US 2166943 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 25, 1939. R. L. DAV|$O-N 2,166,943
aoov cons'mucwlou Filed Dec. 8, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTbR 2'9 Roberf L. Dawson H 5 ORN Y R. L. DAVISON I v 2,166,943
ROOF QONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 8, 1937 3 ShegtS-Sheet 2 July 25, 1939.
H L. Dawson RNEY iii.
. J gbe July 25, 1939. R. L. DAVISON ROOF CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet s Filed Dec. 8, 1937 aws oh 42 His RNEY Patented July '25, 1939 "UNITED STATES ROOF CONSTRUCTION Robert L. Davison, New York, N. Y., assignor to John B. Pierce Foundation, New York, N. Y., a co poration of New York Application December 8, 1937, Serial No. 178,670
This invention relates to roof construction, and more particularly to roof construction assembled from pro-fabricated structural units.
Embodiments of "the present invention are especially adapted for use in conjunction with the building construction set forth in my copending application for United States patent Serial No. 64,723, filed February 19, 1936, but the invention is by no means restricted in its application to such type of building construction.
Among the objects of the invention are: (1) to provide a roof construction that is light, and yet strong, rigid, and weatherproof.
(2) to provide a roof construction, adapted for assembly in the field from a plurality of factory fabricated structural units in a minimum amount of time and with minimum amounts of labor and expense.
(3) to provide a roof construction that may be almost. entirely pro-fabricated from plywood panels.
(4) to provide structural units adapted for factory fabrication, which will function substantially as trusses individually serving the combined purposes of conventional rafters-and ceiling joists.
In accomplishing the aforesaid objects, the primary innovation is the use of panels extending solidly from substantially the ceiling plane of the roof construction to substantially the so roofing plane or planes thereof, such panels in- ;iividually functioningas both rafters and ceiling oists. 5
It is preferred to providet'he component structural elements of the present roof construction 85 in the form of pro-fabricated structural units which can be readily assembled in the field, al-
though advantageous structural features of the invention may be had by the old methods of to Fig. 3 is an, exploded perspective view of a portion of Fig. 2 illustrating a preferred type of joinder of the panel-rafter units with walls constructed pursuant to the above referred to copending application.
ll Fig.4isanexplodedperspectiveview of-aportion of the structure of Fig. 2 illustrating a preferred type of joinder of panel-ceiling units and panel-roofing units with the panel-rafter unit.
Fig. 5 is an exploded and enlarged perspective view of structure forming the mid-portion of the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1, showing a preferred type of joinder of panel-bridging units with panel-rafter units.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary view corresponding with the major portion of Fig. 1, and illustrating the rafter-panel unit in side elevation with associated structure removed.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view, corresponding with Fig. 6, of another embodiment of prefabricated panel-rafter unit.
Referring to the drawings:--In Fig. 1 is illustrated a preferred embodiment of the present invention assembled from factory fabricated structural units The construction embodies the concept of solid panels performing the combined function of rafters and ceiling joists, that is, representing substantially roof trusses.
The principal factory fabricated structural unit is here designated as a panel-rafter unit, see l0, and in itself serves the purposes of both the conventional types of rafter and ceiling joist.
It is advantageously formed from plywood, and is preferably dimensioned for extension across the complete width of the building, being in addition, conflgurated according to the desired configuration of cross-section of the roof construction between the ceiling plane, see II, and the roofing plane or planes, see I! and IS.
The panel-rafter unit i0 comprises, as its main member, a solid panel Ill-i whose shape practically defines the shape of the unit. The solid panel member has its ends Iii-la and Ill-lb configure-ted for joinder with suitable receiving means of the wall construction-rand is symmetrically designed to provide, at the top. roofing planes l2 and I3 sloping downwardly from opposite sides of a central ridge l4. and, at the bottom, the horizontal ceilinglplane II. The ends l0,ll and ill-lb are notched, see l5, Fig. 6, for tying in with respective roof-receiving stringers I6, I of respective panel-wall units It, I 8, such panel-wall ,units being disclosed in full in the aforementioned copending application Serial No. 64,723. As assembled in pre-fabricated building construction, the ends lola and Iii-lb may function as tongues being received between groove-formingpieces "-2, "-2 which are secured vertically in mutually spaced relationship between stringers l6 and runners "-4. The top surfaces of the solid panel member, which provides roofing planes I 2 and I3, may slope downward in a series of descending steps, see l2-l, for cooperation with a novel type of roofing unit to be described hereinafter.
The solid panel member Ill-l has secured, as by gluing, along the margins of its lower edge at respective panel faces, and preferably .flush with the bottom edge of the panel, the joist-strips ill-2, Ill-2 which may be notched as at 2|! to provide locking slots for cooperation with panelceiling units as hereinafter described. Running from near the bottom to the top of respective panel faces of the solid panel member, are secured, as by gluing, sets Ill-3, 10-3 of groove forming strips, the component strips of respective sets being spaced apart mutually on either side of the ridge l4, preferably extending from the top of joist-strips Ill-2, Ill-2, to-roofing planes l2 and I3, to form grooves 2i, 2| for the reception of panel-bridging units, as hereinafter explained. Stiifening members or struts Illl are advantageously secured, as by gluing, to the panel faces of the solid panel member lfl-i, along, and preferably at right-angles to, the lengths thereof in spaced parallel formation, such stiffening members Ill-4 preferably extending from the top of the joist-strips ill-Z, Ill-2 to their respective roofing planes. They are advantageously placed at the step locations lZ-l, and have their upper ends notched, as at 22, for interlocking cooperation with the aforementioned panel roofing- In assembling the roof construction of Fig. 1, a plurality of panel-rafter units ID are spaced in substantially parallel coextensive alignment as is customary in ordinary rafter and ceiling joist construction, their ends tying in with the panelwall units I8 as illustrated in Fig. 3. The so positioned panel-rafter units are interconnected preferably by panel-bridging units 23, see especially Fig. 5.
Each panel bridging unit 23 comprises, as its main member, a solid panel 23-l advantageously of plywood, having a length substantially equal to the distance between panel members Hl-l of adjacentpanel rafter units. Secured, as by gluing, along the margins of the upper and lower edges of the panel 23-! are reinforcing members 23-2, 23-2 and 23-3, 23-3, respectively, such reinforcing members stopping short of each end of the panel to provide tongues 23-la, 23-") for interlocking with the grooves 2| of the panelrafter units. To enable such interlocking to be accomplished tongues 22-la and 22-lb are notched at the bottom, as at 24, for accommodating the joist-strips I-2, see Fig. 5,
In carrying out the generic concept of the invention, it may be desirable to provide the panel bridging structure in the form of a continuous ridge element and each panel-rafter structure in separable sections adapted to tie in with such ridge element at spaced locations along its length on opposite panel faces thereof.
For completing the roof construction, it is preferred that pre-fabricated panel-roofing units and pre-fabricated panel-ceiling units be employed..
Indicated at 25, see particularly Figs. 2 and 4, are panel-roofing units of a preferred novel type. Each unit comprises a solid panel member 25-l, advantageously of plywood, adapted to, per se, function as weatherresistant roofing and roof sheathing. Such solid panel member 25-! is de- --sirably coextensive in length with the length of the roof at right angles to the line of slope thereof, so that each panel-roofing unit spans the distance between two opposite walls. In attaining a water shedding roofing arrangement, the panelroofing units are provided for edge-overlap, each with the next lower, as illustrated in Fig. 1.
To attain rigidity of assembly without losing the advantages of ease and simplicity of assembly, means for interlocking with the adjacent margin of the next lower unit is provided on the under face of the solid panel member 25-l. Such interlocking means may take the form of an L-shaped strip 25-2, secured as by gluing, along the lower margin of the solid panel member 25-l, so that one leg is spaced apart from the surface of the panel with its free end extending toward the panels lower edge to provides slot 26 adapted to receive the adjacent upper marginal portion of the next lower unit. The L-shaped strip is spaced apart from the lower edge of the panel member suificiently far to allow a fair amount of lap of the lower margin of the higherunit over the upper margin of the next lower unit. The panel-wall units It may be each provided at their tops with an inwardly extending runner iB-i for tying in with the L-shaped strip of the lowermost panel-roofing unit.
For accommodation of the panel-rafter units H], the L-shaped strips 25-2 are notched at spaced locations along their length, as indicated at 21, Fig. 4. I
Panel-ceiling units of a preferred type are indicated at 30. Each such unit comprises a solid panel member 30-i, advantageously of plywood, dimensioned to extend between and interconnect two adjacent panel-rafter units coextensive with the length thereof. For ease of assembly, these may be pre-fabricated to provide locking pieces 30-2 so configurated and so spaced on a common panel face of the panel member 30-! as to aiford interlocking with the slots 20 provided in the joist-strips Ill-2, Ill-2 of panel-rafter units. The roof-receiving stringers I6 of panel-wall units I8 may be provided with longitudinal slots I6-l, for receiving edges of contiguous panel members 30-l of the panel-ceiling units 30.
Fig. 7 illustrates a panel-rafter unit which varies slightly from that illustrated in Fig. 1. Secured along the margins of the upper edge of the solid panel member 35 of this unit are rafter strips 36. stiffening members 31 extend between the lower edges of such rafter-strips 36 to the upper edges of the joist-strips 38. At locations along the top edge of rafter-strips 36, aligned with the stiffening members 31, are provided slots 39 for interlocking with the L-shaped strips 25-2 of panel-roofing units 25. These additionally provided rafter-strips 36 are advantageous in certain cases for increasing the rigidity of the panelrafter unit.
As thus provided, the roof construction of the present invention can be entirely pro-fabricated in the form of individual panel-structural units for assembly in the field, easily and quickly.
Whereas I have described my invention by reference to specific forms thereof, it is to be understood that many changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention as set forth herein and in the claims I that follow. I claim:
A roof construction comprising panel rafters 2. In pro-fabricated roof construction, a prefabricated panel-rafter unit comprising a panel member extending solidly from substantially the ceiling plane to substantially the roofing plane or planes, joist-strips secured adjacent the botstantially the ceiling plane to substantially the,
roofing plane or planes, joist-strips secured adjacent the bottom edge of said panel member, and substantially vertical struts spaced apart at intervals along substantiallythe length of the panel member.
4. In pre-fabricated roof construction, prefabricated panel-rafter units spaced apart in substantially parallel coextensive alignment, each of said panel-rafter-units comprising a panel extending solidly from substantially the ceiling Plane to substantially the roofing plane or planes of the roof construction, and pre-fabricated panel-bridging units extending between said panelrafter .units tying the latter to one another, each of said panel-bridging units comprising a panel extending solidly from substantially top to bottom of the panel-rafter-units at its positioned location. I
5. In pre-fabricated roof construction, prefabricated panel rafter units spaced apart in substantially parallel coextensive alignment, each of said panel-rafter units comprising a solid panel configurated according to the desired cross-sectional configuration'of the roof construction between ceiling plane and roofing planes, the said roofing planes sloping downwardly away from a common ridge, and pre-fabricated panel-bridging units extending between said spaced panelrafter units below the ridge, tying the latter to one another, each of said panel-bridging-units comprising a solid panel extending substantially from the ceiling plane to the ridge.
6. A pro-fabricated structural unit for roof construction comprising a solid panel of plywood oonfigurated to extend between ceiling and roofing plane or planes of a roof construction, joiststrips secured adjacent the lower edge of said panel on' either side thereof and extending along substantially the length thereof, and mutually spaced vertical strips secured proximate the ridge of said panel, forming groove means for receiving ongue means of cooperating structure,
'7. A pro-fabricated structural unit as recited in claim 6 wherein the upper edge 01. the stated panel is or step formation, and wherein struts are secured to said panel at locations along the length thereof corresponding to the steps of said step formation.
8. A pro-fabricated structural unit as recited -in claim 6 wherein the upper edge ofthe stated panel is of step formation, wherein struts are secured to said panel at locations along the length thereof corresponding to the steps of said step formation and extend vertically to locations adjacent the top edge of said panel, and wherein notches are provided adjacent the upper ends of said struts for tying in with roofing units and notches are provided in the stated joist-strips for tying in with ceiling units.
9. Impre-fabricated roof construction, pro-fabricated panel-rafter units spaced apartin sub- --stantially parallel coextensive alignment, each of said panel-rafter units comprising a panel extending solidly from substantially the ceiling plane to substantially the roofing plane or planes of the roof construction, pre-fabricated panelbridging .units extending between said panelrafter units tying the latter to one another, each of said panel-bridging units comprising a panel extending solidly from substantially top to bottom of the panel-rafter-units at its positioned location, locking means formed adjacent the bottoms of said panel-rafter units, Dre-fabricated ceiling units tying in with said locking means, lockng means formed adjacent the tops of said panel-rafter units, and pre-fabricated' roofing units tying in with said last named locking means.
10. In pie-fabricated construction, wall structure having its top comprised of pre-i abricated units formed of panels having roof-receiving stringers secured adjacent the tops thereof, inwardly extending runners secured at the top edges thereof, and groove-forming'means secured between said stringers and said runners at spaced intervals along the lengths thereof; pre-fabricated panel-rafter units spaced apart in substantially parallel coextensive alignment, each of said panel-rafter units comprising a panel extendingsolidly from substantially the ceiling plane to substantially the roofing plane or planes of the roof construction, said panels having tongue-ends which fit into the grooves of said groove-forming means or said wall structure and having-further, top edges of step formation; prefabricated panel-bridging units extending between said panel-rafter units tying the latter to one another, each of said panel-bridging units comprising a panel extending solidly from substantially top to bottom of the panel-rafter-units at its positioned location, and pre-fabricated roofing units each comprehending a step of said step formation of said panels, said roofing units each comprising a panel member and slot forming means secured to the underside of the panel member, said slot forming means serving to receive the upper edge of the next lowerly positioned roofing unit, the slot forming means of the lowest positioned roofing units serving to, receive the inner edges 01 said runners of said wall structure.
ROBERT L. DAVISON.