US 2164138 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 27, 1939. LONDON 2,164,138
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 5, 195a 2 Shets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Bernard London ATT June 27, 1939. B. LONDON BUILDIHNG CONSTRUCTION Filed March 5, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Bernard London llnlillli Patented June 27, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Bernard London, New York, N. Y.
Application March 5, 1938, Serial No. 194,052
This invention relates to building construction- 13 Claims.
This application is a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 23,369, entitled Building construction, filed May 25,
'One of the objects of this invention is to provide a building construction, particularly a wall or ceiling-floor construction, or the like, adapted in which parts of rapid and. ine
xpensive fabrication may be employed. Another object is to provide such a construction in which sheet metal of the above-mentioned character which is readily adaptable for use in various "parts of a building construction, such as an outside wall, an inside wall, partition walls, ceilings, flooring, roofing, or the like. Another object is to provide a construction in which the parts may be readily and inexpensively prefabricated, particularly on a large scale, and thus to bring down which the parts are capable o thecost, and in f rapid assembly or installation; another object is to carryout this last-mentioned object in a way which will permit a wide choice or range of selection of materials. Another object is to provide a construction of the above-mentioned character that is well suited or adaptable to modern methods of heating, cooling, or conditioning. Other 0 bjects will be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements,
arrangements of parts and in the several steps and relation and order of each of the same to one or more of the others, all tratively described herein, and application of which will be ind lowing claims.
as will be illusthe scope of the icated in the fol- In the accompanying drawings in which are shown several of the various possible embodiments of the mechanical features of my invention,
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional wall;
view through a Figure 1 is a perspective view of a spacing and reinforcing element employed in the construction of, Figure 1;
Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 are cross-sectional views of illustrative modifications or embodiments of 5 my wall construction.
Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views in the drawings.
Referring first to Figures 1 and 1*, I have there shown certain features of construction disclosed in my above-mentioned co-pending application Serial No. 23,369; it comprises a plurality of spacer and reinforcing members [0, preferably made up of sheet metal and illustratively taking the form shown in Figure 1 being of any convenient length and, Where the wall is to be a vertical wall, the members I0 may be of a length commensurate with the height of one story or the spacing from floor to ceiling. As is better 20 shown in Figure 1 the members 10 are preferably made of sheet metal of suitable weight.
Each member ID comprises a central strip-like portion ll preferably imperforate throughout its length and preferably stamped or formed as at 25 I2, preferably along its median or center line, to bulge it out of the plane of the central portion II and thereby giving it a ribor channel-like section to render the member ID sufficiently strong to resist bending and to function where desired as a column.
At appropriate intervals along its length the member to is cut or slit transversely and the resultant pairs of strap-like members are bent alternately in opposite directions out of the plane 3 of the central portion ll. Thereby, there are formed pairs l3-l4 of arms directed to one side of the plane of the portion H and pairs of arms l5l6 extending to the other side of the plane of the portion ll. 40
These various arms, furthermore, preferably extend at such angles to the plane of the central portion It that, when the members ID are assembled in the wall structure, the alined arms I l-16 of one member ID form an angle whose 45 apex or channel is indicated at A while arms l3-|5, also respectively alined, form an angle whose apex or trough-like angle is indicated at A the one facing toward the other, and all of them extending along a plane intermediate of the two spaced planes in which fall the ends of the respective pairs of arms, all for a preferred purpose later described.
The opposed pairs of arms are adapted to have connected thereto suitable structural elements or building materials and by way of illustration and as disclosed in my above-mentioned co-pending application, the latter may take the form of sheet members |'|-|8 which may be of materials like those disclosed in my above-mentioned application. They may be secured to or interlocked with the arms of the members if), the latter being appropriately spaced, in any suitable manner and illustratively the various arms above-mentioned may be bent adjacent their extreme end portions, as at l9, appropriately inclined to the respective arms and spaced apart to substantially mate with the angles and spacing of the inclined vertical edge faces of dovetail members 20 which are secured or otherwise related in any suitable manner to the members I! and I8 and which are spaced therealong commensurately with the spacing of the column-like spacer or core members l0, these dovetail members being interenaged with the respective vertically alined spaced arms and thereby the members In, I1 and I8 are mechanically and securely held together and with the members I! and I8, where they take the form of prefabricated sheet material, held in accurate parallelism and alinement with each other. All of the above is disclosed in my aforesaid pending application.
According to certain features of my present invention, I provide sheet members 2| of appro priate material, illustratively sheet metal, and preferably of a length commensurate with the length of the members II), but of a width preferably slightly in excess of the spacing between the apexes A A into which the respective vertical edges of the sheet members 2| are received and shown in Figure 1, each member 2| being preferably somewhat bowed or arched, particularly where the wall is to be an outside wall, the arching being preferably in a direction toward the outside.
Thereby, the sheet members 2| alternated with the central column-like portions |l-|2 form a continuous diaphragm or barrier-like means extending between the outer and inner wall surfacings and preferably adjacent the median or central plane therebetween; thereby there are formed a preferably continuous or uninterrupted space OS to one side of this diaphragm or barrier means 2|-|| and a similar space IS on the other side thereof.
Where the wall is to form an outside wall the space OS may be filled with any suitable material indicated at M and that material may take the form of concrete which, upon setting, interlocks with the parts it contacts with, including the arms |5-|6 and the dovetail members 20, or that material may take the form of a heat-insulating medium like rock wool, mica pellets, or the like, or any other suitable or appropriate material. The space IS is preferably left free, particularly where, according to other features of my invention, it is desirable to utilize the space, as is better set forth in my co-pending application Serial No. 194,051, filed of even date herewith, for the handling of a cooling or heating medium, such as air, in which case the wall surfacing H is preferably of good heat conducting characteristics, for thereby I may circulate through the space IS hot air in the winter or cooled air in the summer, thereby maintaining such a temperature difference between the space IS and the room space that heat flows into the latter in winter and out of the latter in the summer. Or the space IS may be utilized as a duct for the passage of such heating medium to the space or other parts of the building, and where the room or building space is to be air conditioned, thus to take care not only of temperature but also humidity and also dehumidification, the space IS may be utilized, appropriate openings, registered, or the like, being provided in the wall surfacing I! for communication with the room or building interior. Or the space IS may remain sealed to form a dead air space, having also insulating properties. Under some circumstances I may also wish to line the sheet members 2| with or form them of a heat-insulating material; an illustrative lining is indicated at 22 and may comprise any suitable material, such as sheet fiber-board, asbestos composition, or the like, and similar linings may be provided for the column portions II, as indicated at 23. This is preferably where the material M takes the form of concrete. Where the wall structure is to function as an inside or partition wall, either or both spaces OS and IS may be left void and the intervening sheet members 2| omitted, if desired, or either or both of said spaces may be filled with the material M which in such case preferably takes the form of any suitable sound insulating material or medium. It is to be understood, however, that the parts I1 and I8 of Figure 1, in carrying out my present invention, may take any suitable or appropriate form; thus, the part l8, where it is to be the external wall surfacing, may take the form of tile, brick, stucco, or any other appropriate material, and the part I! may take the form of any suitable material to constitute an appropriate inside wall surfacing where it is to function as such, including lathing and plaster, all as described in my co-pending ap plication filed of even date herewith.
The above-described features of my present invention may, as already indicated, be carried out in various other forms, several of which are, by way of illustration, shown in Figures 2-5. Thus, turning to Figure 2, the outside wall surfacing is indicated at l8 and the inside wall surfacing at I! and spaced appropriately therebetween are sheet metal column members generally indicated by the reference character C, preferably made up of sheet metal and provided with appropriate end flanges 21-28 to give them a substantially channel-like cross-section for column action and resistance against bending. The main webs 29 thereof are rolled or bent to form two adjacent ribs 30 and 3 I, thus increasing the rigidity but also providing in each column member C a vertically extending channel A opening to one side of the web 29 and another channel A opening to the other side of the web 29. Thus, two successive column-like core and spacer elements C present toward each other two channels .A -A into which are received the opposed edges of the sheet member 2| in the manner described above in connection with Figure 1, the member 2| being of heat insulation material or lined with a sheet of the latter, as at 22. Thus, the sheet members 2| in coaction with the ribbed intermediate portions of the members C form a continuous intermediate diaphragm or barrier portion providing again two spaces OS and IS which may be utilized and treated as above described in reference to Figure 1.
Where the parts |'||8 are of prefabricated or prepared sheet materials or members, the wall may be made up of completed sections or units comprising, as is the case with Figure 1, inner and outer sheet members |'|-|8 and intermediate core and spacer members connected thereto,
with the diaphragm sheet members 2| horizontally interposed between the latter; the dovetail connections Iii-2B of Figure 1 facilitate assembly of the parts to make up such a wall unit or section, while with the construction of Figure 2 the flanges 21-28 are utilized to secure the sheet members l1-IB thereto in any suitable manner.
According to other features of my invention, however, I provide for a rapid and speedy edge to edge interconnection of such units which may be of any appropriate size suitable for economic fabrication and speedy and economic installation. Thus, a unit may be three or four feet wide and where it is to form a vertical wall may be of a length about the same as the floor to ceiling dimension. For interconnecting adjacent units, the left-hand end column and spacer member C of one unit has its flanges 21 and 28 flanged over as at 33-34, substantially at an acute angle to the plane of the flanges 21-28, respectively, forming thus a ratchet-like cam or hook mem her. The right-hand end column pacer member of the adjacent unit has its flanges 27-48 bent into the hook-like shapes shown at 35 and 36 in Figure 2. Accordingly, in assembling adjacent units, they are simply forced edge toedge, the hook-shaped parts 35-36 successively or simultaneously flexing or yielding under the camming action of the parts 3334, respectively, ultimately snapping over the latter under the springiness of the sheet metal employed, and thus securely alining and connecting together adjacent units. If desired, and during this same action, a sheet member 2 l may be seated in the vertical channels fe -A preferably by seating it first to o e, its other edge enteri g i o th t e in process of assembly.
As above indicated, the sheet members lflwlil may be secured in any suitable way to the flanges 21 and 28 where one o b t o t r s is of metal or wire lathing, spot welding may be employed tosecureit to theseflanges, and like- .wise where either or both ofthe members I'l l8 :are of sheet metal. .The column core members C may also be of sufficiently light sheet metalto permit members Il-.-l8, or either of them, to be wire stitched or stapledthereto, or other means .may be employed.
Where it desired that either space OS or IS be continuous throughout the extent of the W l that is, not interrupted by the .sh eetmetal' of the spacer column members C, the webs 29 may. be
.- suitably. apertured, as indicated at 3! readily to embodiment in the form above described in Figure 2, for effecting interconnection or for formation to receive the diaphragm sheet members 2|, I may proceed as shown in Figured, providing the webs 40 with longitudinally extendring sheet metal members 4 I, one oneach side and :secured thereto as. by spot welding, these members 4| being preferably of a length the samev as the length of the webs D and being bent up or channeled .as shown, thus again to provide in 1' adjacent core columns vertically extending channels A and A facing toward each other for the reception of the sheetmember 21 which, if made of sheet metal, may have associated with it a sheet member 22 of a heat insulating medium,
.likewise received'in the channels A -A In assembling the wall part .18 to themembers'D wherethe former take the form of sheet members, I may secure to them in any suitable manner sheet metal strips 43 extending vertically and shaped as shown to provide a flange portion 414 spaced from the inside plane of the member l8. At the right-hand end, however, of each sheet 18 and on the inside face thereof, I provide a similar metal strip 43 with a spaced flange part 44, but it is secured so as to face toward the right instead of toward the left. To the end web 15 of the members D I secure elongated sheet metal members dfi, preferably bent or flanged around the web 45 and secured as by spot Welding, and dimensioned to be snugly received in the space between the inside face of the member 118 and the flange 44 of the securing member but the member 46 has an inwardly bent extension 46 over which engages the part Al ithat faces to the right, of the next to the last sheet member l8. Preferably, the interengagcment of these parts is substantially permanent like the interlocking of the parts 33 and 35 of Figure 2; for that purpose the inside flange extension it terminates short of the web 40 of the member D while the flange part 44 is beaded o r bent over, as at 44 to take over the end edge of the part lfik the 'spring'iness of the material permitting suflicient yielding of the part 14 to take place to snap or spring the hook-like part W over the abutment-like edge of the part 46* In similar way, the part Mi is sharply flanged as at 46 to form a hook-like part over which the flange or hook part 44 of the part 64 snaps. Thus the parts are dependably interlocked. The members 43 may be made up of such material or weight of sheet metal to facilitate the use of any suitable or desired method of securing them to the sheet membersiik.
The opposite end webs -48 of the channelsh'ap'ed members D may have the ,wallportion I1 secured thereto in any suitable way and where the portion Ii takes the form of certain kinds of sheet material, I may relate to the web 48 longitudinally extending sheet metal members 49, shaped as shown in Figure 3, and bent up to provide a recessor seat J89 to receive the edge of the web lilwhich is held therein by the spring" action ofthe part :49.due to the tensioning thereof by having the portion 49' thereof strained or stressed against the leftehand face of the web 40, the sheet metal parts 49 providing longitudinally extending channels 49 and 59 in opposed pairs of which the sheet members ll are edgewise received, being, if desired, initially bowed andqhence sprung into position.
The spaces OS and IS of the structure of Figure 3. may, .Of course, be treated as was above described in connection with Figure 1.
Under certain circumstances it maybefound desirable to construct the wall or like section in, a manner like that shown in Figure 4-, particularly where sheet form of building materials can be ,or are desired to be utilized. Forfpurposes of illustration, let the part 18 of Figure 4 represent one such sheet member and the part II the other, intended to form the, or. parts of, inside or outside wall surfacings. With the arrangement of Figure 4, the two opposed sheet members ll and [8 are, when assembled, preferably staggered so as to bring the junction indicated at J1 between adjacent edges of two sheet members if! opposite an intermediate portion of an opposed sheet member ll, and to bring the junction indicated at J? between two adjacent sheetmembersl'l opposite an intermediate part or portion of an opposed sheet member l8. The contiguous faces of the sheet members I1 and I8 are provided with or have secured thereto in any suitable manner, as by wire stitching or stapling, indicated generally at S, spacing and securing core-like parts which are preferably of sheet metal which may be relatively light and which preferably has some springiness or is given an appropriate resiliency at appropriate parts by suitably conforming it. These sheet metal parts may be of any desirable extent or length and preferably and illustratively they are of a length commensurate with that dimension of the sheet members along which they extend. These metal members preferably have the same coactions but preferably and to achieve certain advantages later mentioned, are made up in three specifically different forms indicated, respectively, by the reference characters E, F and G.
Thus, suitably spaced and extending lengthwise of one of the sheets, like sheet l8, and intermediate the longitudinal edges thereof, is a suitable number of members G; each member G is of sheet metal formed or rolled to provide two preferably parallel parts 50, 5|, flanged as at 52, 53, the latter resting flat against the sheet l8 and secured thereto in any suitable way. The intermediate portion of member G and which joins the parts 50-5| is rolled or formed to give it the shape shown whereby there is a 1ongitudinally extending channel 54 approximating a circular cross-section but having a neck portion 55 that is narrower than the inside width of the channel portion 54; the sheet metal is shaped to form a trough-like entry to the neck portion 55, as by rounding the sheet metal as at 56 and 51, gradually merging it into the parts 5fl-5| but at the junction thereof providing in each part a longitudinal groove or channel, as at A in the part 50 and A in the part 5|. Because of the conformation of the sheet metal, the narrow neck portion 55 is springy and may yield resiliently in the direction of widening it.
The member F is positioned along that portion of the sheet member l8 opposite to which the junction J is to come and it is constructed like the member G above described being provided with three yieldable channels or recesses 54 54 and 54.
The sheet member I! has secured to it a member F and it extends lengthwise thereof but opposite the place where the junction J between two opposed sheets l8, I8 is to come, and opposite the members G, G on sheet member [8, the member I1 is provided with members E, E, also of sheet metal and constructed generally like the members G excepting that, instead of being formed to provide a longitudinally extending recess 54 with a narrow neck, the sheet metal is formed to provide a longitudinally extending head 58 preferably somewhat wedge-shaped so that it can wedge itself through the narrow neck 55 by causing the walls thereof to yield, as abovementioned, whence it is narrowed in cross-section, as at 58 and preferably also shaped to conform to the curvatures of the parts 565'| which thereby preferably interfit therewith and yieldably but securely grip the head-like part 58. At the adjacent end portions of the sheets l1, l1 and l8, l8 are secured and mounted the members E they are substantially similar in construction to the members E excepting that one of the flanges thereof, namely, flange 59, is shaped as shown in Figure 4 to form a longitudinally extending seat to receive the end or edge portion of the sheet member.
The component parts of the wall structure may thus be prefabricated and the sheet members I! and I8 provided with the core and connecting members E, F, G and E Arrived on the job, the wall structure may be assembled in a manner that will now be clear, by forcing opposed sheet members flatwise toward each other to cause each head-like member 58 of a part E to be forced and sprung into the recess 54 of an opposed member G, but the longitudinally extending head portion 58 of one part E becomes seated in the resilient channel 54 of a member F, thus anchoring the end portion of one sheet to an intermediate portion of the opposite sheet, while the end portion of the next adjacent sheet member, also provided with a member E has its headed part 58 forced into the resilient channel 54 of the same part F, thus anchoring that end of the adjacent sheet E to an intermediate portion of the opposite sheet member.
By the structure just described, the various sheet metal members will be seen to provide pairs of longitudinally extending channels A and A into which may be received the opposed edges of sheet members 2| which may or may not have associated with them sheet insulating material 22. The members 2| with the column-like sheet metal core and connector elements again divide the space between the spaced sheets |'I-|8 into an outer space OS and an inner space IS, and if these spaces are desired to be unbroken by the parts 505| of the members E, F, G and E the latter may be apertured at appropriate intervals and either or both of the spaces OS and IS may be treated in the manner above-described in detail in connection with the previous figures.
Certain of the advantages of the construction of Figure 4 may be achieved by appropriately modifying the construction of Figure 2 above described, as indicated in Figure 5 where the members C of Figure 2 are shown but made up in two parts C and C as if the webs 29 of the parts C of Figure 2 were cut in two throughout their length but to one side of the ribbed parts 30 and 3| which not only strengthen the members but also provide the diaphragm or barrierreceiving channels A A Preferably, in Figure 5, the two parts C and C are made up separately, as by rolling and forming out of suitably heavy sheet metal, but the webs of the two parts are provided with bent flanges shaped the same and given the same designations as the parts 33 and 35 of Figure 2.
Accordingly, one half portion of the wall structure, comprising the sheet material l8 with the parts C secured thereto may be set up and the sheet members 2| related edgewise to the opposed channel recesses A A whence the sheet material I? with the members C secured thereto and. spaced commensurately with the spacing of the members C may be set and forced flatwise toward the sheet material l8, the parts 33 camming the hook-shaped parts 35 into interhooking relationship with each other, thus completing the assembly of the wall structure.
Thus, again, two spaces OS and IS are provided by the action of the barrier or diaphragm parts 2| etc., just as in Figure 2, and either or both of these spaces may be treated in the manner described above in connection with Figure 1.
Where the above-described structures are to function as vertical walls, the various columnlike members, such as the members H] of Figure 1, the members C of Figure 2, the members D of Figure 3, the members E, F, G and'E. of Figure 4, and the members C -C of Figure 5 may function as true columns or load-supporting members, and the spacing thereof may be appropriately selected, if desired, with respect to the beams of the ceiling or roof structure; the justidentified members may, however, also function as beams where the wall structures are to be placed in horizontal position to form, for example, ceiling, flooring, roofing, or the like, particularly where the space OS is to be filled with concrete. In either case, it will be seen that the structures provide for wide flexibility of application and for a wide choice of materials to be associated with them. The members "-48 may, as indicated above, comprise any appropriate building material, such as sheet metal, lathing, preferably metallic lathing, plaster, sheet materials like asbestos composition, fiber-board, socalled sheet-rock, plaster-board, maze-wood, sheet-stone, cement, tile, and the like.
Furthermore, it will be seen that the structural elements employed are capable of inexpensive and rapid fabrication and of rapid and inexpensive assembly in the course of erection. Also, it will be seen that the structures are of a thoroughly practical character and well adapted to meet the varying conditions of practical use. As many possible embodiments may be made of the mechanical features of the above invention and as the art herein described might be varied in various parts, all without departing from the scope of the invention, it is to be understood 1 that all matter hereinabove set forth, or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. In building construction, in combination, a plurality of spaced structural supporting members having opposed edge faces respectively alined along two spaced planes, said members carrying wall surfacing means alined along said edge faces, said members having web-like means intermediate of the opposed edge faces thereof, each of said supporting members having on each side thereof and extending lengthwise means coacting with said web-like means and forming a longitudinally extending channel, and means of sheet-like material bridged across between adjacent supporting members and having its opposed edges received respectively in the channels of the two supporting members between which it extends thereby to divide the space between the planes of said opposed edge faces into two spaces, said channels holding said sheet-like means at the edges thereof to resist thrusts from either of the two spaces.
2. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of the supporting members extends in the general direction of said sheet-like dividing means and in which the means forming said channels comprises arm-like extensions from said web-like means for connecting to the latter said edge faces, said arm-like extensions being at such angles as to form therebetween said channel.
3. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said web-like means extends in a plane generally at right angles to the general plane of said sheet-like means and has the channels formed in said web-like means.
4. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which said channel forming means comprises separate members shaped to provide channels, and means securing said separate members respectively to the web-like means of said supporting members.
5. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members.
6. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members, adjacent portions of the two-part weblike means of each supporting member being provided with means for securing the two together.
7. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members, adjacent portions of the two-part web-like means of each supporting member being provided with interengageable portions for connecting and holding together the two parts of each supporting member.
8. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members, adjacent portions of the two-part web-like means of each supporting member being provided with complementary interengageable hook-shaped parts for connecting together the two parts of each supporting member.
9. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting membersyadjacent portions of the two-part web-like means of each supporting member being provided with complementary interenga'geable yieldable members for connecting together the two parts of each supporting member.
10. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in. which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members, adjacent portions of the two-part web-like means of each supporting member being provided with complementary recessed and headed members, the one receivable within the other, for connecting together the two parts of the supporting member.
11. A construction as claimed in claim 1 in which the web-like means of said supporting members is in two parts, whereby each of said supporting members is a two-part member divided along a plane intermediate of the spaced planes of the opposed edge faces of said supporting members, adjacent portions of the two-part web-- like means of each supporting member being provided with complementary recessed and headed members, the one receivable within the other, for
connecting together the two parts of the supporting member, one of said complementary parts being resiliently yieldable to permit interengagement of one by the other upon the application of a certain force.
12. In building construction, in combination, a plurality of spaced structural supporting members having opposed edge means alined along two spaced planes for receiving and having secured thereto and respectively along said two spaced planes suitable wall surfacing means, said supporting members having extending therealong and intermediate of said two spaced planes means forming a longitudinally extending channel in each member and facing toward the next supporting member, thereby to present, for two successive spaced supporting members, a pair of longitudinally extending channels with their open ends facing toward each other, and means of sheet-like material bridged across between adjacent supporting members and having its opposed edges received respectively in and supported by the two channels of said two members, the said channels holding said sheet-like means at the edges thereof to resist thrusts from either side of said sheet-like means.
13. A construction as claimed in claim 12 in which said means of sheet-like material is in several layers, one of which is sheet-like in form and made of a relatively strong and self-sustaining material and the other of which is made of a heat-insulating material relatively weak mechanically and receiving its mechanical support from said first-mentioned layer.