US 2162658 A
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June 13, 1939. D. H. wlEsLANDER METHOD OF RECONSTRUCTING AND REINFORCING PLASTERED CEILINGS AND THE LIKE Filed May 24, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet l y.10 Inventor,
E? 7 4 4' R38 9D i .Danellmealanden if 4 Y Mw June 13, 1939. v D, H, W|ESLANDER 2,162,658
METHOD OF RECONSTRUCTING AND REINFORCING PLASTERED CEILINGS AND THE LIKE Invenor, Daniel Il. M'elan der.
Patented June 13, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFECE METHOD OF RECONSTRUCTING AND REIN- FORCING PLASTERED CEILINGS AND THE LIKE 11 Claims.
The present invention relates to an improved method of re-constructing cracked plastered ceilings, the work being in the nature of repairs to, rather than replacement of the entire ceiling.
5V Houses, particularly dwelling houses, are in many instances constructed of lumber not fully seasoned. Later on, when the oor timbers and lathing to which the plaster is applied have undergone considerable shrinkage and often more i0 or less distortion in form, the plaster is subjected to certain strains placed on it, for the foregoing reason, which cause it to crack, bog down, or even to become partially detached from the lath support.
Now a ceiling in this condition is not only very displeasing to the eyes butmay on occasions become a positive menace to those occupying the room. When the plaster has more or less broken away from the lathing, a slight jar on the floor above is suihcient, oftentimes, to cause it to drop-possibly upon those who at the time may be occupying the room.
The conventional method of repairing a ceiling in a not-too-badly-cracked condition is to .i3 seal the cracks with some substance, as for instance, plaster of Paris, or with ordinary plaster itself, and then apply to the repaired or cracked portions, or possibly the whole ceiling, a coat of white-wash. But at the best, this method of concealing the cracked condition of the ceiling very poorly camoulages it.
Should the cracks be unusually prominent, or large areas of the plastering be loose or insecurely held to the lathing, it is usually considered necessary to remove the whole plaster material and construct a new ceiling. But this is resorted to only when absolutely required, due to the dust and dirt accompanying work of tearing down an old plastered ceiling.
Having experimented, over a long term of years, with various methods and ways of repairing a cracked ceiling I have finally evolved one which I believe to be stronger, of better appearance, and which will remain in perfect shape longer, than t'he original.
In the work of re-conditioning cracked ceilings certain conditions must exist in order to procure satisfactory results. One, and the most important, essential is that the original plastering is in such shape that it may be strongly secured to the lathing element's, and that the latter, in turn, are or able to be properly bound to the main supporting members, the oor timbers. This ordinarily can easily be accomplished,
.'35 except where certain areas of the plastering have (Cl. 'Y2-123) become wholly detached from the laths, in which case it is usually best to either re-plaster this portion of the ceiling or replace with other material, the idea being to rst procure a firm and substantial base or foundation upon which to subsequently apply the re-const'ruction material.
As certain definite and separate operations are required to be performed, when putting my invention into practice, I have thought it best to illustrate the ceiling after each particular operation has been completed, thereby more comprehensively disclosing in detail the various undertakings in carrying out the invention.
In the drawings, in which like reference characters identify like elements in all the various views thereof,
Fig. 1 represents a cracked ceiling as viewed from the floor of t'he room;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view through a typical cracked ceiling;
Fig. 3 is the same as Fig. 2, with the result of the first operation on the ceiling shown;
Fig. 4 illustrates a section of the ceiling after the second operation has been complet'ed;
Fig. 5 is a view of the ceiling, in inverted plan view, after the second operation, showing the perforate metal sheets;
Fig. 6 shows a section of the completely re-constructed ceiling;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary plan View of one of the d perforate met'al sheets used in one method of reconstruction;
Fig. 8 shows one method of joining the sheets, by a locked joint;
Fig. 9 is a section on line 9 9, Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 is a section through the finished re-constructed ceiling, 'showing particularly the locked joint; Y
` Figs..11 and l2 show a butt and a lapped join construction, respectively, of the metal perforate sheets;
Fig. 13 is an alternative method of perforating the sheets;
Fig. 14 illustrates, in sectional elevation, a slightly modied lconstruction with respect to the binder element;
Fig. 15 showsy an inverted plan View of the metal elements alone, as used in the Fig. 14 construction;
Fig. 16 illustrates a construction in which a metal wire screen, reinforced by large headed screws, is employed;
Fig. 16a shows the metal screen used in Fig. 16 construction Fig. 17 is aysection of a re-constructed ceiling V in which a coarse mesh fabric sheet is used as one of the binder elements;
Fig. 18 shows a fragmentary portion of Fig. 14, drawn to a slightly enlarged scale, the metal parts being shown as viewed from line Ill-I8, Fig.
Fig. 19 shows a metal wire screen with locked joint construction, and
Fig. illustrates a ceiling devoid of screws or nails for securing the plastering or the metal binder to the laths.
Referring to the drawings, l represents a ceiling with cracks C shown running in various directions as is usually the case where the ceiling is badly ruptured.
Cracks ordinarily start to develop in the direction of the lathing, but subsequently the crosswise ones will appear, so that no uniformity exists with respect to their directional locations over the whole ceiling.
In undertaking the work of repairing a cracked ceiling by my improved method, one condition must usually be present, namely, that there be no large areas of the plastering hanging loosely or fully detached from the laths, or at least be in such condition that' it cannot be firmly bound to the carrying elements, the lathing, Ceilings are sometimes found to be so completely broken away from their supporting members that repairs, by my method, would not be a practical proposition. In these cases a brand new plastering would be the proper method or procedure to take under the circumstances.
But it is unusual that ceilings are so badly out of repair that the plastering cannot be secured to the lathing where it has become detached, and if occasionally a considerable area needs replacing with new plaster, or with other material to fill this area, my method will even then be applicable for re-constructing the Whole ceiling surface.
Fig. 2 depicts a ceiling, in sectional view, showing the plaster P, laths L, and floor timbers T, the spaces C disclosing where the cracks have developed.
The first operation, illustrated in Fig. 3, involves securing the loose edges of the plaster to the laths or floor timbers by the use of large headed nails or screws 2. Small holes are drilled by an electric drill or by a hand gimlet in the plaster for insertion therein of the screws 2; and if considerably large areas of the plaster have become loosened, the screw-securing operation is conducted over other portions than those adjacent the cracks. Screws are preferable to nails except Where the fastening element can Contact a floor timber.
This firmly attaches the loose plaster to the lathing and establishes a proper base for the material subsequently to be applied. There may be portions or areas where the plaster, although bound to the laths, slightly sags, as shown at D. This condition can be taken care of, as will hereinafter be disclosed.
The next procedure or operation, also depicted in Fig. 3, is to procure a true and even surface over the whole ceiling. 'I'his is accomplished by applying to the firmly secured base a layer of a cohesive plastic material having the characteristic of slightly penetrating the plaster and of becoming hard and tenacious after being thoroughly dried out.
Thecohesive plastic material 3 is worked into all cracks and crevices and applied in a thickness which will insure complete coverage of all unevenness of the original plastering including the nail or screw heads, sagging, and other outof-line portions.
Before this layer of plastic material has appreciably dried out, another operation is undertaken, involving covering this true and even surface with thin, perforate metal sheets 4, the perforations 5 therein being of such size as to permit the plastic material to easily exude therethrough when pressure is applied to the sheets. 'Ihe exuded portions form rivet-like structures 3a and slightly protrude below the bottom face of the sheets.
The object in providing these perforations is exclusively for the purpose of gaining interconnection between the layer of plastic already applied and the one subsequently to be put on, through the agency of the rivet-like portions 3a. Thus the two layers are bonded together and to all intents and purposes become one layer. The metal reinforcing or binding elements l are laid on in wide sheets, and may be joined together by a locked joint, as shown in Fig. 8, by a butt joint as illustrated in Fig. 11, or by a plain lapped joint as depicted in Fig. 12.
It will be observed, by reference to Figs. 8 and 9, that the perforations 5 in the sheets 4 are so spaced that those in one sheet align with those in the other at the locked seams or joints 4a. Thus the plastic material 3 extends through the holes in the seams and strengthens the whole structure.
In making the perforations in the sheets 4 I may elect to form around the openings a flange with an upset end, such as is shown in Fig. 13. The outwardly turned flange 0n the upset end 5a gives an opportunity for the plastic material 3 to become very firmly bound to the sheet 4 assisting in preventing separation of the metal sheet and plastic material.
The metal sheets may be applied in long or short lengths, lengthwise or crosswise of the ceiling. In some cases both long and short pieces may be used, as shown in Fig. 5; thus short lengths which otherwise might be scrapped may be utilized.
Before further work is done on the ceiling, sufficient time is given for the first coat of compound applied to become properly set, but preferably not fully dry. This leaves the first coat in a more or less plastic state and in better condition for the following coat to become properly bonded and united with it.
The next operation to be performed consists in applying another layer of the plastic material 3 over the whole surface of the ceiling. This completely covers the metal sheets which are now encased in a solid mass of the plastic material, with the protruding, rivet-like portions 3a merging into the outer layerl of plastic and firmly binding it to the inner layer.
A section of the ceiling now appears as shown in Fig. 6, and except for any desired finishing coat of paint, or other brushed-on material, or stippling work, the ceiling is completely re-constructed.
After extensive experimentation with plastic material to be used for the purpose herein set forth, the one I have evolved has proven to give good results insofar as its characteristic of bonding with the plaster is concerned. But when applied to metal the surface of which is highly finished it has not been uniformly satisfactory.
Sheet metal, as it comes from the mill, is usually coated with an oily substance which persistently resists bonding of any plastic material to its surface. when used in this condition for my ceiling re-constructing Work large areas of the sheets are unsecured to the plastic material, and therefore fail to perform their full function.
In order to correct this evil I treat the metal sheets, rst to remove the oily or greasy substance, which I do by subjecting them to a high temperature, and then, to give the surfaces of the sheets a better bonding character, submerge them in or coat them with a solution which tends to prevent oxidation of the metal and which leaves a non-metallicsurface-covering highly susceptible of bonding with my cohesive plastic material.
With the metal thus treated, the plastic material rmly clings or adheres to both upper and und-er surfaces of the sheets. And as the plastic material tenaciously adheres to, and slightly penetrates, the plaster embodying the original ceiling, and the plaster is firmly secured to the base elements-the laths and floor timbers, a construction is evolved which in strength and durability far exceeds the original plaster ceiling.
But, notwithstanding the fact that, by treating the metal sheets in the manner I do, to provide better bonding surfaces, I Wish to point out that, under ordinary conditions, the rivet-like portions 3a of the plastic material supply sufficient means to bind the two layers of plastic together, even though the plastic fails to bond With the metal.
As a corollary to the foregoing I wish to stress the point that the exclusive function of the perforations 5 is to provide the means whereby the rivet-like portions 3a may be formed between the two layers of plastic material, these portions acting as interconnectingY and holding elements for the two layers.
The operations performed in carrying out the invention by the method just described are, generally speaking, employed in all my ceiling reconstruction work.
In certain instances, however, I have found that quite satisfactory results are attained by making a slight deviation from the hereinbefore method set forth as it pertains to the elements used as the binder to reinforce the cohesive plastic material applied to the plastering.
Figs. 14, 15 and 18 illustrate such a departure from the rst method described, involving the use'of a metal wire screen element which is applied to the first layer of plastic material after this latter has been laid on the plastering.
The metal wire screen is applied to the plastic material in sheets I9, and upon this wire screen are laid thin, narrow strips of perforate metal I2 having large perforations I3 therein. The strips are, preferably, arranged both length-wise and cross-wise of the ceiling, and the plastic material 3 exudes through these openings and through the interstices in the wire screen to form the rivet-like structures which serve to hold the metal binding elements in place pending the application of another layer of the cohesive plastic material. Occasionally, particularly when the original ceiling is in bad shape, large headed screws I5 may be used to aid in securing the elements together, but ordinarily this expedient is unnecessary, as in most cases I have found that the wire screen alone, as is illustrated in Fig. 20, suflces to attach itself to the plastic material, and in turn serve as a binder therefor when the construction work is completed.
In the embodiment of my invention shown in Fig. 17, a coarsely woven fabric sheet I6 is used as a substitute for the thin metal strips I2, the
plastic material bonding with the fabric toassist in holding the wire screen against displacement from the layer of plastic material.
In handling metal screen material, kinks or uneven portions are quite apt to develop, making it somewhat difficult to hold the material flat and prevent its buckling and drawing away from the plastic material. And it is on account of this tendency of the wire screen to weave in and out, and not present a true surface, that I employ the perforate metalV strips I2 over it.
Rivet-like structures form between the meshes of the screen, just as they did in the case of the perforate sheets 4, and through the perforations I3 in the strips I2, these latter securing the strips in place sufficiently firm to keep the wire screen in place while the final layer of plastic is being applied.
Before proceeding with the re-construction work on a cracked plastered ceiling it is of course, quite essential that all surfaces which are to be coated with the plastic material should be clean and free from all extraneous matter which would in any way impair or make uncertain the bonding of this covering to the original surfaces. of the ceiling. Painted surfaces should be Washed and the edges of cracks trimmed so that nothing but rm plaster remains. In short, to see that the base or foundation to which the plastic is to be applied is firm and clean.
Plastered walls are amenable to the same treatment as Vare ceilings; and for purposes of illustration, the term plaster is to be construed and interpreted as meaning any material which originally was capable of being applied in plastic form, or molded and subsequently applied in sheets, but all of which is subject to cracking as is ordinary plaster made of lime, sand and water.
It frequently is the case that only a portion of a ceiling needs repairs made to it. In such instances the damaged portion is treated similarly to and by the same method as has hereinbefore been described, the joint between the damaged and repaired portions being neatly skived or tapered so that the last layer of the cohesive material gradually merges into the surface of the undamaged portion of the ceiling, so that the dividing line between the two portions is hardly discernible.
In applying the perforate sheets or the wire screen to the rst layer of cohesive plastic material it is sometimes of advantage to further strengthen and more firmly bind the structure to the base members--the laths and floor-timbers. This is accomplished by the use of buttons or screws I5` In the description of my invention, thus far set forth, I have dealt with it in connection with its use in re-constructing or re-conditioning damaged plastered ceilings. I wish it to be understood, however, that I do not limit cr restrict myself to this particular application of the invention, as it is of particular advantage to treat a new ceiling with my improvement.
As has hereinbefore been pointed out, the floor timbers, and the lathing to which the plaster is applied, are continually subject to change in form, not alone by reason of shrinkage of the lumber as well as distortion thereof, but by jarring and vibration due to heavy tramping on the iioor above. The ceiling, reinforced by structure embodied in my invention, will hold the ceiling intact, even though portions of it might become slightly loosened or detached from the lathing.
It would be next to impossible, except under the most unusual conditions, for the cohesive plastic material reinforced by the metal binding agents to crack.
What I claim is:
1. A method of re-constructing a cracked plastered ceiling, consisting in first securing the plaster adjacent the cracks, and other partially or wholly detached portions of the plaster to the supporting lath and floor-timber members by large-headed nails and screws, then applying a layer of cohesive plastic material over the entire ceiling, including the lling of all cracks and depressions therein, for the purpose of procuring an even and true surface, then covering the said true surface with thin, perforate elements, applying sufficient pressure to said elements to cause the said cohesive plastic material to exude through the perforations or openings therein, and lastly, applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material to the elements already applied to the ceiling, the last layer of cohesive plastic material covering the entire ceiling and laid to a predetermined thickness.
2. A method of re-constructing ceilings originally secured to lathing but subsequently having portions cracked and broken away therefrom, consisting in iirst rei-securing all unattacked and loosely held portions of the ceiling to the laths by nails and screws, then covering the broken surface with a cohesive plastic material to procure an even and true surface, next, laying on said true surface a binding element having openings therein through which the cohesive plastic material is adapted to exude, forming rivet-like structures, and lastly, applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material to the previously applied elements, the rivet-like structures constituting inter-connecting elements between the two layers of cohesive plastic material.
3. A method of re-constructing a cracked plastered ceiling, consisting in rst re-securing the plaster adjacent the cracks and other portions wholly or partially detached, to the supporting lath and floor-timber members by large headed screws and nails, then applying a layer of a cohesive plastic material over the surface of the ceiling, lling all crevices and depressions to procure an even and true surface, next covering said surface with a plurality of thin, perforate metal sheets, sumcient pressure being applied to the sheets to cause the cohesive plastic material to exude through the perforations therein, forming rivet-like structures, and lastly applying to the said sheets a layer of the plastic material adapted to bond with the rst layer applied, through the agency of said rivet-like structures.
fl. A method of re-constructing a cracked plastered ceiling having portions wholly or partially broken away consisting in first re-securing the damaged portions to their lath supports by large headed nails and screws, then applying a layer of a cohesive plastic material over the entire surface of the ceiling in a predetermined thickness, next covering the surface of the material just laid with a plurality of thin, perforate metal sheets, adjacent sheets being mutually secured by interlocked joints, pressure being applied to the sheets when being laid to insure the cohesive plastic material exuding through the perforations therein to form rivet-like portions depending slightly from the sheets, and lastly applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material, to the elements already laid, the last layer bonding to the rst layer of plastic material applied by means of the interconnection of the interposed rivet-like portions of said cohesive plastic material.
5. A method of re-constructing a cracked or otherwise damaged plastered ceiling or portions of which have sagged, consisting in rst securing all parts of the plastering which are either wholly or partially detached from their supporti to the laths and floor-timbers to procure a firm foundation upon which to operate, next covering the ceiling, or the portions thereof which areto undergo repairs, with a layer. of a cohesive plastic material, next laying, on the plastic material, a plurality of periorate heat-treated and solutioncovered metal elements, and lastly, applying a layer of the cohesive plastic material to the surface of the said perforate metal elements, the two layers of plastic material bonding with both faces, respectively, of the perforate metal elements as well as with themselves through the agency of that portion which exudes through the perforations in said elements.
6. A method of re-constructing damaged plastered ceilings and the like consisting in rst resecuring, to the laths and floor timbers, all portions of the ceiling which have become wholly or partially detached therefrom, by large headed nails and screws, to secure a rm foundation, then covering the ceiling thus repaired with a layer of a cohesive plastic material of a predetermined thickness, said material having the characteristic of strongly bonding with and slightly penetrating the plastering, next, laying on the plastic material, perforate elements, embodying a plurality of sheets of open mesh wire screen applying pressure thereto to force it into the said plastic material, and upon this screen applying a coarsely woven fabric sheet, and finally covering the whole surface with a finishing layer of the cohesive plastic material.
7. A method of re-constructing a cracked or otherwise damaged plastered ceiling consisting in rst re-securing all portions of the plastering which are cracked or detached from its lath supports, by the use of large headed screws and nails, then covering the repaired surface with a cohesive plastic material in a predetermined thickness, next applying a plurality of vmetal binding agents, having openings therethrough, to the surface of said cohesive plastic material, said binding agent comprising a coarse mesh metal wire screen laid in sheets and upon which are applied reinforcements in the form of thin, narrow perforate metal strips, the plastic material exuding through the openings in the screen and the strips to hold them in place, and lastly, covering the binding agents with a layer of the cohesive plastic material to complete the re-construction work.
Y 8. A method of re-constructing a damaged plastered ceiling or the like, in which a portion only of the ceiling is to be repaired, consisting in first re-securing such portions as are cracked or partly detached from their supports, to the lathing by large headed screws or nails, then covering the damaged portion of the plastering with a layer of cohesive plastic material which tenaciously bonds to the surface of the plastering, next, applying to the cohesive plastic material a metal binding agent having openings therethrough, said binding agent comprising a plurality of sheets of coarse mesh metal wire screen upon which is laid at spaced intervals a plurality of thin, narrow perforate metal strips, large headed nails and screws extending through the binding agent to the lath structure and assisting in securing said agent to the layer of plastic material, and these, together with the plastering, to the laths and licor-timbers, and lastly, applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material to the elements already laid, the last layer of plastic material being skived or nely tapered off where it joins the portion not undergoing repairs in order to avoid abrupt merging of the two surfaces.
9. A method of re-constructing a damaged plastered ceiling, having cracks therein, consisting in applying to the surface of the plastering a layer of a cohesive plastic material, next, laying on said plastic material a binder element having openings therein, pressure being applied thereto forcing portions of said plastic material through the openings in said binder element, and finally covering the surface of the elements just applied to the plastering, a layer of the said cohesive plastic material.
10. A method of re-constructing and re-inforcinga plastered ceiling and the like, consisting in applying to the surface of the plastering a layer of a cohesive plastic material, then covering the surface of said cohesive plastic material with a perforate binding element through the openings therein said plastic material is adapted to exude, and finally applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material which is adapted t0 bond With the said perforate binding elementY and with the portions of the cohesive plastic material exuding through the openings of said binding element.
11. The method herein described for reinforcing a new plaster ceiling consisting in rst applying to the surface of said ceiling a layer of a cohesive plastic material having the property of making a strong bond with said plastering, then mounting on the surface of said cohesive plastic material a binding element having openings therein, a pressure being applied to said binding element sufcient to cause portions of said cohesive plastic material to exude through said openings, and finally applying another layer of the cohesive plastic material Which bonds With said binding element and with the first layer of cohesive plastic material applied, the foregoing constituting a double course of the cohesive plastic` material with a binding element insert, the whole being bonded to the surface of the plasterlng.
DANIEL H. WIESLANDER.