may not be continuous but which has at ,either longitudinal edge of the roofing 2o sheet a protective flap adapted to produce the' joint of Fig. 10.
Fig. 10 is a cross-section through the joint produced by the structure of Fig. 9 when similar sheets are lapped.
The standard roll of roofing material is usually thirty-six feet long and thirty-six inches wide. When courses of roofing are lapped and nailed the line of nails becomes the weakest point. In order to have adequate strength in the lapped 30 areas, the roofing material has always been made of excessive strength or thickness outside of the lapped areas.
In my present invention however, I reinforce the seam by means of reinforcing and/or flap strips I at both longitudinal edges of the length of roll roofing, thus confining excessive thickness to the area of the sheet where strength is essentially desired rather than over the entire area. These strips extend from end to end of the roll. They lie within the margins of the packaged roofing material in all cases and do not protrude therebeyond so that in shipping and storing the. roofing material the roll and its attached reinforcing and/or flap are wrapped in a neat compact roll and handled with the strips enclosed and protected.
Accordingly, by providing reinforcing and/or flap strips at both longitudinal edges I obtain a balanced, cylindrical or symmetrical package which is capable of being stood upright equally as well on either end.
Should a reinforcing and/or flap strip be superimposed on one longitudinal edge only of the roofing course, the resulting roll would take the form of a frustrum of a cone which would have a small diameter end and a large diameter end and-would be unbalanced as to storage or rolling when handling.
The balanced roll is a. feature of real advantage in the manufacture, shipping, storage and handling of the rolls. Such a balanced, symmetrical roll R is shown in Fig. 1. The enclosed and protected longitudinal reinforcing end or flap strips I balance the roll, enabling it to be stood upright equally as well on either end for transportation or storage, as well as providing continuous edge-stiffening elements throughout the length of the rolled sheet and equally at both ends of the roll. The balanced roll may, of course, be wrapped in any suitable protective cover or wrapper (not shown).
The reinforcing and/or flap strips are preferably an asphalt saturated cotton fabric, although other materials such as treated paper, composition materials, etc. may be used and generally similar thicknesses are preferred along one or more edges and/or ends for uniform packaging. These strips are permanently attached to the longi tudinal edges of the roll roofing material at the factory. This may be done in any convenient manner as by gluing, stapling, stitching or otherwise.
Optionally reinforcing and/or flap strips may also be factory-attached as at 2 to one or'both ends of the roll of roofing material and at conveniently spaced intervals intermediate of the ends as at 3 (see Fig. 2).
Where provided with the intermediate strips, the roofing material when cut along the indicated lines of cut (Fig. 2) are duplicates of the edge and end strips (see Fig. 3).
Thus, when-the course of roofing material is cut into sheets of convenient size along these intermediate strips, I obtain a roofing sheet, all edges of-which have the characteristic section of Fig. 3.
Such a sheet is the ideal sheet in that any edge thereof may be the lapping or joint-forming edge, thus making the sheet universally useable on any type of roof.
The end strips, or the intermediate strips, or both, may however be omitted where considered unnecessary or undesirable on account of the extra cost involved, or otherwise.
Referring to Figs. 2 and 3 which. illustrate a desirable form 'of my invention wherein the reinforcing and/or flap strips are applied to both longitudinal edges of the roofing material, the area 4 is the attaching area of the strip and is glued or otherwise permanently affixed preferably upon the upper face of the material adjacent each longitudinal edge thereof, and the area 5 is a free or flap area.
In this form of my invention, adapted pa ticularly for overlapped sheets, the, attaching area 4 and the flap area 5 are substantially of equal width, the flap area folding outwardly along the indicated line of fold 6.
In this form of my invention, adaptable particularly for abutting sheets, the attaching area 4 is approximately one-half the width of the flap area. 5 in order to result in a joint as indicated in Fig. 6.
The roofing is usually coated at the factory with talc, mica, or other non-adhesive substances to prevent sticking in the roll and/or for surfacing or finish. Where the flap area 5 is of excessive width as compared with the attaching area 4 and the sheets are lapped, such excess of width of the flap 5 would be prevented by the tale, mica or other non-adhesive surfacing from firmly adhering to the lower sheet when a joint is formed.
If the flaps were not reliably sealed down, wind and water would get under the flap material and peel it back, thus exposing the seam edge to windage and driving rains which would penetrate the seam.
0n the other hand, where the flap area 5 is not greater in width than the attaching area 4 for overlapped sheets, it is possible to overfold and seal the flap areas of adjacent sheets to themselves as best shown in Figs. 4 and 5, resulting in fabric-to-fabric seals instead of part of the seal on non-adhesive surfacing. For abutting sheets, the flaps 5 are in fact of greater width than the attaching areas 4 (see Fig. 6) while at the same time avoiding the objection's above pointed out. Similarly, the joints obtained as in Figs. '7 and 8 result in fabric-tofabric seals and avoid the objections above pointed out as to-sealing on non-adhesive surfacing. Likewise, in all joints herein shown, the upper and under sheets are reinforced.
With the fabric-to-fabric seal, the fabric itself acts as an in-between packing substance and also affords an excellent retainer which seals in the adhesive material or holding cement so thatit will not leak out of the built-up seam which thus results.
In producing such fabric to-fabric seal, adjacent sheets are overlapped and/or abutted and nailed as at N.. Where overlapped as in Figs. 4 and 5 the flap of the under sheet is folded upwardly and outwardly over the attaching area of the flap strip of ,the upper sheet. The flap of the upper sheet is then folded over said first named flap, after which the flaps are then sealed together in this relation in any suitable manner, as by means of a hot iron as illustrated in Fig. 4 or alternatively by first coating the entire flap strip of the upper roofing sheet withholding cement before folding and after folding and sealing the flaps'down upon one another, then top coating the seam with cement or its equivalent I as at C.
Where a hot iron or equivalent is used, the
simple act of passing the hot iron over the folded flaps seals them fast and securely together, if the flap material contains asphalt or other thermoresponsive sealing substance. In this action, the
area 4 (Fig. 5) of the flap strip of the lowermost strip becomes an in-between packing medium which responds to the hot iron, or to'the inbetween sheet lap cement if used.
When assembledflas shown in Fig. 5 that portion 5b of the flap area of the lower sheet con.- forms to and seals over the outer longitudinal edge of the upper sheet, with the balance of the free portion 5a of such flap bent over upon the attaching area of the cooperating flap strip and What I therefore claim and desire to secure or its equivalent, the sealing action is unusually fast and secure and in many cases may be relied upon alone as adequate and suillcient seam protection.
Where additional protection is required, however, I may coat the entire seam with the top coating of cement or equivalent material as indicated in Figs. 4 and 5. Regardless of whether such top coating is or is not used, the seal is a fabric to fabric seal with the fabric of one of the seam strips acting as an in between or backing substance which is peculiarly responsive to hot iron treatment.
The fabric to fabric seal of Fig. 5 may likewise be produced where the roofing sheets are abutted as in Fig. 6 rather than overlapped as in Fig. 5. In this figure the flap area is approximately double the width of the attaching area in each strip so as completely to cover the rows of nails as well as to afford fabric to fabric seal throughout which seal as before stated is peculiarly responsive to hot iron treatment or cement top coating or both, and lends itself towards flat or flush-like seam covering.
In the variant shown in Figs. '1 and 8 the reinforcing and/or flap strip of one sheet. as for example the lowermost sheet, may be of watertight or impervious material and the reinforcing and/ or flap strip of the other sheet may be either of pervious or impervious material, as desired. Where the strip of the lowermost sheet is impervious, I obtain a water-tight edgealong the outer marginal edge of the uppermost sheet as well as at the juncture thereof with the lowermost sheet (see Fig. 8) without the necessity of cementing or-hot iron treatment. As a further variant, only the flap area of the lowermost sheet strip need be of impervious material. As a still further variant, the procedure may be reversed or both flaps may be pervious or impervious as desired.
Obviously, however, I obtain in Figs. 7 and 8 the characteristic fabric to fabric seal and this is true whether the flaps are sealed to each other with heat application or without heat application. Obviously also, I obtain a desirable in-between packing medium between the sheets themselves.
If an emulsion cement is used with non preshrunk fabric flaps, the flaps are more tightly drawn together as the fabric shrinks in the process of drying or evaporation of the water contempt the emulsion cement and accordingly such flaps are inter-folded or inter-locked together in an extremly tight and effective manner.
In the variant shown in Figs. 9 and 10 the roof-' ing sheet of whatever material and in whatever form, has secured thereto a cover layer 9 of composition, fabric, or metal which may be continuous or not, but in any event has a flap 10 adjacent each margin of the roofing sheet. When overlapped to form'the joint illustrated in Fig. 10 the flap It at one edge of one course of roofing material overlies the fiap at the adjacent marginal edge of the underlying course of roofing material, thus providing double protection over the course-fasteners as well as covering the exposed lap edge.
flap, the flap of one flap being folded outwardly lying the marginal by Letters Patent is:-
l. In roofing, adjacent roofing courses, a flex-- ible strip extending along the adjacent edge of each course, each strip having one marginal portion thereof fastened to its related course and its other marginal portion free and constituting a strip being impervious and the flap of the other strip being pervious, the impervious flap being folded outwardly and overlying the marginal attached portion of the perviousstrip, means for fastening the overfolded impervious flap in such position, the pervious into overlying relation to the overfolded impervious flap, and means for fastening said overfolded pervious flap in such position.
2. In roofing, adjacent roofing courses, a flexible strip extending along the adjacent edge of each course, each strip having one marginal portion thereof fastened to its related course and its other marginal portion free and constituting a flap, the flap of onestrip being impervious, the impervious flap being folded outwardly and overattached portion of the opposite strip, nails penetrating the marginal attached portions of both strips, the other flap being folded outwardly into overlying relation .to the overfolded impervious flap, and means for cementing and waterproofing said overfolded flap.
3. A course of mastic-saturated roofing felt having a cover layer applied to one face thereof, said cover layer having fabric flaps adjacent both longitudinal edges of the course and lying within the margins thereof, the flap at one longitudinal edge of said course being abutted against the lap edge of an overlapping course to cover the same and then extended over and sealed down upon the overlapping marginal portion of said overlapping course, and the flap of said overlapping marginal portion of said overlapping course being scaled down upon the flap of said first-named course to provide a fabric to fabric seal at said flaps affording double protection for the coursefasteners at the joint.
4. A course of mastic saturated roofing felt having a pair of fabric flap strips extending along the longitudinal edges of said course and lying within the margins thereof, the inner marginal portion of each strip being free and constituting a foldable flap, so that when said course is brought into joint-forming relationship with another course having a similarly proportioned flapstrip and flap on its adjacent longitudinal edge, the flap of one course is adapted to be turned outwardly into overlying relationship to the attached marginal portion of the strip of the other course with the free edges of the overfolded joint-forming flaps overlapping the, lines of fold of the respective flaps. in fabric to fabric sealing relationship, the flaps being impregnated with a thermo-adhesive which is responsive to the heat of a hot iron or its equivalent, whereby to cause the flaps tightly to adhere to each other.
SIDNEY LANIER EASON.
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|USRE32710 *||Jul 3, 1986||Jul 12, 1988||Seaman Corporation||Single-ply sealed membrane roofing system|
|WO2003014491A1 *||Aug 2, 2002||Feb 20, 2003||Elk Premium Building Products, Inc.||Roofing composite|
|U.S. Classification||52/545, 52/420|
|International Classification||E04D5/14, E04D5/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E04D5/148, E04D5/142, E04D5/147|
|European Classification||E04D5/14W, E04D5/14L1, E04D5/14M3|