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Publication numberUS2164966 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 4, 1939
Filing dateApr 14, 1938
Priority dateSep 9, 1937
Publication numberUS 2164966 A, US 2164966A, US-A-2164966, US2164966 A, US2164966A
InventorsKamma Tutein
Original AssigneeKamma Tutein
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pleated material and method of making the same
US 2164966 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 4, 1939. P, TUTE|N 2,164,966

E'LEATED MATERIAL AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed April 14, 1938 INVENTOR PAUL TUTEIN DECEASED, BY

KAMMATUTEm, WIDOW ATTORNEY Patented July 4, 1939 UNITED STATES.

rms'rnn MATERIAL AND METHOD or MAKING 'rnn SAME Paul Tutein, deceased, late of Copenhagen, Denmark, by Kamma Tutein, widow, Copenhagen,

Denmark Application April 14, 1938, Serial No. 202,020 In Germany September 9, 1937 13 Claims.

This invention relates to folded or pleated material, and is concerned more particularly with such materials in which the folds are of novel arrangement, so that the materials may be used 5 in making articles and bodies for various purposes. The invention further includes a novel method by which the new products may be made of such materials as paper, cardboard, metal foil, sheet metal, etc.

According'to the methods of pleating commonly employed heretofore, the sheet material is folded first in one way and then the other along a series of straight, generally parallel lines, so that the material may be expanded and comll be folded or bent on axes parallel to the lines of folding. Material pleated in this manner may be folded or bent on axes parallel to the! ines of folding, but cannot be so manipulated on other axes without distorting the pleats and thereby g stiil'ening the material against the desired expansion and compression. As a result, the material may be used for a relatively few objects, in each of which the surface of the material is straight in the direction of the pleats, and the 5 use of the material is thus restricted to a few uses.

The present invention is directed to the provision of a novel methodof pleating by the practice of which a material may be readily made so which is suitable for use in the formation of or ticles and bodies which cannot be made of material pleated or folded by prior methods. In accordance with the new method, the material is folded on three systems of straight intersect- 35 ing lines so arranged that members of all systems intersect at the same points, the material thus being subdivided by lines of folding into parallelograms, each having a line of folding as one diagonal. The folding on the diagonals is in the 40 same direction throughout the sheet, and the folding on the lines in the other two systems is likewise in the same direction, but inversely to the folding on the diagonals. If desired, the three systems of lines may be so arranged that the 4,5 parallelograms have the form of rhombs, in which case the diagonals are lines of symmetry for the other two systems of lines, and the entire system of folding can be characterized as symmetrical. In order that a complete compression 0 of the material thus folded may be made freely, it is desirable that the diagonal lines extend through the acute angles of the parallelograms, so that the diagonals in symmetrical systems divide the acute angles of the parallelograms into 55 equal angles of less than 45.

In materials folded in the manner described, the two portions of each parallelogram lying on opposite sides of its diagonal extend outwardly from the diagonal, and the sides of the parallelograms are defined by folded edges of the comll pressed material arranged angularly relative to one another, the number of such edges in a piece of the material depending on the number of parallelograms lying end to end lengthwise of a diagonal. By appropriate manipulation of the 10 folded material, it may be formed into various articles, as, for example, by partly drawing out the material, a facet, trough shaped body may be formed which can be inscribed in a cylindrical surface, and by turning one end of the material 1 about an axis, bodies may be formed which can be inscribed in other surfaces of revolution. Also,

a variation of the forms thus obtained may be had by omitting the folding along part of the diagonal lines within certain of the parallelograms or along part of the sides of the parallelograms, or both.

The method of the invention is particularly suited to the manufacture of tubes of large surface area, which may be drawn out and com- 55 pressed axiallyin the manner of a bellows. In forming tubes in this way, a sheet of material of the appropriate width is folded to form staggered rows of parallelograms extending end to end transversely of the sheet, the parallelograms in each row being in such number and so proportioned that the pleated material when compressed forms a polygon having a periphery which is continuous except for a break at adjacent edges of the sheet. When the material is expanded and the edges are suitably joined, the material forms a tube of large surface area. If desired, the opposite procedure may be followed, namely, a tube may have folds made in its wall along the appropriate lines to produce the same result. Tubes thus formed, even when made of sheet metaL, are flexible in all directions so that they are suitable for a variety of purposes where flexibility or resilience is desirable. Also, the large surface in relation to the volume makes such a 46 tube useful for heat transmission.

For a better understanding of the invention, reference -may be had to the accompanying drawing, illustrating different forms of the in- ..vention in which the folds are made on symso metrical systems of intersecting lines. It will be understood, however, that the forms shown are merely for the purpose of illustration and that the folds may be made as well on an unsymmetrical system of lines, that is, on a system as of lines forming parallelogram which are not equilateral. In the drawing:

Fig. l is a plan view of a sheet of the new pleated material drawn out, the width of the sheet being half the length of the diagonal of a rhomb which would be formed by extending the three systems of intersecting lines;

Fig. 1a is an end view of the sheet shown in Fig. 1, in compressed form;

Fig. 1b is a plan view of the sheet shown in Figs. 1 and la, partly drawn out;

Figs. 2, 2a and 2b are views similar to those of Figs. 1, 1a and lb, respectively, but showing a sheet of pleated material of a width equal to the diagonal of the rhombs;

Fig.3 is a plan view of another sheet of pleated material partly broken away and drawn out, the width of the sheet in this instance being twice the length of the diagonal of the rhombs;

Fig. 3a is an end view of the sheet shown in Fig. 3, in compressed form;

Figs. 3b and 3c are side and end views, respectively, of two articles made from the sheet shown in Fig. 3:

Fig. 4 is a plan view of another pleated sheet of a width equal to three times the length of the diagonal of the rhombs;

Fig. 4c is an end view of the sheet shown in Fig. 4, in compressed form, and

Fig. 4b is a side view of the compressed material shown in Fig. 4a partly drawn out and shaped to the form of a tube.

A simple method of pleating embodying the principles of the invention is illustrated in Fig. l which shows a sheet ofmaterial folded in one direction along a system of spaced parallel transverse linm II, and in the opposite direction along a system of parallel oblique lines II and another system of parallel oblique lines II, the two systems of oblique lines H and I! being so disposed as to form aitemately inverted and upright isosceles triangles ll of a heighth equal to the width of the sheet and bisected by the system of lines III. Each such triangle II is in eifect one half of a rhomb which would be formed by extending the systems of lines, the width of the sheet being half the length of the diagonal of such a thumb. When the sheet is compressed on the folds, the oblique fold lines H and I2 lie in a common plane N (Fig. in), while the fold lines bisecting the inverted isosceles triangles II lie in a common plane Ila and those bisecting the upright triangles lie in a common plane lllb. By partly drawing out the compressed sheet of material, the sheet shown in Fig. lb is obtained, the sheet being made up of a plurality of flat, right triangular areas, each inclined relative to the adjacent areas.

In order to pleat the material so that it is bent in the direction of the pleats, it is prepared in the manner shown in Fig. 2 by folding it in one direction along a system of spaced parallel transverse lines Ii, and in the opposite direction along a system of parallel oblique lines It and another system of parallel oblique lines II. The oblique lines It and i1 intersect to form a row of rhombs ll, each bisected by one of the vertical lines I! forming a diagonal of a length equal to the width of the sheet. and the portions of the sheet between adjacent rhombs are in the form of opposed isosceles triangles I! having their bases at the top and bottom edges of the sheet, respectively. When the folded sheet is compressed (Fig. 2a), the diagonals or alternate transverse folds I! lie in a common plane and the two halves of each rhomb II are bent back on each other, while the two halves into which the triangles I! are divided by the vertical folds I! are doubled back on the adjacent side areas of the rhombs and form gussets between the rhombs. By partly drawing out the compressed sheet, the trough-shaped article shown in Fig. 2b is obtained.

The depth of the trough-shaped article shown in Fig. 2b is dependent on the angular relation of the folds it and I1 forming the sides of the rhombs, and the depth may be increased by increasing the inclination of the oblique lines It and I1 with respect to the vertical lines It, and vice versa. Also, while the pleated sheet is shown in the form of a trough, it may be manipulated into various other articles, as will be apparent from the following description of a somewhat similar pleated sheet shown in Fig. 3.

This sheet illustrated in Fig. 3 is pleated in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 2, except that the system of transverse lines 2|! and the two systems of intersecting oblique lines 2| and 22, respectively, form rhombs 21 having diagonals of a length equal to one half the width of the sheet. Accordingly, the sheet is divided into upper, intermediate and lower rows of rhombs extending in staggered relation across the sheet, and a plurality of isosceles triangles 24 between adjacent rhombs in the upper and lower rows. when the sheet is compressed on the folds, it assumes the form shown in Fig. 3a wherein the diagonal folds of the upper row of rhombs lie in a common plane 25, and those of the rhombs in the intermediate and lower rows lie in common planes 26 and 21, respectively. The two parts into which each rhomb is divided by its diagonal fold are bent back on each other, while the parts into which the triangles 24 are divided by their median folds 20 are doubled back on the adjacent areas of the rhombs.

By appropriate manipulation of the sheet shown in Fig. 3a, it may be formed into various articles, as, for example, by partly drawing it out, it will assume a trough-shaped form which is faceted and may be inscribed in a cylindrical surface. Also. the sheet may be made into the hollow faceted body shown in Fig. 3b by turning one end thereof through 360 about the axis A-A, the body thus formed being inscribable in a surface of revolution. It will be understood that by turning the end through less than 360" about the axis A-A a faceted cup-shaped body is formed, and that by turning the end in the opposite direction, that is, about the axis 8-3, a faceted body of different form may be produced. The body shown in Fig. 30 may be formed by turning the end of the sheet through 180 about the axis G-C which is inclined to the axes AA and BB. These and other forms made from the sheet shown in Fig. 3 may be used for a number of purposes, such, for example, as decorations, lamp shades, and the like.

In the manufacture of tubes according to my invention, a sheet of suitable material, such as a fibrous material, metal, or the like, is folded in one direction along the system of transverse lines 28 and in the opposite direction along the two systems of oblique intersecting lines 29 and an, the lines being so spaced as to form rhombs having diagonal folds of a length equal to onestaggered, horizontal rows designated II, I2, 33, 84 and II. respectively, the portions of the sheet between adjacent rhombs in the outer rows II and 85 being in the form of isosceles triangles 1B which serve as gussets between the adjacent sides of the rhombs.

When the sheet is compressed, it assumes the form hown in Fig. 4a wherein the diagonal folds in the rows ii to", inclusive, lie in common planes 3| to 35', inclusive, respectively, and the two parts of each rhomb on opposite sides of its diagonal are bent back and outwardly on each other so that the sides of all of the rhombs together form an equilateral hexagon. The triangular areas 36 at the edges of the sheet are doubled back on their median folds 28 so that they lie against the adjacent areas of the rhombs in the outer rows II and 35, whereby the median folds of the triangles lie in a common plane 38', with the bases of the triangles meeting in a plane 31. Accordingly, by making a continuous joint between the bases of the opposing triangles 38, that is, between the top and bottom edges of the sheet in the plane 31, a body is formed which is completely closed, except at its ends, and by drawing the body partly out, the faceted pipe shown in Fig. 4b is obtained.

The number of sides of the polygon shown in Fig. 4a is equal to twice the number of rhombs which extend end to end in a row across the sheet, and, accordingly, for every unit increase in the latter number, the number of sides of the polygon is increased by two. Also, in order to form a regular polygon by compressing the sheet, it is necessary that the angle 1 between the oblique lines and the transverse lines 28 satisfy the equations soo and

tan y where n is the number of sides of the polygon or twice the number of rhombs extending end to end in a transverse row on the flat sheet, b the width of the flat sheet, and a the distance between adjacent vertical folds 28. Accordingly, for the hexagonal tube illustrated, the angle a must be 30".

While the compressed sheet of Fig. 4a is shown drawn out into a tube, it will be understood that it may be formed into other bodies by appropriate manipulations, as, for example, by turning the ends thereof about a suitable axis.

The method of the invention may also be employed to transform an ordinary smooth surfaced tube into a pleated one by making a pinrality of folds extending circumferentially around the cylindrical surface of the pipe, as for example, the folds may be made by pinching the pipe from the inside. The circumferential folds are the equivalent of the vertical folds 2B and may be spaced accordingly. The surface of the pipe is also folded by pinching it from the outside along two systems of intersecting lines equivalent to the lines 29 and ill and extending in continuous, equidistant helical lines so arranged as to satisfy the equation a.h=n (2 tan y, where a is the distance between adjacent circumferential folds, in the number of sides desired in the polygon forming the base of the pleated tube, (1 the diameter of the cylindrical tube, and 1! the angle between the helical and circumferential folds.

The tube may then be compressed into a pleated form similar to that shown in Fig. 4b.

It will be apparent that bythe practice of my new method, materials of any suitable kind, such as fibrous materials, metal, and the like, may be readily pleated and manipulated into the desired forms,-and since articles made in this manner have a relatively large surface per unit of projected area, they may be used to advantage for numerous purposes.

What is claimed is: p

l. A pleated sheet having folds extending in spaced, substantially parallel planes, the fold in each of at least alternate planes being formed of two parts disposed in angular relation.

2. A pleated sheet folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the sheet being divided by lines of folding into paraiielograms each with one diagonal.

3. A pleated sheet folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the sheet being divided by lines of folding into rhombs each with one diagonal.

4. A pleated sheet folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the sheet being divided by lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal, the diagonals being folded in a direction opposite to the direction of the folds forming the sides of the parallelograms.

5. A hollow body having a surface inscribable in a surface of revolution and folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the surface of the body being divided by the lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal, and the lines of folding forming angularly disposed pleats extending in planes substantially parallel to the axis of said surface of revolution.

6. A tube having its surface folded along three systems of substantially straight, intersecting lines, one system of lines extending around the tube in spaced, parallel planes perpendicular to the tube axis, and the other two systems extending obliquely to the first system and dividing the surface into parallelograms wherein the lines of said first system form diagonals, the tube being compressible in a direction perpendicular to the diagonals.

'7. A method of pleating sheet material which comprises folding the sheet in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines, and folding the sheet in the opposite direction along a system of substantially parallel lines oblique to the lines of the first system and along another system of substantially parallel lines lying at an angle to the lines of the first two systems, the lines of the three systems intersecting at common points and dividing the sheet into parallelograms each with one diagonal.

8. A method of making pleated tubes which comprises folding sheet material in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines, and in the opposite direction along two systems of intersecting lines dividing the sheet into parallelograms in which the first system of lines forms diagonals, the lines being disposed to form rows of at least three parallelograms extending transversely across the sheet, compressing the sheet on the folds in a direction transverse to the diagonals, and joining the adjacent edges of the sheet.

9. A method of pleating tubes which comprises forming a plurality of pleats extending circumferentially around a tube and in spaced relation, folding the tube along a system of substantially parallel, continuous, helical lines extending around the tube and along another system of substantially parallel, continuous. helical lines at an angle to the helical lines first mentioned, the lines of the systems intersecting at common points, whereby the surface of the tube is divided by lines of folding into a plurality of parallelograms each with one diagonal, and compressing the tube axially on the folds.

10. A trough-shaped article comprising a flex ible sheet folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the sheet being divided by the lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal extending generally transversely of the article, and the sheet being collapsible along said lines of folding.

11. A tube having its wall folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the wall being divided by the lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal substantially perpendicular to the axis of the tube.

12. A method of making pleated articles which comprises folding sheet material in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines and in the opposite direction along a system of substantially parallel lines oblique to the lines Patent No 2,161 966.

of the iirst system and along another system of substantially parallel lines lying at an angle to the lines of the first two systems, the lines of the three systems intersecting at common points and dividing the sheet into parallelograms each with one diagonal, compressing the material in a direction transverse to the diagonals. and partly drawing out the compressed material.

13. A method of making pleated articles which comprises folding sheet material in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines and in the opposite direction along a system of substantially parallel lines oblique to the lines of the first system and along another system of substantially parallel lines lying at an angle to the lines of the first two systems. the lines of the three systems intersecting at common points and dividing the sheet into paralleiograms each with one diagonal, compressing the material on the folds in a direction perpendicular to the diagonals, and turning one end of the compressed material about an axis.

KAMMA TUTEIN. Widow of Paul Tutein, Deceased.

CERT]? ICA'IE F CORRECTION.

mnm 'ru'mm, union of PAUL TU'IEIN, deceased. It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numberedpatent requiring correction as follows: Page 1, first column, lines ll andl'fi, strike out the syllable and words combe folded or bent on axesparallel" and insert instead compressed in a' direction transverse; same page, second column, line 15, for "facet" read faceted} and that the said Letters latent shouldbe' readw'ith this. correction therein that the same may conform to the record of'the case in the Patent Office.

Signed. and sealedthis l5th'day of August, A. n. 1939.

(Seal) Leslie Frazer Acting Oomnissioaer of Patents.

around the tube and along another system of substantially parallel, continuous. helical lines at an angle to the helical lines first mentioned, the lines of the systems intersecting at common points, whereby the surface of the tube is divided by lines of folding into a plurality of parallelograms each with one diagonal, and compressing the tube axially on the folds.

10. A trough-shaped article comprising a flex ible sheet folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the sheet being divided by the lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal extending generally transversely of the article, and the sheet being collapsible along said lines of folding.

11. A tube having its wall folded along three systems of intersecting lines, the wall being divided by the lines of folding into parallelograms each with one diagonal substantially perpendicular to the axis of the tube.

12. A method of making pleated articles which comprises folding sheet material in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines and in the opposite direction along a system of substantially parallel lines oblique to the lines Patent No 2,161 966.

of the iirst system and along another system of substantially parallel lines lying at an angle to the lines of the first two systems, the lines of the three systems intersecting at common points and dividing the sheet into parallelograms each with one diagonal, compressing the material in a direction transverse to the diagonals. and partly drawing out the compressed material.

13. A method of making pleated articles which comprises folding sheet material in one direction along a system of substantially parallel lines and in the opposite direction along a system of substantially parallel lines oblique to the lines of the first system and along another system of substantially parallel lines lying at an angle to the lines of the first two systems. the lines of the three systems intersecting at common points and dividing the sheet into paralleiograms each with one diagonal, compressing the material on the folds in a direction perpendicular to the diagonals, and turning one end of the compressed material about an axis.

KAMMA TUTEIN. Widow of Paul Tutein, Deceased.

CERT]? ICA'IE F CORRECTION.

mnm 'ru'mm, union of PAUL TU'IEIN, deceased. It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numberedpatent requiring correction as follows: Page 1, first column, lines ll andl'fi, strike out the syllable and words combe folded or bent on axesparallel" and insert instead compressed in a' direction transverse; same page, second column, line 15, for "facet" read faceted} and that the said Letters latent shouldbe' readw'ith this. correction therein that the same may conform to the record of'the case in the Patent Office.

Signed. and sealedthis l5th'day of August, A. n. 1939.

(Seal) Leslie Frazer Acting Oomnissioaer of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2556521 *Nov 14, 1946Jun 12, 1951Fram CorpFilter element
US2683537 *Jun 11, 1949Jul 13, 1954Fram CorpPleated filter element
US2685371 *Nov 4, 1948Aug 3, 1954Gen Motors CorpFilter
US2747744 *Nov 4, 1948May 29, 1956Gen Motors CorpOil filter
US3009277 *Feb 27, 1959Nov 21, 1961Scherotto JohnScored blank for display or insulation use
US3266201 *Dec 14, 1962Aug 16, 1966Mobil Oil CorpDouble cantilever roof structure
US3629982 *Jul 15, 1970Dec 28, 1971Us Air ForcePortable foldable shelter
US3894352 *Apr 27, 1973Jul 15, 1975Hooker Rea FerdinandPolyhedral annular structures and blanks for forming same
US4001964 *Jul 7, 1975Jan 11, 1977Rea Ferdinand HookerPolyhedral annular structures, and blanks therefor
US4319941 *Oct 27, 1980Mar 16, 1982Brownell David ADecorative butterfly and method of construction
US4321291 *May 19, 1980Mar 23, 1982Brownell David ADecorative butterfly and method of construction
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US4366961 *Jun 29, 1981Jan 4, 1983Busse William EMethod and apparatus for constructing pyramid
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US4780344 *Sep 2, 1986Oct 25, 1988Hoberman Charles SReversibly expandable three-dimensional structure
US4981732 *Feb 20, 1990Jan 1, 1991Charles HobermanReversibly expandable structures
US5077949 *Sep 24, 1990Jan 7, 1992Kotter Rodman WAdaptive architectural cover panels
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US5491309 *Oct 4, 1993Feb 13, 1996Quilite International Limited Liability CompanyAcoustical panel system
US5641950 *Aug 23, 1995Jun 24, 1997Quilite International Limited Liability CompanyAcoustical panel system
US6237819Apr 27, 2000May 29, 2001Hallmark Cards IncorporatedDecorative bow
US7409787Jul 25, 2005Aug 12, 2008Donna Denine GlennCaricature apparatus and method of making same
US7730925 *May 9, 2007Jun 8, 2010Pereira Carlos ECollapsable screen and design method
US20040256282 *Apr 1, 2004Dec 23, 2004Glenn Donna DenineMulti-purpose ornamental caricature device and method therefor
DE1170764B *Dec 28, 1962May 21, 1964Dr Fritz BrunsVerfahren zum Herstellen von formhaltigen ringfoermigen Koerpern aus flexiblem Material, wie z. B. Papier, Kunststoff-, Metallfolie od. dgl.
WO1992005327A1 *Sep 20, 1991Apr 2, 1992Rodman W KotterAdaptive bidirectional architectural cover system
Classifications
U.S. Classification493/295, 428/181, 446/109, 52/86, 428/7, 446/488
International ClassificationA41G1/00, A41G1/04
Cooperative ClassificationA41G1/04
European ClassificationA41G1/04