US 2164137 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 27, 1939. a, LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 m NL S E /O u wd n m l .m A
w M m am @mw June 27, 1939.
B. LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 5, 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 lNvENToR lv'nard London June 27, 1939. B, LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 5, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ,m W mw m @L vd m m m M un M @www L; l l l Niniuinil..
June 27, 1.939. B. LONDON 2,164,137
BUILDING cQNsTRUcTIoN qFiled March 5, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR grrzm'ol London ATTO June 27, 1939. B, LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 5, 1938 5 Sheets--SheerI 5 nNvr-:NTOR grnarc Lol/clon m T Wm ATTOfRNEY Patented June 27, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OF-FiCE 31 Claims.
This invention relates to building construction.
One of the objects of Vthis invention is to provide a building construction the component parts of which will be capable of inexpensive fabrica- 45 tion 'and of rapid and inexpensive assembly. An-
other object is to provide a building construction that will be practical, inexpensive, durable, fireproof, and that will achieve, in a thoroughly practical and inexpensive way, improved facility of construction.
Another object is to provide structural elements or units that will be light and strong, capable of rapid and inexpensive prefabrication and of ultimate assembly, 'and capable of wide flexibility or range of choice `of building materials capable of being associated therewith.
Another object is to provide a simple, practical and inexpensive building construction for the efficient "and inexpensive use therein of metal, such as sheet metal, in vassociation with' various or usual materials used in building construction. Another object is to provide building elements of metal, such as sheet metal, capable of efficient and linexpensive incorporation in building construction, particularly in association with various `building materials. Another object is to provide practical and inexpensive structural units of metal and certain building materials, such as lathi'n'g, vfor example, capable of speedy and simple assembly, unit by unit, and of quick and simple "interconnection with each other. Another object is in general to improve heretofore `known structural methods and building constructions and to provide structural elements and units capable of achieving low cost building or housing construction. Other objects will be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements,
M arrangements of parts and in the several steps and relation and order of each of the same to one or more `of the others, all as will be illustratively described herein, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims. i
In the accompanying drawings in which are shown certain of the various possible embodiments of the mechanical features of my invention,
Figure f1 is a transverse sectional view of a wall structure, illustratively a horizontal sectional view of an outer wall of a building;
Y Figure `2,is a detached vertical elevation, as seen along the line 2-2 ofA Figure l;
Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional View like that of Figure 1 showing a preferred wall construction in association with a window-frame, door-frame, or the like;
Figure 4 is a detached fragmentary perspective 5 and .partly sectional view of a portion of the wall structure;
Figure 5 is a horizontal sectional view showing an attachment relatable to the core mold of my invention for reversing certain connecting parts;
Figure 6 is -a fragmentary View like that of Figure 1 showing a different form of wall surfacing;
Figure '7 is a View like that `of Figure 6 illustrating another form of wall surfacing;
Figure 8 is a horizontal sectional view showing a modified form of metal core mold;
Figures 9, 10 and 1l are fragmentary perspective views of modified forms of core mold;
Figure 12 is a transverse sectional view of a wall structure, illustratively a ceiling and floor structure and being more specically a vertical `sectional view;
Figures 13, 14 and 15 are views like that of Figure 12 showing certain possible `modified forms; '.25
Figure 16 is a fragmentary elevation as seen along the line I-IB of Figure 15;
Figure 17 is a detached perspective View of a wall core mold, such asis preferably employed in a ceiling and floor; f 30 Figure 18 is a detached perspective view of a core mold structure such as is preferably `empl'oyed in mak-ing up a side wall; .i
Figure 19 is a fragmentary perspective View showing the assembly of core mold `structures of W35 the lside wall `and ceiling type, prior yto the pouring of concrete;
Figure `20 is a perspective View of a detachable attaching device;
Figure 21 is a plan View showing two core moldiw sections at right angles to eachother and interconnected by the use ofa device like that of Figure 20,` `and Figure 22 is a perspective View of the adjacent` 5 end portions of two core mold sections showing-:"4 a preferred form of attaching means therefor.
Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views in the drawings. 50
Referring first to Figure 1, there is shown and t generally indicated at a core structure preferably made up of sheet metaland which, in so far as carrying out certain features of my invention are concerned, may take the general form of thatq shown in Figure 4 of, and described in, my Letters Patent No. 2,076,472, to which reference may be made for details of its general construction. For present purposes it will suffice to note that this core structure 3U, made up of sheet metal, comprises a plurality of spaced vertical continuous sheet metal portions 3| which are preferably ribbed as at 32, preferably by pressing the sheet metal of the portion 3| out of its plane and to give it illustratively a U-shaped cross-section. This is desirable where the sheet metal employed is of relatively thin gage, giving the vertical portions 3| rigidity and resistance against bending and adapting them for action like a column.
The sheet metal intervening these vertical column portions is slit or cut horizontally to form a suitable number of strap-like horizontally connecting portions which are pressed or bent alternately out of the plane of the intervening portions 3|, as is better shown in Figure 4 of my above-mentioned patent, and in Figure 1 herein the strap-like portions will be seen as including the strap-like portions 33 that are pressed outwardly to one side of this intermediate plane and the strap-like portions 34 that are pressed outwardly to the other side of this plane; thereby I provide a plurality of spacing parts, preferable plane-faced, as at 35 and 36, which lie in respective planes parallel to each other but spaced apart, the portions 35 and 36, moreover, appearing in the core structure 3U in horizontal and vertical rows.
Preferably, the connecting portions of these strap-like parts that connect these spacing portions 35 and 3B to the horizontally spaced vertical column portions 3| are inclined to the plane of the intermediate portions 3|, substantially as shown in Figure 1; thereby, the connecting portions Cl-Cl and the planes thereof, for the spacing portions 35, make respective angles with the connecting portions C2-C2 and the respective planes thereof, of the spacing portions 36, the apexes of these two angles being indicated at A1 and A2 and extending throughout the vertical dimension of the core 30 and being substantially coincident with the junctions of the opposed connecting portions with their respectively adjacent column portions 3|. These angles will thus be seen to provide two opposed substantially continuous V-shaped channels extending throughout the vertical dimension of the core section, all for a purpose later described.
Preferably,l the spacing of the plane of the spacing portions 3B from the plane of the intermediate parts 3| or from the plane of the sheet metal out of which the core structure 30 is made, is somewhat greater than the spacing of the spacing portions 35 from that plane; this difference, where and when desirable, may be achieved by appropriate crimping of the spacing portions 35 and 36, as at 3T and 38, and making one of such crimps, such as the crimp or rib 31, of greater dimension or depth than the other.
The core 30 is of suitable length and breadth and preferably such that several or any desired or suitable number thereof may be assembled together to form a single wall. Thus, one such core section might have a width, in the direction of the length of a wall, of three feet and a length, in the direction of the height of the wall, of, for example, four feet, or even substantially the same as the height of the wall itself. Thus, for a eight-foot ceiling height, two core sections, one on top of the other, are appropriate or even a single core section of substantially eight feet may be used.
Preferably, the core sections terminate at their vertical ends in a manner to facilitate rapid interconnection of core sections placed side by side. Illustratively and preferably, and still referring to Figure 1, in which portions of two core sections 30 are shown joined together substantially at the center of that figure, the right-hand vertical end of the core section 30 terminates in opposed spacing portions 35a and 36a which in effective length or extent are substantially half of the spacing portions 35, 36, respectively, and these portions 35a and 36a are at their extreme ends flanged or bent inwardly as at 39 and 4D to form in effect a ratchet-like tooth at the end of each, the spacing portions 5a and 36a of adjacent horizontal rows thereof being held against distortion or bending by a cross-piece 4| preferably of strip-like sheet metal and secured as by spot welding. Throughout the right-hand end edge of each core section 3B, therefore, the spacing portions 35a are maintained in alinement and so also the opposed spacing portions 36a, and likewise the ratchet-like connecting parts 39 and 40.
Each core section at its left-hand end edge likewise terminates in spacing portions 35b and 36h, opposed spacing portions of adjacent rows being held spaced by a reinforcing or bridging member 42, comparable to the member 4|, but the ends of the spacing portions 35b and 36h are bent inwardly and then outwardly into the hook- .like members 43 and 44. Accordingly, and throughout the left-hand end edge of each core section 30 there project two laterally spaced rows of outwardly directed hook-like or latch parts, the partsV 43 being in one row and the parts 44 in the other; these parts, moreover, are respectively juxtaposed to the ratchet-like parts 39 and 40 which likewise are alined in two laterally spaced vertical rows.
The parts, as is better shown in Figure l, are, moreover, shaped so that when two adjacent core sections are moved together edgewise, or one moved toward the other, the ratchet-like parts 39 and 40 become interengaged and interlocked with the hook-shaped parts 43 and 44, respectively, and the two adjacent core sections become interconnected and securely linked together throughout the entire adjacent vertical edges. The parts, moreover, being of sheet metal, have inherently sufcient yieldability to permit the cam-like or ratchet-like parts 39 and 40 to spread away from each other and to permit the companion hook-shaped parts 43 and 44 to yield or spring inwardly toward each other, for the purpose of permitting the interlocking or interengagement, the resiliency or springiness of the metal likewise causing these parts to spring back to substantially normal positions and become securely interengaged, as shown in Figure l. Thus, adjacent core sections may be readily and rigidly interconnected, as by the actions illustratively above described.
Occasion might arise in practice where two adjacent core sections are brought together but presenting similar connecting parts. For example, theadjacent edges of two core sections might each present hook-shaped parts 43 and 44 or ratchet-like or cam-like parts 39 and 40. To facilitate interconnection under such circumstances, I prefer to employ an attachment generally indicated in Figure at 45 and it comprises a sheet metal part whose preferably plane portion 46 is provided with a longitudinally extending bulge or rib 41 not only to strengthen it in one direction but also to increase its springiness or flexibility in another direction, namely, about the longitudinal central axis of the part 46; the opposed edge portions of the portion 46 are bent as at 48 and 49 to coact with one of the connecting elements, such as the ratchet-like parts 39 and 46, respectively, and are extended and bent as at 5B and 5l to provide hook-shaped parts corresponding to the hook-shaped parts 43 and 44 of Figure l and hence shaped to receive the ratchet-like parts 39 and 40 of an adjacent core section. Thus, by such an attachment device as the member 45 the above-described contingency that might arise in practice can be simply and quickly met.
In a manner analogous to the above-described interconnections of adjacent core sections, core sections may be connected to and thus secured to other parts or elements of the building construction, and in Figure 3 there is shown at 30 the right-hand vertical edge or terminus of a core section, presenting, by way of illustration, conn necting devices or parts, such as the ratchet-like parts 39 and 40; generally indicated at 52 is a sheet metal frame, such as a window-frame of appropriate cross-section and external contour or configuration but constructed to present toward the connecting parts 39 and 40 similarly spaced but companion connecting parts, such as the hook-shaped parts 43ab and 43b for respective interengagement or interlocking with the cornpanion parts 39 and 40. In such manner any other element or part of the building structure, illustratively a window-frame, may be connected or secured to the core structure 30.
The core structure 36 which, as is preferably also the case with other core structures later deiscribed, is preferably prefabricated in sections of appropriate dimensions, as indicated illustrative- 1y above, but in so far as certain other features of my invention are concerned, I prefer to convert such a core structure, preferably at the time of fabrication, into what I shall term a core mold, and where the core takes the form of that abovedescribed in connection with Figure 1, I utilize the apexes A1 and A2 to function as seats for re ceiving a suitable sheet-like member 53. The member 53 is preferably of a length equal to the length or vertical dimension of the core section 30 and of a width preferably slightly in excess of the spacing between the apexes A1 and A2, and it is inserted in place as by first bowing it slightly and sliding it downwardly between the opposed vertically alined spacing portions 35 and 36 but with its respective vertical edges snugly received in the apexes A1 and A2. It may be secured in place in any suitable manner but ii relatively dimensioned as just described, it becomes virtually force-fitted and hence frictionally held in place. In like manner, similar members 53 are inserted between opposed apexes throughout the remaining portions of the core structure, and it will be seen that, as is better shown in Figure l, the members 53 become or are alined generally along the plane of the intermediate sheet metal porm /tions 3|; the latter are preferably imperforate, as are also the members 53, and together the parts 53 and the portions 3l form a substantially continuous uninterrupted and imperforate diaphragm or barrier throughout the entire extent of the core structure, dividing the latter by substantially continuous or imperforate sheet-like 75 material along or throughout an intermediate and preferably approximately central vertical plane, for purposes later described in detail.A
Where, as is preferred, the vertical ends of the core section 35 terminate in the oonnectible spacing portions 35e-m36a and 35h-36h, as abovedescribed, a similar sheet-like means, analogous to the member 53, is put in place and again preferably with its opposed vertical edges seated respectively in the apexes A1 and A2, the one being exposed along the right-hand vertical end of one core section and the other apex being exposed along the lefthand vertical end of the adjacent core section; such a sheet-like means may, under these circumstances, be put in place in course of constructing the building, or, as adjacent core sections are mechanically lconnected together, illustratively as by the means earlier above described.
But `where cross-braces or bridging members, such as the members li and 42 of Figure 1, are employed, I prefer to put in position, in each vertical end of the core section, and preferably in course of fabrication, a barrier or sheet member dimensioned to become a counterpart or continuation of a corresponding sheet member similarly related to the adjacent vertical end edge of the adjacent core section.
Thus, referring to Figure 1, into the apex A1 intervening the end spacing portions 35a and 36a, I seat a sheet-like member 53a whose left-hand edge seats in the apex A1 and whose right-hand edge, indicated at 53h, terminates in a vertical plane through the right-hand alined vertical edges of the securing members 39 and 40.
In the apex A2 at the left-'hand vertical end of what is to be the adjacent core section there is seated the right-hand Vertical edge of a sheet member 53c whose `left-hand vertical edge 53d terminates in a plane through those parts of the companion securing devices 43, 43 which are to mate with the extreme end portions of the se curing devices of the other core section.
Both sheet members 53a and 53C are cut out as at 55 (see Figure 2) to permit the cross-braces 4I and 42 to extend through the respective planes thereof and a preferred and illustrative way of achieving this interrelation may be like that shown in Figure 2 where the sheet metal, aside from being punched to provide the apertures 55,
is also cut or slotted as at 56, thus to provide a i sheet metal flap which may be bent along the dotted line indicated in Figure 2 in order thereby to permit entry of the cross-braces into their respective holes 55, whereupon the sheet metal flap is bent back into the plane of its sheet member, thus again closing oi the hole 55 and preventing exit therefrom of the cross-memben This arrangement is preferable particularly where the sheet members 53a and 53C are put in place after the cross-members 4i and 42 have al f ready been secured in position.
With the vertical end edges of the core sections thus provided with sheet members to divide or partition off the open spaces subtended by the portions that carry the securing members, the assembly of two adjacent core sections, preferably as by riveting, spot-welding, or the like.
53 continue, across the junction between adjacent core sections, the continuous and imperforate dividing barrier or diaphragm formed by the successive and alternated sheet members 53 and vertical column-like parts 3|-32 of each core section.
The sheet members 53 and also the sheet members 53a and 53c may be made of any suitable material. Preferably they are of sheet metal. However, under certain circumstances of use it may be desirable to make these sheet members of, or to associate with them, a suitable material or means capable of resisting the flow of heat. By way of illustration, a face of these sheet members may be lined with or have associated with it heat-refiecting or heat-insulating material, as is generally indicated in Figure 1 at 58, and because of the preferred method of employment of the core mold, as is later` described, such material 58 is preferably associated with that side of the sheet members 58 that faces inwardly of the building to be constructed. The material 58 may be heat-reecting foil or by way of further illustration may be of any suitable heat insulation medium preferably in sheet form, like fiber-board, or the like.
In like manner, the intervening column portions of the core mold are also preferably provided with heat insulating or reflecting means, as indicated at in Figure l, it being understood that the latter, like the material 58, may be secured in position in any suitable manner, as by the use of a suitable adhesive or cement, for example.
Under some circumstances, it may be desirable to strengthen the intermediate column portions 3l-32, particularly where they are to carry a substantial vertical load, and in such case they may have intertted with them and suitably secured thereto, as by spot welding or prongs, intertted auxiliary column members 6l) (Figure 1).
Also, und-er some circumstances, it may be preferable and less expensive not to stiften the plane intermediate portion 3| (Figure l) by putting the U-shaped rib 32 therein and to leave it straight or plane, as shown in Figure 8; in such case, the reinforcing member of suitable heavy sheet metal is given an appropriate cross-section for resistance to bending, illustratively as shown, and has its hanged portions face to face with the unbent or plane sheet metal portion 3l, being secured together in any suitable way, preferably by spot welding.
Before considering in detail the building construction employing the core mold above-described, it is to be pointed out that the latter may be constructed in various ways without departing from the spirit of my invention and in Figures 9, l0 and 11 I have shown several such possible other core mold constructions and particularly structures which have advantages in reducing cost and in simplifying the fabrication thereof. Thus, in Figure 9, the core mold generally indicated by the reference character 62 comprises a preferably at sheet 63 of suitable material, preferably sheet metal, and of a length and width corresponding to that of the desired core section. Extending crosswise of one face of the sheet 63 and appropriately spaced vertically are sheet metal strap-like members 64, 64, etc., and similarly positioned on the other side or face of the sheet 63 are strap members 65, 55, etc., secured to the sheet E3 in any suitable manner The strap members on one face may be staggered with respect to the strap members on the other face. The strap members on the rear face, as viewed in Figure 9, are formed to provide at intervals structures corresponding to the parts C1, 3l, 35 and C1 of Figure 1 and the strap members 64 on the other face are likewise shaped to provide corresponding parts C2, 36 and C2, like those of Figure 1. It is at the intervening flat portions 66 and 6l that these strap-like sheet metal members contact the sheet 63 and are secured thereto.
If desired, and preferably, sheet 63 is ribbed vertically, preferably by corrugating it, as shown, thus giving its ribbed parts better load-carrying capacity, analogous to the column portions 3 l-32 of Figure 1, the ribbing being preferably so proportioned that the flat portions 66 and 51 each contact at least two crests where they are secured.
At the two vertical ends of the sheet 63 the strap members 64 and 65 terminate in half spacer portions like the parts 35b and 36J of Figure l, at the left-hand edge, and the parts 3511 and 36a at the right-hand edge, these parts being provided, as indicated in Figure 9, with securing devices like the parts 39-40-43-44 above described in connection with Figure l. Thus, the sheet 63 forms a continuous and uninterrupted diaphragm or barrier throughout a middle portion of the core mold and the resultant structure may be utilized with substantially the same structural and other advantages as the core mold structure of Figure 1 and as is later to be described. The structure 62 of Figure 9 is less expensive to fabricate.
If desired, and preferably, at least one face of the sheet metal plate 63 is provided with heat insulating or reflecting means, and illustratively the front face thereof, as seen in Figure 1, is provided with such a medium indicated at 56, preferably in sheet form.
In Figure l0 a core mold structure generally indicated by the reference character 12 is shown; this structure comprises strap-like members 64 and 65 like those of Figure 9, but instead of mounting them directly to a single diaphragm sheet 62, the fiat portions 66-6'|' thereof are laid atwise against vertical sheet metal column members 13 of suitable configuration and suitable thickness to which they are secured in any bers 53, the same as in Figure 1, and, as in the 4,-,
latter case, they may be lined with a heat insulating medium 58, if desired.
In Figure 11 the core mold structure shown is the same as that of Figure 10 but the strap members 64 and 65 which, incidentally, are preferably identical in shape and construction, are in the core mold structure 82 of Figure l1 in the form of a suitably heavy wire 83 and 64; this wire may be somewhat flattened out, if desired, and for that matter may be given any desired crosssection.
The core mold structures of Figures 10 and 11, like those of Figures 9 and 1, are at their ends or edges also and preferably provided with interengaging or interconnecting means, as was described fully in connection with Figures l and 9, so that adjacent core sections may be readily connected together or core sections and other structural elements, like the illustrative frame 52' of Figure 3, connected thereto.
All of the illustrative forms of core mold sections will thus be seen to present, on one face or side thereof, a plurality of appropriately distributed spacing portions 36 and likewise on the other face thereof with respect to the spacing portions 35.
With such a core mold section, preferably prefabricated, the spacing portions 35 on one side and 36 on the other, may have related to them, or toonly one set of them, in any suitable manner, any'desirable structural wall material, such as metallic lathing, sheet metal, cement, tile, fibreboard, plaster-board, cardboard, so-called sheetrock, asbestos composition, or any other suitable building material; such materials in some instances are preferably dimensioned as to length and breadth to correspond to the effective length and breadth of the core or core mold and suitably secured thereto as at the spacing portions 36, 36 etc., or at the spacing portions 35, 35, etc., or to both. This may be done in the course of completing the prefabrication of the core mold, thus 'resulting in a building unit which may be shipped to the job and utilized.
In Figure 1 I have shown the core structures as provided with metallic lathing 8l preferably spot-welded to the portions 36 or otherwise secured thereto, even by wire stapling, as indicated at 88 in Figure 1, and in Figure 18 is shown a perspective view on a small scale of such a resulting building unit comprising the metallic core or core mold structure M with the sheet-like building material S, preferably and illustratively in the form of metal lathing 81 secured across a face thereof, as above described, to illustrate one possible form of such building unit that can be prefabricated and shipped as such for incorporation in the building structure.
The units may be set end to end and their edges interengaged as in Figure 1 and as above described, and where they are provided with wall surfacing in the form of wire lathing, plastering may proceed, or where the surfacing is of sheet materials like sheet metal, plaster-board, or the like, the junctions of the latter may be sealed and finishing as by painting, papering, or the like, completed. In Figure 1 the plaster is indicated at 89. In Figure 6 composition board or like sheet material 90 is shown as secured to the spacing parts 36, 36 in any suitable way as by metal staples 88; in Figure 7 the spacing portions 36 are shown as having secured thereto, in any suitable manner, sheet metal 9i, and if desired other sheet materials like plaster-board, or other composition board, shown at 92, may be secured to the sheet metal in any suitable way, as by the stitching 88.
For example, and' referring to Figure 8 where, for present purposes, the core mold structure there shown has its barrier portion made up of the sheet metal parts and the inserted sheet parts 53, the inside facing F of the wall may be constructed in any way as by metal lath and plaster, composition board, and the like, as indicated above, and the outside facing O may also be constructed in any suitable way, preferably in both cases utilizing the spacing portions 35 and 36, no matter which of the core mold structures is employed, to bring about a spacing of the two wall facings F and O. But that space will be seen to be divided into two spaces, an inner space IS and an outer space OS, separated by the dividing barrier 53-3I. The space OS may, if desired, be filled with any suitable material. Sometimes concrete may be poured into the space OS as will be later described in connection with Figure 1 and under other circumstances the space may be lled with a heat insulating medium like rock wool; the filling is indicated at 93 and does not invade the space IS. The latter may be utilized for accommodating piping, wiring, and also for air ducts, as will later be mad-e clearer.
Where concrete is to be employed, I preferably proceed as indicated in Figure 1. Any suitable external veneer or building material may be employed, such as brick or tile, and in Figures 1 and 4 for illustrative purposes I have shown the use of tile T which on its side face and edges has a surface suitable to bind with concrete, mortar, or cement, or the like, and which upon its external face has any suitable surfacing which may, for example, be glazed, or the like. In carrying out this aspect of my invention, it will thus be seen that it is preferred to use a material, unless the external surface itself is to be cement, or stucco, or the like, which will suitably bind with cement, or which may in any appropriate way be interconnected with the concrete itself. 'I'he tile T is therefore illustrative of only one form of eX- ternal surfacing or material which may be brought into the later described coaction with concrete, or the like, and the core mold.
Having interconnected and set up a suitable number of core mold sections, which, as is now clear, may take any of various forms within the spirit of my invention and several of which have been above described, it being understood further that by the term core mold I mean a core structure with an intermediate barrier or diaphragm, as distinguished from the core structure per se, suitable means are built up at an appro priate spacing in an outward direction from the plane of the barrier or diaphragm means (the latter being the parts 53-3I--32 of Figure 1 or the sheet metal member 63 of Figure 9 or the members 53-13 of Figures l0 and 11) to form with the latter two spaced substantially unbroken retaining walls, with the connecting parts 33 of the core mold, projecting into that space. That outer wall-forming means, in the illustration of Figure 1, comprises a suitable number of courses of tile T which are laid up in any suitable way and, if desired, with the aid of mats, supports, or the like. Preferably, only one or two horizontal courses of tile are laid at first, and then concrete, indicated at CR in Figure 1, is poured into the space to the depth of the one or two courses thus set up, whence succeeding one or two courses of tile are laid and additional concrete poured, and so on until the height of the core mold is reached. The concrete lls all of the space which corresponds, incidentally, to the space OS of Figure 8; but leaves the inside space IS hollow or vacant since the carrier or diaphragm means dependably holds the concre from entry into the space IS.
The outer concrete retaining means, such as the tile T, may be given any appropriate spacing from the general plane of the barrier or diaphragm means, but it is more convenient to utilize the spacing portions 35 of the core mold to determine the spacing, and wherey tile T is employed, the tile, usually ribbed as indicated in Figure 1, is preferably laid up so as to rest against or contact with the numerous spacing portions 35 which, being alined, fall in a single plane. Also, where tile, brick, or the like, is employed, I prefer to employ also suitable interposed ties Yfor linking the outer wall veneer to the core mold structure and in Figure 4 I have shown a possible form of such tie.
It is preferably a sheet metal stamping comprising a part 95 of appropriate area to rest between contiguous courses of tile and it is preferably corrugated in the direction shown, and since cement or mortar is emplo-yed in setting up the tile, the part S5 becomes, by reason of its corrugated shape, dependably interlocked with the mortar or cement. Extending inwardly from the part 95 is an arm 96 whose outermost end is bent downwardly as at 91 to form substantially a hook that engages over and against the inside face of one of the spacing portions 35. However, as in the preferred form, the space OS is filled with concrete, the setting of the concrete about the core mold and hook-shaped part S1 permanently locks the securing device against disengagement.
If desired and also as indicated in Figure 1, the spacing center to center of the spacing portions 35 may be substantially equal to the length of the tile, brick, or like material employed or a multiple thereof, or vice versa, thus bringing junctions or joints in alinement with both Vertical and horizontal rows of spacing portions 35; thereby better and more rapid alinement and a structurally better structure results, and also the locating of the securing devices of Figure 4 is facilitated.
Where brick or like members are employed, and in order to insure proper spacing of the brick or tile, I prefer to employ, in setting up the various vertical and horizontal courses a guide or templet bar generally indicated in Figures l and 4 by the reference character 99. It may comprise a structural steel member 99 (Figure 4) T-shaped in cross-section and having a web IUI) of a thickness equal to the spacing between adjacent courses. The web |99 is provided, at suitable intervals along its length, with cross-pieces I!JI suitably secured thereto as, for example, by slotting the web IEJB and setting the cross-piece IUI into the slot and securing it in place in any suitable way, the spacing between the cross-pieces IIlI being the same as the length of the tile or brick to be employed.
Accordingly, after the lowermost or first course is set up, a member 98 is laid along the top edge in the course with the web I DI resting on top and the lower portions of the cross-pieces IUI projecting downwardly in between adjacent tile or brick of that course; the lower half of the horizontal web rests against the front face of all of the tile of that course.
The second course is laid upon the first, tile by tile, utilizing cement or mortar in the usual way, but the web |00 determines the spacing between the two horizontal courses and the crosspieces IBI determine the spacing between the vertical courses. Thereby proper alinement and regularity are achieved and also the members 9B may be utilized to take part in bracing or holding the courses in position during the pour ing of the concrete CR into the space OS as above described.
Or I may in this manner build up the various courses without using mortar or concrete at the joints, thereby utilizing the devices 98 to maintain the proper spacing between vertical and horizontal courses, and allowing the concrete poured into the space OS to enter to appropriate depths in the space between adjacent tile; or I may wish to prevent the entry of concrete in this manner and in such case I may utilize a material like calking compound, so-called metallic putty, or other plastic material, indicated at I 02 in Figure 1, to close oi these spaces at their inner edges or I may use strip material |03 (Figure l) of paper, cardboard, or the like, appropriately held in place as by an adhesive, or both, to temporarily seal these spaces against the entry of the concrete CR.
The concrete CR fills the space OS, all of the metallic parts of the core mold, such as those that appear from Figures l, 8, 9, 10 or 11, for example, that arey exposed to or within the outer space OS, become completely embedded in the concrete and the concrete, moreover, binds itself to the interiorly exposed faces and surfaces of the tile, brick, glass, porcelain, terra-cotta, plastic or vitreous composition, or other material employed, and when set, the concrete not only forms a strong bond between the outer wall veneer where the latter is to be employed and the core mold structure, but also is by the metallic parts of the latter reinforced and strengthened. Also, connecting devices, such as the parts 39-43 of Figure 1 and corresponding parts of Figures 3 and 5 become embedded in the concrete and disconnection thereof is permanently precluded. Upon the removal of the guide or templet parts 98, the tile, brick, or the like, may be pointed up in any known manner.
The diaphragm or barrier portions of the core mold thus take part in molding or shaping the concrete portion CR of the building construction. The sheet material 53 is preferably sheet metal, as above indicated, but it will now be clear that it may be made of other materials, such as suitably heavy cardboard, iiber-board, composition board, or the like. If not made of such material, and particularly if made of sheet metal, the heat insulating or reflecting means 58 above described is preferably employed and also the heat insulating'or reflecting means 59 utilized in order thermally to insulate or isolate the space IS from the outer wall portions, particularly from the concrete CR.
Ultimately the inside wall facing is applied and where the core mold has secured to the spacing parts 36 thereof wire lathing 81, of the usual expanded metal kind, the application of plaster and lime, and the like, in the usual way may be proceeded with in the usual way. The portions of the plaster or mortar that protrude through the wire lathing 81 may also interengage with the distributed spacing portions 36 of the core mold and wherever sections of the latter are jointed, as at IIB-44, adjacent to which the wire lathing 81 is butt-ended, the plaster forms a continuous uninterrupted coating and by its action also acts to hold the connecting devices dil- 44 against disconnection.
Of course, as already indicated above, the spacing portions 36 of the core mold may have secured thereto other wall surfacing, such as the sheet metal 9I of Figure '7, or the composition board or 92 of Figures 6 and 7, or any other suitable wall surfacing material, some illustrative embodiments of which are above noted, and thus I am enabled to provide a great flexibility or range of choice of materials for inside wall surfacing.
Where the wall is to function as an outside wall, the inside space IS may be closed 01T at the respective ends of the Wall and thus may function as a dead air space, to contribute toward heat insulating action; in such case, the insulating media 58 and 59 might not be necessary. However, I prefer to utilize the inside space IS as a duct for the passage therethrough of conditioned air, heated in any suitable way for winter service and, cooled in any suitable way for summer service, and in such case the inside wall surfacing is a material of good heat conductivity, such as sheet metal or plaster, for example, for by the structural features above described which makes it possible to provide an :inside space IS that is continuous throughout the entire area of the wall, being substantially unobstructed by the connecting strap-like sheet metal parts 34, the inside wall surfacing, such as the plaster, may be directly exposed to thel heating or cooling medium passed through the space IS, such as heated air in winter and cooled air in summer. By this arrangement, the entire inside wall surface is utilized in winter to transfer heat from the heating medium within the space IS to the interior of the room, and in the summer when the medium circulated through the space IS is, for example, cooled air and hence a heat-abstracting medium, the entire inside wall area is utilized to abstract heat from the atmosphere inside of the room. Thus, in the one case I am enabled to maintain a temperature gradient to cause the ow of heatthrough the entire wall surfacing into the room in the winter time and out of the roo-m in the summer time; under these circumstances, it is desirable to have the diaphragm or barrier parts of the core mold provided with the heat insulating o-r reflecting means 58 and 59, as above described, thus to block the flow of heat through the external wall portion, such as the concrete CR, from interfering with the particular heat gradient maintained according` to theseason of the year.
In so utilizing the inside space IS, I may also, if desired, permit the fiow of air through appropriate passages or openings or registers (not shown) suitably positioned or distributed throughout the inside wall surfacing, such as the plaster and lath 81-89 of Figure 1, to effect transfer of air between the space IS and the interior of the room, thus, in effect, utilizing the space IS also as a duct for moving air as a heating or cooling or conditioning medium into or out of the room. Of course, it will be understood that the same or similar use of the space IS may be made where the outer space OS is otherwise used than for concrete CR, as, for example, as it is used as in Figure 8, to contain a heat-insulating medium such as pourable mica pellets, rock wool, or the like.
In accordance with my invention, also, I prefer to utilize analogous principles of construction in making up the ceiling and floor structure of the building and, in Figures 12-17 I have shown structural elements interrelated to form the ceiling and flooring. Turning first to Figure 12, I have there show-n portions of two core mold sections |05 which are preferably made up in sizes or units of appropriate length and width; thus, each section may be three or four feet wide and, for example, six or eight feet long, and in Figure 1'7 one such section is shown in perspective with, however, a wall surfacing means related thereto. The size of the section is preferably proportioned to be economical in fabrication, convenient in shipping and to avoid cumbersome in installation.
As better appears from Figures 12 and 17, each section comprises a suitable number, illustratively two, sheet metal U-shaped parts |06 preferably approximating in cross-section a square or rectangular shape, as indicated, and two end sheet metal .parts |01, |01 representing in shape and outline respective halves of a part |06 The parts |01, |05, |06, |01, as they appear in Figure 17 are arranged inA parallelism and are secured together in that relationship by a suitable number of strap iron members |08 extending transversely thereof and spaced throughout their length. The upper portions of the four channel-like sheet metal parts |01, |06, |03., |01, are bent over to form horizontal lianges |V that are alined in a single horizontal plane and it is across these flanges |09 that the transverse members |08 rest, being secured thereto as, by riveting, spot-welding, or the like. The spacing of the transverse strap iron members |08 from each other may be on the order of, for example, one or two feet.
The extreme end edges of the horizontal flanges |09. are bent upwardly, as at I I0, throughout their length which is interrupted or cut away only at such intervals as are necessary to accommodate the transverse members |08. The upwardly bent flanges H0 are given a shape betterv shown in the right-hand portion of Figure 112` from' which it will be seen that they are crimped into angular form to provide an angular channel or the apex of an angle, there bei-ng pairs of such channels or apexes but facing` each other, as at B1 and B2 in Figure 12. Into these facing channels or apexes B1 and B2 are received the respective left and righthand longitudinal edges of a sheet member preferably made of sheet metal and so dimensioned that normally it is of greater width than the spacing between the apexes B1 and B2. The sheet member is bowed or arched in order to seat its opposed longitudinal edges into these channels B1, B2 whence its tendency to straighten out, like the action that takes place with the members 53 of Figures 1 and 6.-8 and 10 and 11, forces its edges securely into these channels and holds the sheet member lll securely in place. The member as also the members |06 and |011, are preferably imperforate and together forml a continuous and uninterrupted diaphragm or barrier-like part.
If desired, a suitable number, preferably corresponding tothe number of cross-members |08, of vertical tension and compression members H2 may be incorporated in the construction, each secured in any suitable way, as by welding, to a cross-member |08. In vertical length, as they appear in Figures 12 and 17, the members II2 are such that the upper end, preferably slightly curved, engages against or under the middle of the arched sheet member lll and its lower end is constructed in any suitable way to make engagement with a wall material later described. The members H2 may be secured to the crossstraps or parts |08 in any suitable manner, as, for example, by welding, and these parts, together with the arched sheet member Ill, coact like a truss and resist bending or distortion, the cross-sectional shapes of the parts |06 and |01 and also of the arched sheet member Ill, the latter being interlocked with the beadlike flanges IIU, also resist bending but about a different axis. Preferably, member H2 has an intermediate U-shaped bend H2b in which member |08 is seated.
In this manner a core mold section or unit of several arched sub-sections may be constructed and dirnensioned, as already above indicated, to form a single entity, as shown in Figure 17; along its longitudinal edges, however, it is preferably constructed for interlocking or interconnection with an adjacent and similar unit or section and for this purpose an illustrative means of interconnection may be constructed as shown in Figure 17 and better in Figure 12. There it will be seen that the right-hand part |01 of one section terminates in a horizontal flange |01a which at its extreme end is bent as at |01b to form a ratchet-like securing member generally similar to the members 39 and 4G of Figure l, and to improve the truss effect or action, the right-hand end of the strap |08 is bent downwardly as at |08a and is secured to the flange |01a in any suitable way as by welding, thereby also bracing the longitudinally extending connecting part |01a-l 01h.
The left-hand half member |01 likewise terminates in a horizontal flange |01c and its outer portions throughout its length are bent up as at |01e to form a hook-like catch or securing part like the parts 43 and 44 of Figure 1. Thus, adjacent core mold sections may be interconnected as shown in Figure 12, the parts being so proportioned that thereby the horizontal portions or'flanges |01a and` |01c of the longitudinal end members |01, |01 and the horizontal portions Hit1 of the intermediate channel-shaped members lili;` all fall in the same plane, and where the construction is employed for a ceiling and floor, an appropriate number of such core sections are thus set together and suitably supported from their under sides, as by a temporary or false ceiling or underpinning scaiolding, throughout the desired extent of the ceiling-floor, with end portions of the sections resting upon the upper ends of the vertical or side walls which, where they are outside walls, are preferably constructed as was described above in connection with Figlires 1-11.
With the ceiling-oor thus made up of a suitable number of core mold sections |05, |05 etc., and temporarily supported as above indicated at least at those portions intermediate or in between side walls of the room, building, or space, the ceiling-floor core mold is ready for the pouring of concrete or the like, as indicated in Figure l2 at CR. The concrete CR is poured into the upwardly open channels formed by the members |05 and the companion half members |01- |01, these channel parts being dimensioned to provide a cross-section of concrete appropriate to give a beam or truss effect which may be improved or strengthened where and if' desired by any appropriate reinforcement preferably in the form of steel members which may take any suitable cross-section or shape and .in Figure 12 they are diagrammatically indicated at ||5, these members being set into place in any suitable manner prior to the pouring of the concrete. The latter is poured onto the core mold structure to a suitable or appropriate depth, illustratively as suggested in Figure 12, covering over the horizontal ilange portions |09 of the channel members and also the arched sheet members I, the arched cross-section of which and its coaction with the other truss members earlier above described giving these parts adequate strength not only to support the concrete but also and finally to act as cross-trusses betweenadjacent beam structures made up as above described of the channel members |06, |01-|01, and the concrete therein with or without the reinforcement ||5. Also, the concrete is molded into arch-like effect with resultant structural strength and advantages. On top of the concrete flooring diagrammatically indicated at ||6 of any appropriate or desired character may be laid, if desired.
The` setting of the concrete achieves a dependable interlocking of the metallic parts of the core mold structures with the concrete as, for example, by way of the parts (Figure l0), the cross-bracings |08a of the members |08 which extend downwardly and are secured to the horizontal flange portions |01a and |010, and with other parts.
Preferably, however, the units or core mold sections are, in course of prefabrication, preferably provided with a suitable ceilingor wallforming material, various illustrative materials for which have been earlier above suggested. For purposes of illustration in Figures 12 and 1'7, I have selected wire lathing ||1 as secured to the under side of each unit throughout its entire expanse, resting in a plane against the horizontal channel portions |06a and |01a and secured thereto in any suitable way, preferably by welding since the two parts are metallic. Also and preferably, the material ||1 is secured to the lower ends of the depending or vertical members ||2 which for that purpose are preferably bent over at their lower ends as at ||2a to provide a plane area of suitable extent against which the material ||1 may rest and to which it may be secured preferably by welding where both parts are of metal.
With the core mold sections thus provided with wire or expanded metal lathing to form a structural unit, the completion of the pouring of the concrete as above described Will be seen to leave the under side or face of the ceiling-floor construction completely lathed, as was the case with the inside facing resulting from the core mold structure of Figure 18 and of, for example, Figure l, where I have also illustrated the use of metal lathing at 81. Plastering in the usual way may hence be proceeded with, preferably concurrently with the plastering of the side walls.
Where, therefore, with a construction as just described, the ceiling-floor construction results in a plurality of uninterrupted and continuous channels or inside spaces IS (Figures l2 and 17), being the spaces between successive cross-beams, such spaces may also be utilized for the reception of piping, wiring, and otherwise in the same manner as was described above in connection with the inside spaces IS of Figures 1-11.
And where the inside spaces of the side wall are to be continued upwardly into the second or next story, and hence are to be connected with the inside spaces of the side wall structures, I prefer to achieve this in a manner indicated in Figure 19. Before, however, describing in detail that feature of my invention, it might first be pointed out that I prefer to proportion the spacings between the center lines of the composite beams RB of the ceiling-floor construction (Figure 12) in relation to the spacing between the center lines of the vertically extending metal parts, such as the parts 3|-32--fi0 of Figure l, or parts 3|-60 of Figure 8, or the parts 66- (i1-63 of Figure 9, or the parts 13-61--66 of Figures and 11, and which parts function, particularly in coaction with the coacting concrete, as columns, so that the opposite ends of the ceiling-floor beams RB of Figure l2 rest each upon one of these wall or column parts. For example, a rst-mentioned spacing may be on the order of sixteen or twenty-four inches, that is,
v beam center to beam center, while the secondmentioned spacing may be eight inches, that is,
Acolumn center to column center. J Theonespacing is thus a multiple of the other and thusiit is simple to make certain that a Vbeam end coincides with a column or direct load-transmission to the latter. 1n Figure 19 that relationship is indicated with respect to one beam and one column part.
I make up tubular sections or sleeves ||,9,:.preferably of sheet metal, and shape them to be slidably received within such of the upwardlyexposed parts of the side wall that are to intervene two successive cross-beams RB as are bounded by the parts C2, 36, C2 and 53 or 58V of Figuresl and 1l, or the parts C2, 36, C2 and -63 011.58 `of Figure 9 and slidably engage one such sleeve .into each such part, utilizing sheet material |20 (Figure 19) to close off the intervening parts of the space IS of the wall. The end portions of the ceiling-floor units |35 (see Figure 17) `that are to rest upon the upper edge of the one storyside Wall in which the concrete has already :been poured, as` above described, vhave their `sheet metal arch portions l!! and the -ceilingmateriaL such as the lathing Ill, cut out,` as indicatedin Figure 19, to receive therethroughi'the -sleeves ||9 which are of a length toi project `upwardly beyond the depth of `concrete or like, materialA that is to be placed above the core'mold structure, the ends of the inside spaces IS of the'later intervening the sleeves H9 being closed offein any suitable manner. A temporary cover |2| is put on the sleeves H9 and in `pouring the concrete CR ofV Figure 12, the concrete flows all around the sleeves H5, connects Withthe concrete CR of the outer spaces of .the side Wall (see Figure 1), the tile or brick T beingvduring 'this process extended upwardly enough, and thus ythe concrete of oor and side Wall becomes connected but the sleeves H3 thus provide passageways through the ceiling-licor structure for connection with the inside spaces of the upwardly extended side wall structure that is preferablybuilt up, as was above described in connectionzxwith Figure 1, the upwardly projecting portions of the sleeves H9 being utilized to be Vslidablyreceived in appropriate strap-like parts of the side wall core mold structures, the latter beingixthus,Y and thereby alined with the coremold structures of the side wall of the story immediately beneath. Thus, the inside spaces IS of the various stories of the side Walls may be maintained uninterrupted and interconnected and if lit isdesiredk to connect these inside spaces with the insidezspaces of the ceiling-licor structure of Figure112,fthe sleeves l i9 may be provided vwith knock-outs I Illa which may be broken out or openingsmay "otherwise be provided in the sleeves |'|9,to .open out into the space 1S of the ceiling-floor structure.
.As` above indicated, it may be desirable not to provide the ceiling-licor core moldfuni-ts |305 with a ceiling structure or surfacing like -the part in such the resultant ceiling-floor structure is preferably also devoid oi' theparts 'I |2, and when installed and the concrete or like nishing material relatedthereto. as shown `in Figure 13, the cross-straps m3 that extenclzunderneath the arched sheet material I are cut off in any suitable manner. The resultant ceiling structure is one that is lined with the sheet material of the parts m6,. li! and |31, preferably sheet-metal, and gives a beamed effecaasashown clearly in Figure 13, and interveningV the beams :gives` the arched eect Where the sheet material is. initially arched as shown. To this sheet material any suitable ilnislimay bei applied, eitherinthe lceived at its opposed longitudinal edges. `sheetrrnernbers `|25 may be put in place in'course rof prefabrication` lorin course of erection and or afterthezstructure iscompleted.
`As aboverindicated, various sheet materials "mayzbe related to rthe coremold sections,v-l1us .tratively the `lathing` with its plaster; but i -prefabricated sheet Y materials, `like `compositionboard, Yliber-board, sheet-rock; and the 4like, may
.be utilized: andmayl be related 'to :the core mold units or sections in' course of prefabricationcor subsequently, `in any suitab-lesmanner. For ex- Ya;rnple,gin Figure 14 the vertical portions -of the lchannel members |56 and half channel members It? may be bent to providetlongitudinally:extending groovesfor'channels llilf andv` |lll 4into which fthe sheet material indicated atv |25 Ais re- .The
preferably the channels Illf and |011 are. surri- Vciently shallow to permit the sheet members .|25
to `be primarily bowed and opposed recesses.
Oi' courseVothermeans may be employed ato secure such sheet members |25-in place andthey 4thus sprung into Athe `may, as shown in Figure 5, rest against the hor-izontal `underportions |05a and lilla of 'theY chan- :nel-shaped members |6 and `||l"| to `which they may. be Isecured in any-suitable manner, either in course of prefabrication of the core mold sections or in course of erection. It may also be desirable tolprovide a support for such sheet material or sheetmembers |25intermediate the cross-beam yportionain amanner as indicated above in connection Withl'the members ||2` butwunder some circumstances `it may be preferableand `convenient to provide for an` automatic interengagement or' interconnection between the sheetxmembers and' lthe intermediate support.
`By-vvay of illustration, suchV a support maytake the lformoi` that indicated generallylat |26 in Figures 15 and 16, andit maybe made up, of a Vsuitablyiheavy Wirebent up as shown in these `two guresvtoprovidea horizontal portiony |21 against which `the center` of the arched sheet .member may rest, and from this cross-,part
|21 there-depend two arms |28 and |29 which cross each other, as at |30,whence they are curved :as'at |3| and |32 torformltogeth'er anarcmore than ini extent.
The arms |28, |29 are secured to the crossbrace |08 in any suitableway, illustrativelywby givingthemback and forth bends, as indicated -at |33zandA '|34 of Figure 16, :between which the member |08 may be gripped, thelatterqmember being secured rigidly thereto, if desired, as by ately` l positioned4 therealong,` `in `re1ation"'.:tol ,the .corefmoldunit sol that, when the 4sheetmernber |25 isset. up againstthe faces of thepartS-,Hlt2L .and |01a,the part |35 cams itself into the tonguelike gripping arms |3I, |32 of the device ,|25 `of `wl-iich any suitable number, illustratively` one `for yeach oi thecross-members |08', may beprvided. To aid in this camming action, the :extreme ends ofthe arms |3|,` |32 are appropriately rounded4 over asby bending over the end `of IJthe wire; as
:indicated at ,l 36Y in Figure `16.
course of prefabrication'of the core mold sections Conditions might arise or exist in practice Where it becomes desirable to set up a structure, particularly a vertical wall structure, that extends at right angles to an existing wall structure but intermediate of its ends, where the wall structure embodies the core mold sections or constructions of Figures 1 and 6-11, for example; in such case, I provide means for quickly setting up and interconnecting two such core mold structures at right angles to each other, and turning now to Figure 21 let the reference character 30 represent a core mold structure like that of Figure 1, understanding, of course, that it may take other forms, such as those of Figures 6-11, and let 30a represent a similar core mold structure to be set up at right angles to the structure 30, thus to form ultimately and in the manner heretofore explained, two ultimately nished or complete walls at right angles to each other. The core mold structure 3l'1a terminates in end spacing members 35b and 36h, as in Figure 1, held spaced by the cross-members 42, terminating respectively in the hook-shaped securing members 43 and 44. To connect these hook-shaped members to the core mold section 30 I provide a device, preferably of sheet metal, such as shown better in Figure at |35. It is an easily` made sheet metal stamping comprising a horizontal part |36 and a vertical part |31. The latter has punched or stamped out of its plane and extending at 90 thereto, two tabs |38 and |39 whose spacing is the same as the spacing between the spacing portions 35b and 36h, and their outer ends are flanged over to provide the ratchet-like securing members 39 and 40 which, being similar to the members 39 and 40 of the opposite end of the core mold section, as shown in Figure 1, are therefore given the same reference characters.
The horizontal portion |36 of the device |35 has punched out of its plane and extended downwardly or vertically two ears |40, |4| whose plane is at right angles to the plane of the vertical portion |31 and spaced from the latter by a distance substantially the same as the thickness of the sheet metal used in making up the spacing parts 35 and 36 of the particular core mold structure employed.
These ears |40 and |4| may therefore take in back of the spacing portion 36 of the core mold of Figure 2|, the sheet metal thereof being snugly and tightly received between them and the vertical part |31. The spacing between the members |40 and |4|, moreover, is preferably such that they are received in the apexes of the angles formed by the spacing portion 36 and the portions C2 of the core mold 30 (see Figures 21 and l).
Since the core mold 30 comprises a plurality of such spacing members 36 in the particular row of the latter corresponding to the plane of the vwall to be built up with the core mold 30a, as Amany such devices are employed as desired,
preferably one for each spacing portion 36 in that vertical row; the latter is thus provided with a vertical row of spaced securing devices 39-40, spaced from each other ,the same as thev vertical spacing between the pairs of companion securing devices 33--34 of the core mold 30al and thus the two core molds may be snapped or secured together with an action and security similar to that described above in connection with Figure 1 and also Figure 5.
As above indicated, the terminal or half members 35i-36b at one edge of the core mold and the terminal or half members 35b and 36b at the other vertical end or edge of the core mold may have the connecting or securing devices 39-40 and 43-44 respectively formed integrally therewith or as the extreme termini thereof; I may, however, achieve certain advantages, from manufacturing, structural and assembly viewpoints, by making up these connecting or securing devices separately from these terminal or half members, but make them up in the form of longitudinally or vertically extending sheet metal strips |40 (Figure 22), making these strips |40 of a length preferably the same as the height of the core mold sections, and let the terminal or half spacing members 353---36a and 35h-36h terminate in preferably straight vertical and alined edges whose inside faces rest against the sheet metal members |40 (see Figure 22) to which they are secured in any suitable way, as by spot-weldlng.
As is better shown in Figure 22, the vertical members |40-|40 respectively related to the half or terminal members 35a--368L at the right-hand vertical end of the core mold have their righthand edge portion, preferably throughout its entire length, bent inwardly to form a single continuous ratchet or tooth-like securing member 39, while the members |40, |40 thus secured to the half or terminal portions 35b and 36h have their left-hand edge portions, also preferably throughout their entire length, anged and bent over to form a single continuous companion securing member 43 for the one and 44 for the other. These members 40, thus carrying the securing devices, contribute to the mechanical strength and rigidity, also hold the terminal or half portions 3525*--36a--3'5b-3b in alinement and prevent them from being accidentally distorted or bent, as in shipment, and the formation of the flange-like securing devices gives the members |40 a rigidity against bending and good leadcarrying capacity; in this latter respect, these members |40 may be still further strengthened as by anging their respective remaining edges, as at |4I, at right angles throughout their length and inwardly toward the central plane of the core mold.
With this arrangement the cross-pieces lli- 42 are preferably secured between opposed members |40, |40 and appropriately spaced throughout their length, and also fewer of them can be employed than with the arrangement earlier above described.
In other respects, the handling, assembly, and the like, of adjacent core sections proceed as already above described, rapid and dependable interconnection of adjacent core mold sections being achieved in accordance with these general features of my invention. In this latter connection, it might be pointed out that in effecting such interconnection, it is preferable to interengage two companion connecting devices first, such as the devices 40-44, leaving the device 43 (Figures 1 and 22) spaced to the right of the device 39 but in alinement with the cam-shaped face of the latter; if, thereupon, the one core member is swung into the plane of the other by pivoting about the general axis of the already interengaged securing devices 40-44, the hook-shaped part 43 and the part 39 are cammed into interengaged relationship, the parts yielding as earlier above described.
With the use of members |40, as in Figure 22, in connection with the terminal or end portions of the core mold, like that of any of Figures l-li, free or terminal projecting parts are well proftected; against' distortion-p bending, or damage, `as in,- handling, shipment, orithe like it maybe desirable, however;` :to f strengthen `or reinforce the horizontally `extending l strap-like i or Wire `parts of.thecore"mold section andthis may be ,done in-yarioussways For example while in Fig- Y,ures 1 ,and 6,-10 'thesspacing portions 135, and 36 :are vsliownix-,aszhaving;` an intermediate looped 1 or ribbedwportionf31cand. 381 Figure 1), these may be `omitted Vif desired; asrisindica-tedinFigure 1l.. Also, and particularly `Where tl'iesefpartsV are eup fof"relativelyllightmaterial, such as relatively light Wire; forexamplefthe alinedfspacing Vportions 35,:on .onesideof the central'plane of the corermo'ld'may abe@ interconnected and the alined spacing portions =36`onr-the other sidefof'the core 'moldi maybe :interconnected illustratively by metal members M2,` such,l as vvire,I bridged. across them, .preferably horizontally, and secured thereto in anys suitable Way, preferably by spot Welding, as is shown in Figure 11.
-' Recurringfto Figuren, Where tile and materials `-li'lre glass,'porcelain, vitreousmaterials, or the like;A are `4employed?'by-ftheuse'of the member St andthe insidejoint-closing means`` IGS4 (Figure parts: and a' bonding thereof with the Acement "that-ispour'ed. against "the inside face, as abovedescribed',v While leavingthe spaces between adjacent tile or sectionsofthese'materials free from When the theA exterorrvvall ufacingthus `presents the open "spaces betweenthetile orfparts of the materials thus employedand "these spaces -I fill up with metallic putty,calking compound, or the like, and achieve apositively and permanently water-proof WallA exterior.
sion of the-tile, glass,- porcelain, etc., and thus `opening up or Vcracking at the joints cannot take place. "Priorpractice, utilizing mortar or cement for pointing up the joints, does not effect Waterprooi'f junctions oli-jointsbutin-accordance with theseifeatures of` my invention I` am enabled to achievedependable-'moisture-proofness.
In Apouring "the `concrete into the space OS, as
*earlier labove described; any suitable means may -belemployed'fto 'guide the Aconcrete into the relatively narrow spaceand` preferably I employ a long trough; having-a plurality of discharge open'- ingspreferably-in :the form ofiunnel-like mem* bers; preferably one`-f`or each 'of Vthe `various subareas', as viewed in Figure 1, into which `the space OS is in `plane-viewoutlined v'by the parts of the 4core mold. "Thus,-ione such l discharge opening is pactin'gbthe concretethroughout.
Also,"it is` possible, with acore mold construc- `tionaccording to certain 'features of amy inventiongto aichieve'unique` and' highly desirable mechanical integrity* of Wall' construction, particularly =at jun'ctionsf'ofifwalls, ceilings, roofings, =oo`ringsg-or ithe like;--that--` make angles f to each 'ot'herlforiweaknesseslatjunctions-areeliminated,
'These jointingv materials remain -resilient andyield `under contraction and expanthe concrete maybe` made continuous throughout Yand Vparticularly at such angular or other junctions, and throughout the continuity such concrete, Where such concreteis employed, the advantages arealso achievedthat the various mold sections andzrelated parts ,carried `thereby are by the concrete itself `dependa-bly held in proper relationship-,and permanently so. Where two small lsections are to come together to form a corner, I m-ay continue the ,core vmold. construction around such a corner in accordance with the rjjirinciples :of-corner core construction disclosed in 4my Patent. 2,076,472, as in vFigure 5 thereof; inthat, manner the concrete cast into the core fmoldsof the tivo Walls that formthe. corner may be carried through and around the corner by -meansofthe corner core section, continuing the 'continuity `of the concrete and eliminating Weakness at thecorner` junction.` Concrete may, of course, takegany appropriate composition, such as-Portland cementwith sandyor` with gravel, brokengstone, cinder, or like'lelements of admixture. l, `l f r ,Y f
Also, as above indicated, variousiframe or other building-sections may be quickly and speedily joined to the corefmold section, as Was indicated above in connection vvtih Figure'S; moreover, Where door-frames, window-frames, or the like, are thus related to the construction, it is possible 'to make up such'frames with complete trim, once and 'for all,` and thus as a unit set them in place, connected as above described, to the core mold structure, and particularly if concrete is employed, an unusually permanent assemblage and construction are quickly achieved. Y
Thus, it Will be seen that I have provided in this invention building construction in which the various objects above noted,ltogethe`r with many thoroughly practical advantages, are successfully achieved.
As many possible embodiments maybe made of the mechanical features of the above invention and as the art herein described might be varied in various parts, all without departing from the scope of the invention, it is to be understood that all matter hereinabove set forth, or shownin the accompanying drawings-is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
l. In building construction, in combination, a building Wall or the like comprising a metallic .core mold comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means crossseetioned to resist bending with sheet means bridged across between adjacent spaced means to form with therlatterv a substantially continuous barrier, said core mold having extending crosswise of said spaced means but spaced from each other and to each side` of said barrier-forming meansa plurality of metal parts each comprising a spacing portion heldspaced-from said barrier-forming meansrby metal parts connecting said spacing portions to said barrier-forming means, thereby providing to-each side of the general planeoi" said barrier-forming means a plurality of distributed spacing portions substantially alined along planes one to each side of said barrierhforming means, and means forming Wall surfacing alined withfsaid spacing partions, one on each side of said barrier-forming means, Ythereby forming twovspaces one on each side of said barrierfformingmeans.
2. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which at? least one ofA said spaces'isvlled Withalpourable material, said barrier-forming means preventing said material from entering into the other space.
3. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the wall surfacing means related to the spacing portions on one side of said barrier-forming means is bonded to said core mold by concrete that lls the space between it and said barrierforming means, thereby embedding said spacing portions and the parts connecting them to said barrier-forming means.
4. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the wall surfacing means related to the spacing portions on one side of said barrier-forming means is bonded to said core mold by concrete that fills the space between it and said barrierforming means, thereby embedding said spacing portions and the parts connecting them to said barrier-forming means, said last-mentioned wall surfacing ,means comprising sectionalized means whose contiguous edge faces are spaced apart and the space therebetween filled with a waterproof substantially permanently yielding or non-hardening material.
5. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the wall surfacing means related to the spacing portions on one side of said barrierforming means is bonded to said core mold by concrete that fills the space between it and said barrier-forming means, thereby embedding said spacing portions and the parts connecting them to said barrier-forming means, said last-mentioned wall surfacing means comprising a pluralityof individual membershaving cement means interposed between adjacent edge faces thereof, and tie members embedded in said cement means between contiguous faces thereof and extended inwardly into mechanical connection with said core mold, being also embedded in the concrete in the said space.
6. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means of said core mold and said metal parts are integral, being formed out of plane sheet metal with said parts pressed out of the plane thereof, and said sheet means comprises individual sheet-like members inserted between opposed outwardly pressed spacing portions and held in substantial alinement with the intervening parts of said plane sheet metal that form said longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means.
7. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means of said core mold and said metal parts are integral, being formed out of plane sheet metal with said parts pressed out of the plane thereof, and said sheet means comprises individual sheet-like members inserted between opposed outwardly pressed spacing portions and held in substantial alinement with the intervening parts of said plane sheet metal that form said longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means, the parts that connect opposed spacing portions to the latter and that extend oppositely away from the general plane of said sheet metal forming angles less than and, being alined, thereby to form trough-like channels opposed to each other, opposite edges of said inserted sheet means being seated in opposite trough-like channels.
8. A construction as claimed in claim l in which said longitudinally extending spaced means comprise a plurality of individual metal members that'are held in spaced relation by said plurality of metal parts, means being provided to secure the connecting parts of each spacing portion one to each of two spaced metal members.
9. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said bridging sheet means and said plurality of longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means are integral throughout, being formed of an unbrokenpsheet metal, securing means being provided for securing the connecting parts of opposed spacing portions to opposed faces of said unbroken sheet metal.
10. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said bridging sheet means and said plurality of longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means are integral throughout, being formed of an unbroken sheet metal, the portions of which corresponding to said longitudinally extending spaced means being pressed out of its plane to give it a cross-section to resist bending, and means securing the connecting parts of said spacing portions thereto.
11. A construction as claimed in claim l in which said bridging sheet means and said plurality of longitudinally extending spaced sheet metal means are integral throughout, being formed of a continuously corrugated sheet metal each of said longitudinally extending spaced means comprising at least one corrugation, said spacing portions being secured to said corrugated sheet by said connecting parts.
12. In building construction, in combination, a built-up core mold comprising a plurality of individual longitudinally extending spaced means of sheet metal, each substantially U-shaped in crosssection, with individual sheet means having connections to and bridging between the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced means and along a general plane spaced from the bases of said U-shaped means, with concrete filling said U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced from the plane of the bases of said U-shaped sheet metal means.
13. In building construction, in combination, a built-up core mold comprising a plurality of individual longitudinally extending spaced means of sheet metal, each substantially U-shaped in cross-section, with individual sheet means having connections to and bridging between the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced means and along a general plane spaced from the bases of said U-shaped means, with concrete filling said U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced from the plane of the bases of said U-shaped sheet metal means, and means forming wall surfacing supported by said U-shaped means along a plane alined with the plane of the bases thereof, thereby forming a space between said sheet means and said wall surfacing means.
14. In building construction, in combination, a core mold comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending spaced means of sheet metal, each substantially U-shaped in cross-section, with sheet means connected to and bridging between the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced means and along a general plane spaced from the bases of said U-shaped means, with concrete filling said U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced from the plane of the bases of said U- shaped sheet metal means, said sheet means being of sheet metal, and successive U-shaped means being provided with opposed channel-forming `of said *VU-shaped means, with concrete filling said U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced from the plane of the bases of said U-shaped sheet metal means,said sheet means bridging between the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced 'LJ-shaped means being curved to be convex towardthe plane in which said concrete terminates,
"a ycore mold comprising a plurality of longitudinallyextending spaced means of sheet metal, each substantially U-shaped in cross-section, with .sheet means connected to and bridging between `the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced `means and along a general plane spaced from the bases of said U-shaped means, with concrete ',Qfillingsaid U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced. from the plane of the bases of said U-shaped sheet metal means, said U-shaped means supporting Wall surfacing means along the plane of the bases lof said U-shaped means.
28. In building construction, in combination, a `core mold comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending spaced means of sheet metal, each substantially U-shaped in 'cross-section, with sheet means connected to and bridging between the ends of adjacent arms of successive spaced means and along a general plane spaced from the bases of said U-shaped means, with concrete lling said U-shaped means and extending across said sheet means to terminate in a plane spaced from the plane of the bases of said U- shaped sheet metal means, said adjacent arms of said U-shaped means having portions thereof conformed to form supports for Wall surfacing -material in sheet form, and wall surfacing material in sheets bridged across between adjacent arms. and held by said supports. 29. In building construction, in combination, a core mold comprising a plurality of longitudi- .nally extending spaced supporting members havying extending between adjacent members means forming a substantially continuous barrier, said core mold having distributed at least to one side of said barrier-forming means a plurality ofY metal parts eachcomprising a spacing portion held forming a substantially continuous barrier, said core mold having distributed at least'to one side of said barrier-forming means a plurality of metal parts each comprising a spacing portion held spaced from said barrier-forming means and substantially alined along a plane substantially par- A,
allel to the plane of said supporting members, wall surfacing means comprising sectionalized means alined by and against said spacing portions, and concrete filling the space between said barrier-forming means and said sectionalized means for interlocking with said spacing portions and for bonding thereto said sectionalized means.
31. In building construction, in combination, a core mold comprising a plurality of longitudinally extending spaced supporting members having extending between adjacent members means forming a substantially continuous barrier, said core mold having distributed at least to one side of said barrier-forming means a plurality of metal parts each comprising a spacing portion held spaced from said barrier-forming means and substantially alined along a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said supporting members, wall surfacing means comprising sectionalized means alined by and against said spacing substantially permanently yielding or non-hardening material filling the space between said contiguous edge faces of said sectionalized means.