Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2162912 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 20, 1939
Filing dateAug 26, 1937
Priority dateJun 13, 1936
Publication numberUS 2162912 A, US 2162912A, US-A-2162912, US2162912 A, US2162912A
InventorsCraver Bates B
Original AssigneeUs Rubber Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rubber sole
US 2162912 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

B. B. CRAVER June 20, 1939.

RUBBER SOLE Original Filed June 13, 1936 ATTORNEY Patented June 20, 1939 UNITED STATES RUBBER SOLE Bates B. Graver, Waterbury, 0onn., assignor, by mesne assignments, to United States Rubber Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey Original application June 13, 1936, Serial No.

85,072. Divided and this application August 26, 1937, Serial No. 161,007

1 Claim.

This application is a division of application Serial No. 85,072 filed "June 13, 1936.

My invention relates to rubber soles and the combination of rubber soles and heels, and more particularly to the improvements of the antislipping or anti-skidding characteristics thereof by the provision of small slits in the ground engaging surfaces thereof.

It is wellknown that footwear having rubber heels and/or soles may become very slippery when used on wet pavements, walks, or boardwalks, particularly if the weight of the wearer-is placed on a wet metal part.

I have found that the anti-slipping or anti-' skidding characteristics of rubber soles and the combination of rubber soles and heels may be materially improved by providing a number of slits in the exposed rubber surface. Such slits may vary from a thin slit such as is formed by a knife cut without-substantial removal of material to a narrow slot such as is formed by a thin saw and in which some material is removed but which is still sufficiently narrow so that the side walls engage to mutually support each other when load is applied. The presence of the thinv edges of, the slits provides additional traction. surface, as compared with a smooth rubber surface, and also the slits provide small passageways through which the liquid or liquid film may be squeezed to permit the rubber surface to have a relatively dry contact with the underlying road or walk surface. The slits may besuperimposed on various designs of sole and heel configurations or they may be applied directly to otherwise smooth rubber surfaces.

The accompanying drawing illustrates certain present preferred embodiments of the invention, in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a combined heel and sole embodying my invention;

Fig. 2 is a plan view of a modified form of the heel and sole;

Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 are similar views of further modifications of the invention Fig. 7 is a similar view of a sole embodying my invention.

Referring particularly to Fig. 1, a wear resisting surface for a footwear article is illustrated in the form of a combined heel and sole I in which the ball portion 2 of the sole and the tread sur-' face 3 of the heel are interrupted by a considerable number of small slits or incisions 5 for improving the traction qualities of the shoe to which it is attached. These incisions extend transversely entirely across the ground engaging surfaces of the sole and heel. The transversely arranged incisions are particularly adapted to prevent back slipping of the shoe. Incisions 5 are preferably made after the footwear is vulcanized by a cutting operation, such as by a sharp knife or very thin saw which removes substantially no material. The term incision as used herein means a cut formed in the surface of the Vulcanized rubber composition without the removal of substantially any material, with the result that the opposite walls 'of the incision normally engage one another. Incislons which are wider than inch remove so much of the wearing surface of the rubber'that the loss of the wearing surface is not compensated for by the increased traction effect. The spacing of the'incisions depends somewhat upon the thickness of the rubber .to which it is applied, although a spacing range of from A; inch to 1 inch is contemplated. In general, the thinner the stock, the shallower and closer the incisions. A convenient depth for the initial incisions is one-third of the thickness of ,the stock, although the use of incisions on stock which is less than .2 inch is not recommended. For heavy service boots, such as hunts ing boots, miners boots, and the like, having,

As shown in Fig.2, in the event it is desired tohave a smooth appearing outer edge of the soles and/or heels, uncut margins 6 and I of the order of inch in width may be provided aroundthe edges of the sole and heel portions. respectively. 40

Referring to Fig. 3, a combined sole and heel 8 is shown provided with longitudinal incisions 9 which are particularly useful in preventing side slipping. In Fig. 4, incisions ID are shown set at an angle at approximately 45 degrees to the longitudinal center of the sole and heel ll. Such incisions combine certain of the advantages of the transverse incisions in preventing back slipping and certain of the advantages of the longitudinal incisions in preventing side slipping of the shoe. In Fig 5 a double diagonal arrange-. ment of incisions l2 and l3 is illustrated. The intersections of the incisions l2 and I3 break the wearing surface up into a plurality of square blocks which are flexible relative to each other so that they move slightly while maintaining their grip on the ground surface thereby reducing scuffing to a greater degree than do the arrange-- ments shown in the previously described figures. 5 Referring to Fig. '6 there is shown a combined sole and heel I in which longitudinally extending grooves ii are originally molded. If desired the grooves l5 may extend through the margin of the surface of the tread of the sole and heel w portions. Transverse incisions i6 intersect the grooves l5 so that relatively short pads are pro- ,vided for the squeezing out the liquid film from between the rubber surface and the pavement. Such adesign of the combinedsole and heel is 15 particularly useful for, very heavy service boots such as hunting and miners boots." I

Fig. '7 illustrates a sole l| having transverse incisions l8. By applying the incisions to heels the jar experienced with walking is'niaterially reduced as the'subsections of the wearing surface are free to adjust themselves to the inequalities of the worn heel or ground surface and/or load so that a more uniform overall pressure is obtained than :5 is usually obtained where a less flexible body of rubber is employed for the heel.

While I have. illustrated and described several designs or patterns of incisions,- it will be understood that other patterns may be used within io'the spirit of the invention and with equally good results. The several modifications of the invention are all characterized by the application of incisions, either so narrow as to be substantially invisible, or so that the opposite walls normally a engage, which result in squeezing of a liquid film from between the rubber surface and the ground thereby insuring a better contact between the rubber surface and the ground surface. Such constructions are particularly useful where the 0' footwear is used wet and slimy places. The application of the invention to heels also reduces the jarring. By reason of the subdivision of the wearing surface into small units, these units are free to flex slightly and accommodate themselves to unevennesses in the ground surface or inequalities of the imposed load without slipping or scuffing thereby giving the footwear better wearing characteristics. The various patterns of incisions may be made in a sole and/or heel having a smooth or uneven surface, evamples of the latter are the grooves ii in Fig. 6, or they may be made in surfaces having various designs.

While I have shown and described present preferred embodiments of my invention, it is to be understood that the invention may otherwise be.

extending inwardly but partially to leave an un-' cut base integral with the sections, and said slits being of such a spacing and depth as to enable the tread sections to flex on the uncut base of the outsole to an extent to tilt up and expose the corners of the sections between the tread surfaces of the sections and the walls of the slits when the foot wearing the shoe and applying weight on the tread surface tends to slip upon some desired supporting surface with which the tread surface is in contact.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3087262 *Apr 24, 1961Apr 30, 1963Forward Slant Sole CompanyResilient shoe sole
US3089164 *Aug 4, 1961May 14, 1963Micro Machinery Products IncSole slitting machine
US3662478 *Jan 28, 1970May 16, 1972Semperit AgSole and heel of rubber or plastic
US4498251 *Feb 7, 1983Feb 12, 1985Mercury International Trading Corp.Shoe design
US4658514 *Oct 22, 1984Apr 21, 1987Mercury International Trading Corp.Shoe design
US5012597 *Apr 26, 1989May 7, 1991Robert ThomassonShoe sole with twist flex feature
US5384973 *Dec 11, 1992Jan 31, 1995Nike, Inc.Sole with articulated forefoot
US5423135 *Jul 9, 1991Jun 13, 1995The Timberland CompanyOutsole for boating shoes having flattened sine wave incision
US5425184 *Mar 29, 1993Jun 20, 1995Nike, Inc.Athletic shoe with rearfoot strike zone
US5625964 *Jun 7, 1995May 6, 1997Nike, Inc.Athletic shoe with rearfoot strike zone
US5875568 *Sep 26, 1996Mar 2, 1999Lennihan, Jr.; RichardRunning shoe
US5909948 *Apr 4, 1994Jun 8, 1999Ellis, Iii; Frampton E.Shoe sole structures
US6055746 *May 5, 1997May 2, 2000Nike, Inc.Athletic shoe with rearfoot strike zone
US6115945 *Dec 3, 1993Sep 12, 2000Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures with deformation sipes
US6272773 *Nov 8, 1999Aug 14, 2001Mountain Horse Intl. AbRiding shoe
US6516541 *Dec 29, 1999Feb 11, 2003Bcny International, Inc.Flexible shoe sole and methods of construction for a shoe utilizing the sole
US6523281Dec 31, 1998Feb 25, 2003Richard Lennihan, Jr.Footwear for heel strikers
US6574889 *Feb 12, 2001Jun 10, 2003M. Bruce CagnerFlexible shoe sole
US6591519Jul 19, 2001Jul 15, 2003Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US6609312Dec 3, 1993Aug 26, 2003Anatomic Research Inc.Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6662470Oct 12, 2001Dec 16, 2003Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoes sole structures
US6668470Jul 20, 2001Dec 30, 2003Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer side surfaces
US6708424Aug 28, 2000Mar 23, 2004Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe with naturally contoured sole
US6729046Oct 12, 2001May 4, 2004Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US6748674Nov 6, 2002Jun 15, 2004Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US6763616Aug 22, 2001Jul 20, 2004Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US6877254Nov 13, 2002Apr 12, 2005Anatomic Research, Inc.Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US7082697Jun 7, 2004Aug 1, 2006Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US7093379Nov 8, 2002Aug 22, 2006Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole with rounded inner and outer side surfaces
US7127834Apr 11, 2003Oct 31, 2006Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures using a theoretically ideal stability plane
US7168185Oct 22, 2003Jan 30, 2007Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoes sole structures
US7174658May 16, 2005Feb 13, 2007Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US7174659Nov 20, 2002Feb 13, 2007Salomon S.A.Sole for a boot, and a boot having such sole
US7287341Aug 19, 2004Oct 30, 2007Anatomic Research, Inc.Corrective shoe sole structures using a contour greater than the theoretically ideal stability plane
US7310894 *May 12, 2005Dec 25, 2007Schwarzman John LFootwear for use in shower
US7334356Jul 12, 2005Feb 26, 2008Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US7546699Apr 23, 2007Jun 16, 2009Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US7647710Jul 31, 2007Jan 19, 2010Anatomic Research, Inc.Shoe sole structures
US7685739 *Mar 31, 2006Mar 30, 2010Nike, Inc.Convertible dance shoe
US8141276Nov 21, 2005Mar 27, 2012Frampton E. EllisDevices with an internal flexibility slit, including for footwear
US8146272May 30, 2008Apr 3, 2012Nike, Inc.Outsole having grooves forming discrete lugs
US8205356Nov 21, 2005Jun 26, 2012Frampton E. EllisDevices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8256147May 25, 2007Sep 4, 2012Frampton E. EliisDevices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8291618May 18, 2007Oct 23, 2012Frampton E. EllisDevices with internal flexibility sipes, including siped chambers for footwear
US8303885Sep 8, 2005Nov 6, 2012Nike, Inc.Article of footwear with a stretchable upper and an articulated sole structure
US8393028Apr 23, 2009Mar 12, 2013Nike, Inc.Method of manufacturing footwear having sipes
US8474155Nov 17, 2008Jul 2, 2013Nike, Inc.Article of footwear with outsole web and midsole protrusions
US8494324May 16, 2012Jul 23, 2013Frampton E. EllisWire cable for electronic devices, including a core surrounded by two layers configured to slide relative to each other
US8561323Jan 24, 2012Oct 22, 2013Frampton E. EllisFootwear devices with an outer bladder and a foamed plastic internal structure separated by an internal flexibility sipe
US8567095Apr 27, 2012Oct 29, 2013Frampton E. EllisFootwear or orthotic inserts with inner and outer bladders separated by an internal sipe including a media
US8670246Feb 24, 2012Mar 11, 2014Frampton E. EllisComputers including an undiced semiconductor wafer with Faraday Cages and internal flexibility sipes
US8732230Sep 22, 2011May 20, 2014Frampton Erroll Ellis, IiiComputers and microchips with a side protected by an internal hardware firewall and an unprotected side connected to a network
US8732868Feb 12, 2013May 27, 2014Frampton E. EllisHelmet and/or a helmet liner with at least one internal flexibility sipe with an attachment to control and absorb the impact of torsional or shear forces
US8873914Feb 15, 2013Oct 28, 2014Frampton E. EllisFootwear sole sections including bladders with internal flexibility sipes therebetween and an attachment between sipe surfaces
US8919016Jun 4, 2013Dec 30, 2014Nike, Inc.Article of footwear with outsole web and midsole protrusions
US20110023215 *Feb 7, 2008Feb 3, 2011Davidda Pty LtdSock
EP1314369A1 *Oct 22, 2002May 28, 2003Salomon S.A.Shoe sole
WO1992007483A1 *Nov 5, 1991May 14, 1992Frampton E Ellis IiiShoe sole structures
U.S. Classification36/59.00R, D02/960
International ClassificationA43B13/14, A43B13/22
Cooperative ClassificationA43B13/223
European ClassificationA43B13/22B