US 2167194 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 2s, 1939.
A. ANDERSON APPARATUS FOR DEFLECTING DRILL HOLES 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 14, 1936 July 25, 1939. A. ANDERSON APPARATUS FOR DEFLECTING DRILL HOLES 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 14, 1936 (Ittorneg July 25, 1939. A. ANDERSON APPARATUS FOR DEFLECTING DRILL HOLES Filed March 14, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 (Ittorneg.
Patented July 25, 1939 AuNlTizo STATES APPARATUS Fon. DEFLEOTING DRILL Anoms Y Alexander Anderson, Fullerton, Calif., assignor,
by mesne assignments, to Lane-Wells Company, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of Delawa-re Application March '14, 1936, Serial No. 68,941
This invention relates to improved methods and apparatus for drilling bore holes, and is directed particularly to methods and apparatus for deecting or altering the course of a bore hole as to either inclination or direction or both.
It is well known that the influence of alternating hard and soft strata and many other conditions encountered in the drilling of a well often causes the drilling` tools to deviate from a straight 1 0 line. The problem of deflecting the borehole back to its original direction or of directing lt to another course is one that drillers constantly have before them. A common type of drilling` problem occurs, for example, where a refinery l5 has been located in an oil field and the operator wishes to tap the oil sand underneath the refinery but is precluded from erecting a derriqk within the refinery area at the location which would normally be selected for that purpose. In such event the derrick can be located outside the limitsl of the refinery or to one side or another of the underground point to be tapped andgthen by utilizing deiiecting tools and methods devised for that purpose, the operator can proceed to direct the course of the bore hole toward the intended objective, making surveys of the hole from time to time and re-directing its course if and when it may be necessary.
Numerous methods and special equipment have been utilized in the past for deecting bore holes, with varying degrees of success, but among. those methods and devices with which I am acquainted there is none which is entirely satisfactory from the 'standpoint of both economy and practicability.
Itis an object of this invention to provide a new and improved bore deectlng tool which can easily be lowered into a bore hole and can be easilyoriented therein.
Another object is to provide'a tool for the above-mentioned purpose h'aving no inherent tendency to pull away from the direction in which it has been oriented when rotational drilling force is applied.
Still another object is to provide a deflecting tool which is relatively inexpensive to manufacture and yet which -is characterized by a maximum degree of reliability and ruggedness.
56 A feature of4 the invention is that the deflectable end portion of the drill string is maintained in an undeflected position, that is, in general alignment with the main portion of the drill string during the lowering operation and, for that reason, the possibility of diiilculty in getting the tool down through the bore hole is practically hydraulic means preferably takes the form of one or more laterally directed high velocity streams of fluid ejected from the tool or drill string at one or more points near the lower end thereof, 15 the force of reaction of the stream or streams of fluid thus ejected from the tool serving to forcibly deect, in the desired direction, the deiiectable tool portion. 4
There are a variety of possible methods of 20 applying hydraulic pressure for bringing about the desired deflections of the drill bit but according to my view the simplest and most desirable method is that previously referred to which may appropriately be termed the hydraulic 25 reaction method.
In the drawings which accompany this specication several of the preferred embodiments of my invention are illustrated and these will be described hereinafter. Referring to the draw- 30 ings, for the .purposes of illustration,
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view .through the bottom end portion vof a bore hole and of the lower-end of a drill string which includes a bore deecting tool according to the 35 preferred embodiment of this invention. y
Fig. 2 is likewise a longitudinal sectional view of -the lower end of a re hole showing the bore deecting tool in elevat on and in deected position.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail elevation view of thatportion of the tool of Figs. 1 and 2 which includes the discharge orice and rotary gate valve.
Fig. 4 is a cross sectional view taken along'the 45 V line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a. cross sectional view similar to Fig.- l except that it .shows the discharge orifice in the closed position whereas Fig. 4 shows it in the open position.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged cross sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of Figs. 1 and 3.
Fig. 7 is yan enlarged cross sectional view taken .along the line l-'l of Fig. 1.
Fig. B is a longitudinal sectional view through a portion of a tool shank illustrating an alternative arrangement for l closing the discharge orifices.
Fig. 9 is an elevational view showing the arrangement of discharge orifices in the structure of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional View of the bottom of a bore hole in which is shown suspended a drill string with an alternative type of deilecting tool.
Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10 but showing the deflecting drill bit in position to commence drilling.
Fig, 12 is an enlarged detailed view partly in section of a drill bit suitable for using in the structure of Figs. 10 and 11.
Fig. 13 is an illustration of another alternative construction and is a longitudinal section view through the bottom portion of a bore hole showing the deilecting tool in position therein.
With reference to the deilecting tool of Figs. l to '7 inclusive, an existing bore hole the course of which is to be altered by deilecting it at a slight angle in some predetermined direction is designated by the numeral I.
The entire assemblage including drill pipe, drill bit, the other associated parts, will be referred to as a drill string.
The lower end 2 of a drill pipe is suspended from the ground level and the deilecting tool is attached thereto. The tool comprises, in general, a roller guide 3, a universal joint 4, an orifice and valve member 5, anda drill bit 6:
The roller guide 3 is lmade up of two parts 1 and 8 in threaded engagement and an annular member 9 having an outside diameter corresponding approximately to that ofv the existing bore hole and two sets of bearing balls I0 which permit the drill pipe and tool bits to rotate while the annular member 9 remains stationary except for longitudinal movement'along the bore hole. The annular member 9 is preferably provided with a number of openings to permit the free passage of fluid upwardly therethrough from the bottom of the bore hole.
The universal joint 4 comprises a member I2 connected by means of a threaded joint to the member 8, a ball housing I3 in which is housed a ball I4 having an extended shank I5. The ball I4 is provided with elongated slots I6 and which engage the inner ends of pins I8 and I9 which are carried by the ball housing I3. Slots I6 and are of a Width to t the engaging ends of pins I8 and |9 but as the slots are elongated, the ball is free to rotate'within the housing to a limited angular extent. It will be evident that the universal joint structure permits the shank I5 to be angularly deected in any direction with reference to the longitudinal axis of the main portion of the drill string while at the same time rotational movement of the drill pipe maybe transmitted through the universal joint to the drill bit.
Through the entire assemblage down to the drill bit there is provided a passage way 20 which will be referred to as the water course or internal watercourse.
Extending through the wall of the member 5 and in communication with the water course 20 is an orice 2| through which a stream of water 22 can be ejected when the oriiice is not obstructed and when everything is in readiness for the drill blt to be deflected from the vertical or initial position shown in Fig. 1 into an angular position as shown in Fig. 2.
Encircling and carried by the member 5 is a sleeve 23 which is rotatable about the member 5 and which serves as a gate for closing the passageway which includes orifice 2|. Sleeve 23 is provided with an aperture 24 which registers with orice 2| when the sleeve and member 5 are relatively in open position as illustrated most clearly by Fig. 6, with the orice unobstructed.
As per Fig. 6, water flowing downwardly through the water course 2|) and having a considerable applied pressure will be emitted through orice 2| at high velocity and in a generally lateral direction thus creating a large reactionary force capable of angularly deilecting the to'ol as previously described with great force and positiveness. Sleeve 23, is preferably provided with one or more radially extending ears 25, 26 of such radial length as to be engaged by the side wall o f the bore hole when the tool is in deflected position and rotation of the drill string has commenced. When one or more of the ears have been thus engaged the sleeve is restrained against rotation long enough to eiect a closure of the discharge orifice.
Referring more particularly to Figs, 3, 4 and 5, it will be observed that the upper end of sleeve 23 is stepped down as indicated in 2l around rather more than one-half the circumference of the sleeve. A cap screw 28 threadedly secured in the member 5 serves as a stop means for limiting the angle of rotation of sleeve 23 on member 5. The relative rotation between sleeve 23 and the member 5 upon which it is mounted is preferably because that angle permits of the aperture 24 having moved the greatest possible distance away from oriiice 2|. Ears 25 and 26 are preferably made of soft metal, as cold rolled steel, so that they will wear down quite rapidly to a diameter corresponding to that of the drill bit vand thus quickly cease to impose any additional power load. v
The drill bit 6 may be of any form such as that shown which is suitable for the purpose and preferably is provided with water passages 29 to permit the flow of fluid from the water course to the cutting edges of the bit. These water passages are preferably made parallel to the longitudinalaxis of the bit, as shown.
In operation, the procedure is to lower the drill string into the existing bore hole with the sleeve 23 in the open position. Upon reaching bottom the drill string is raised suiciently to permit the bit to come clear of the bottom and the drill string is so oriented that the orice 2| will be disposed exactly opposite to the direction in which it is intended to deilect the bore hole. 'Ihe pump .is then started sending fluid down through the water course and out through the orifice at high velocity thus bringing about the desired deilection of the tool. While thus deflected the drill string is raised and lowered a few times so as to stamp out a seat in the bottom of the hole, as at IA in Fig. 2, for thedrill bit. The tool is then rotated a few times to get the new hole started. As the ears 25, 26 are of suiicient length to immediately engage the side wall of the existing bore hole, upon the initial rotation of the drill string the discharge orifice 2| will be shut oif during the rst revolution. The new hole having been started and the discharge orifices closed drilling may proceed until the universal joint reaches a position near the bottom of the hole I. The deflecting tool is then withdrawn from the hole and other suitable drilling equipment is then orifices, 30, 3|, and 32, and a constriction 33 in the linternal Water course 2'0' which is designed to receive and seat a tubular sleeve 34 the function of which is to close the passage ways to the dischargev orices 30, 3| and 32. The tubular s1eeve'34 ls-dropped down through the drill pipe.
when the driller wishes to shut off the discharge orifices, that operation being equivalent to rotating the sleeve 23 in the structure of Figs. 1 and 2 whereby'the orifice 2| ,is closed. In the upper portion of Fig. 8 the sleeve 34 is shown,
in dot and dash lines, on its way down the water course 20' just before arriving at its destination. An annular shoulder 35 on member 5 serves to stop the sleeve 34 at the proper position. While in the structure of Figs. 8 and 9 there are shown three discharge orifices 30, 3| and 32, it is to be understood that it is not necessary to use a plurality of such orifices but that it may'be preferable to do so instead of using one large orifice because a large orifice weakens the member 5' morev than a pluralityof small orifices arranged linearly in the direction of the axis as illustrated.
An lernative design of' deflecting tool which is somewhat simpler and less expensive to build than that of Figs. 1 and 2, is illustrated in Figs. and 1l. It is not suggested that this tool would always be a satisfactory substitute for the preferred structure of Figs. 1 and 2 but it is one that can sometimes be used. In this alternative y design, the universal joint and also the valve means for shutting olf the flow of water through the discharge orifices is omitted. In the arrangement shown, in Figs. 10 and 11 there is provided a roller guide 35 of the same design as the roller guide 3 of Fig, '1 to the lower end to which is attached-a flexible drill pipe 36 which is preferably of relatively small diameter. To the lower end of the flexible pipe 36 is connected the drill bit 31 having a laterally directed discharge orifice 38 which is in communication with the internal e water course. The high velocity stream of water leaving the discharge orifice 38 causes the drill pipe 36 to ex in the desired direction as illustrated in Fig. 11. The pipe 36 should be of `a length suitable to give the requisite ilexure. e
Fig. 12 is an enlarged View somewhat in detail of a drill bit such as is shown on a smaller scale in the structure of Figs.` 10 and 13. -This gure is shown partially in section 'so as to illustrate the laterally directed `discharge orice 40. A
number of relatively small openings 42 connecting with the internal water course are provided in the drill bit of Fig. 12 for the purpose of conveying fluid directly to the 'blades of the bit. e
Obviously a. drilling tool having shut oft' means for the discharge orifices as shown in Figs. 1 and 8 could be employed in combination with the flexible drill pipe 36 shown in Figs. 10 and 11.
The vstructure of Fig. 13 has been included more particularly to illustrate anarrangement employing two water jets, one above the universal joint or point' of ilex'ure and the other below, the two jets being directed oppositely lwhereby the drill bit is kicked laterally in one direction while the portion of the drill string including the universal joint is deflected the opposite way. In this arrangement there is no roller guide or other centering device for the drill string. The member 39 of Fig. 13 may correspond to the member 5 of Fig. 8. The discharge orifice 40 of Fig. 13 may be of the type having no shut off means as in the structure of Fig. 10 or it may be provided with a suitable valve'mechanism such as that used in the structure of Fig. 1. In Fig. 13 the universal joint is indicated by the numeral 4|.
The method of operating the alternative forms of tools illustrated and described herein is the same in each case and as described for the preferred embodiment.
What I claim is: 1. In. well-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water-course extending lengthwise thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity of the lower end of said drill string, said orice being in communication with said water-course, and a valve mechanism operable to open and close the -passageway which includes said orifice, said valve mechanism being actuable by rotating said drill string.
2. In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string havf ing an internal water-course extending lengthwise thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity ofthe lower end of saidY drill string, said orice being in communication with said water-course, and a valve mechanism having a part adapted to contact the interior of the bore and operable to open and close the passageway which includes said orifice, said valve mechanism being actuable by rotating said drill string.
3. In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water-course extending lengthwise thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity of the lower end of said drill string, said orifice being in communication with said water-course, and a valve mechanism for opening and closing the passageway which includes said orifice, said valve mechanism including asleeve at least partially encircling said drill string in the region of said orifice, said sleeve being rotatable about said drill string and operable to cover and uncover said orifice, said valve mechanismv being actuable iii response to rotation of said drill string, rotation of the drill string in one direction serving to open the passageway while rotation in the opposite direction serves to close the passageway.
4. Inwell-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water-course extending lengthwise thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orice situated in the vicinity of the lower end of said drill string, said orifice being incommunication wit-h said water-course, and a valve mechanism for opening and closing the passageway which includes said orifice, said valve mechanism including a sleeve at least partially encircling said drill string in the region of said orice,' said sleeve being rotatable about said drill string and so disposed as to be operable to cover said orice, said sleeve having an aperture so situated as to be capable of being brought into registration with said orifice, whereupon said passageway is rendered open, said valve mechanism being actuable in response to rotation of said drill string in one direction to eiect a.
lower end of said drill string, said orifice being in communication with said water-course, a sleeve carried by and encircling said drill string, said sleeve being operable to cover said orifice and thereby obstruct the flow of water therethrough, said sleeve being rotatable about said drill string as an axis and having an aperture so disposed as to be capable of being brought into registration with said orifice by relative rotation of said sleeve and drill string, and stop means limiting the angle of possible rotation of said sleeve about said drill string in both directions of rotation,`
said aperture being so positioned as to be in registration with said orifice only when said ysleeve occupies a predetermined one of its two extreme positions.
6. In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water course extending lengthwisc thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity of the lower end of said drill string, said orifice being in communication with said water-course, and a valve mechanism for opening and closing the passageway which includes said orifice, said valve mechanism including a sleeve at least partially encircling said drill string in the region of said orifice, said sleeve having at least one radially extended projection of sufficient length to be adapted to engage the said wall of a bore hole when the said sleeve is rotated, said sleeve being rotatable about said drill string and operable to cover and uncover said orifice, said valve mechanism being actuable in response to rotation, rotation of the drill string in one direction serving to open the passageway while rotation in the opposite direction serves to close the passageway.
7. In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water-course 'extending lengthwise thereof and a passageway including a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity of the lowerend of said drill string, said orifice being in communication with said water-course, a sleeve carried byv and encircling said drill string, said sleeve being operable to cover said orifice and thereby obstruct the flow of water therethrough, said sleeve being rotatable about said drill string as an axis and having an aperture so disposed as to be capable of being brought into registration with said orifice by relative rotation of said sleeve and drill string, said sleeve being provided with at least one radially extending projection of sufficient length to be adapted to engage the side wall of the bore hole when said sleeve is rotated, and stop means limiting the angle of possible rotation of said sleeve about said drill string in both directions of rotation, said aperture being so positioned as to be in registration with said orifice only when said sleeve occupies a predetermined one of its two extreme positions.
8. .In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string including a drill bit at the lower end thereof and nisrn comprises a rotatable sleeve mounted upon and at least partially encircling the drill stem, said sleeve being relatively rotatable with respect to said drill stem for obstructing the passageway including said orifice by rotating the drill stem.
10. In well-drilling apparatus, a drill string having an internal water course extending lengthwise thereof and a lateral discharge orifice situated in the vicinity of the lower end of said drill string, said orifice being in communication with said water course, the arrangement being such that the force of reaction of a stream of water discharged through said orifice will cause the lower end of said drill string to be deflected laterally, and means for obstructing said orifice comprising a sleeve adapted to be dropped through said water course and means for 4stopping the fall of said sleeve through said Water course at a point adjacent to said orifice.
l1. Well-drilling apparatus in accordance with claim l0 wherein the sleevexis tubular.
12. In well-drilling apparatus a drill string including a drill bit at the lower end'thereof and a flexible joint above said drill bit but in the vicinity of the lower end of the drill string said drill string including an internal water course extending lengthwise thereof to said drill bit andv a pair of lateral discharge'orices in'communication with said water course said orifices being directed opposite, one being situated above said flexible joint and the other below said flexible joint. 'i
13. A well drilling tool for use on a tubular drilling stringl handling fluid under pressure, said tool comprising a bit, means connecting the bit with the string to turn therewith and have angular movement with respect thereto and conducting the fiuid from the string to the bit, and means regulable by varying the pressure on the fluid for moving the bit to an angular position relative to the string, the last named means including walls in the bit dening a fluid passage receiving the fiuid from the first named means and discharging it laterally in the well whereby the bit is swung out of alignment with the string by the reaction of the fluid thus discharged.