US 2168269 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug l, 1939- C. A. ORR ET A1 2,168,269
l PILE FOUNDATION SUPPORT r Filed oct. 12, 1952 2 sheets-sheet 1 Sheets-Sheet 2 mww -wwwfvw Aug. 1, 1939. c. A. ORR ET AL.
I PILE FOUNDATION SUPPORT Filed oct. 12, 1952 c 4 a M me/zere GEZ/MW Patented Aug. l, 1.939`
^"` Union Metal Manufacturing Company, Canfton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Applieation october 12, 1932, serial No. 637,454
n 4 A v 4 Claims` The.invention relates to piles and more parl ticularly to the driving andsetting of piles in which a hollow, tapered, metal shell is sunk into the ground by utilizingAk the shell itself as a driving mandrel, after'which the-shell itself remains insitu in the ground to form the pile, or after which the shell in-situ is filled with suitable bearing material, preferably concrete, to form a pile foundation support.
Wooden piles have been lutilized for years, but there are limits to the lengths of wooden piles that may be driven intothe ground, tothe type of ground into which wooden piles may be driven, and to the life of wooden piles.
vPiles made from cylindrical pipe driven into the ground have also been utilized, but, again, there are limits to the lengths of cylindrical pipe piles'that may be driven into the ground, and to the type of ground into` which cylindrical pipe piles may be economically driven.
.Pre-cast concrete piles havev also been utilized, but extreme care must be exercised and great difficulties are encountered in driving the same into certain types of ground,fand excessive expense is also encountered in splicing or cutting precast concrete piles to the4 required length, because the required length cannot be accurately determined luntil the pile is driven.
Cast-in-place concrete `.piles have also been utilized by sinking-a form into the ground and then lling the form with concrete. In this type of pile, the formsarevcomposed ofsheet `metal sections, or sheet mtal sections lined with concrete, usually tapered, whichare successively assembled upon and thendriven intothe ground by a tapered .mandrel,. the'tapered; surface of which engages the internal surfaces of the form sections to transmit ther driving force to the sections.
In driving such pile shelli sections, a collapsible mandrel mustutilized in order that the mandrel Amay be remOVed after the sectional forms have been sunk to the desired depth; or ifa solid mandrel is utilized, ithasf-been necessary to provide' means, usually hydraulic means, for applying to the sectional shell areaction equal to the upward pull required to remove the mandrel from the shell. c In either case, the cost of the mandrel or of the means for removing the mandrel is t usually large, with the resul-t that this type of pile is relatively expensive;
n Another type of cast-in-place pile has vbeen used, in which a temporaryform, usually a very heavy cylindricalpipe, is drivenvinto the ground, and is then filled with concrete and removed before the concrete hardens, leaving the concrete (ci. (si-53) confined only by loose earth. This type of pile is relatively expensive and the strength of the pile is uncertain.
Still another type of cast-in-place pile has been utilized in which a temporary form, usually a 5 very heavy cylindrical pipe, is driven' into the ground, a transversely corrugated tube is thenl telescoped within the pipe and lled with concrete, -and the pipe is then withdrawn and the space occupied by the same filled with concrete. l0
This type of pile also is quite expensive to set and requires a considerable number of extra operations to be performed. A composite pile has also been usedvwhere an extremely long pile is required. In setting such a pile, a wooden pile l5 is first driven into the ground and a pre-cast pile or a shell for a cast-in-place pile is then spliced theretoand driven to the required depth. However, such a pile has the disadvantages enumer-V ated above with reference to its constituent parts. t 1
It is therefore a general object of the present invention to overcome the diiculties encountered in driving and setting piles according to prior practice and to avoid the disadvantages thereof and incident to the driving and setting of the g affords a better load. carrying capacity than a cylindric tube of the same length, which would be more expensive due to its greater weight. Likewise, the substantially rigid tapered tube as it is being driven, and as a pile, withstands the crushing effect of the ground, the tendency of which is to cause a collapse of the tube.
And nally, a tapered tube, driven with its small end down, is strongest at its upper end against failure during driving, which enables the same to be driven further than a cylindric tube pile having an even greater wall thickness. Such a substantiallyv rigid, tapered tube may then be filled with a core of concrete or other suitable material.
We have also discovered that the tube may be y longitudinally corrugated, ribbed or uted .for strengthening the same not only against distortion orV crushing during driving, but also for strengthening the same against crushing or failure as a pile, for producing a greater bearing The preferably continuous tapered tube 30 surface with respect to the volume of ground displaced, and` for assisting in ease of driving.
It is therefore a further object of the present invention to provide a new and improved tapered, tubular metal pile, preferably with a nose integral with its small end, which is driven as a substantially rigid mandrel into the ground by the usual driving means,where it is left in situ to form a pile. n
It is a further object of the present invention to provide al longitudinally ribbed, corrugated or iluted, substantially rigid tapered, tubular pile, preferably with a nose integral with its small end, and to drive the same as a substantially rigid mandrel, into the ground wherein it is left in situ to form a pile,
Moreover, it is an object of the present invention to provide a tapered, tubular pile either plain or longitudinally ribbed, corrugated or uted, and to drive the same as a substantially rigid mandrel into the ground where it is leftin situ to form a pile shell, and to then fill tl'ie shell with a core of suitable material suc 'as concrete.
In certain cases, the lo er or smaller end of the tapered tube man'drel may be left open so as to reduce the effective amount of ground displaced during driving. After driving, the ground within the tapered tube may be removed and the interior of the tube filled with a core of suitable material such as concrete. J
It is therefore a further object of the present invention to drive a tapered, either plain or longitudinally ribbed corrugated or uted, pile as a mandrel into the ground and leave it there in situ to form a pile, and to then remove the ground therein and iill the mandrel with a core of suitable material such as concrete.
These and other objects may be obtained by the piles, elements, combinations, structures, methods, and apparatus, preferred embodiments or steps of which are hereinafter claimed and described in detail, and are likewise shown in the drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a. longitudinal sectional View of an improved tapered, tubular, metal pile, utilized as a substantially rigid mandrel, and being driven into the ground by diagrammatically indicated driving means;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1, of'a modified i'. form of improved tapered, uted, tubular, metal pile;
i' Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the improved pile shown in Fig. 1 after the same has i been driven into the ground;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig`. 3 showing the improved tapered, fluted pile of Fig. 2 after the` same has been driven into the ground;
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view of the improved pile shown in Figs. 1 and 3, taken on the line 5 5, Figs. 1 and 3;
Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view of the improved pile shown in Figs. 2 and 4, taken on the l line 6 6, Figs. 2 and 4;
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view of either of the improved piles shown in Figs. 3 or 4, filled with a core of concrete;
Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view of the improved pile shown in Fig. 3 filled with concrete as in Fig, 7, taken as on the line 8 8, Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view of the improved pile shown in Fig. 4 filled with concrete as in Fig, 7, also taken as on the line 8 8, Fig. 7;
Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 1, of a modified form of improved tapered, tubular, metal pile being driven into the ground without providing a nose on a lower small end thereof;
Fig. 11 is a longitudinal sectional view of the pile shown in Fig. 10 after the same has been driven, and after the ground present within the tube has been removed by pressure or hydraulic means diagrammatically illustrated;
Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11, showing the improved pile filled with a core of concrete.
'Ihe tapered tube 32 may have any desired length and because of its taper its small end more readily penetrates the ground and may therefore be more readily driven to the necessary depth. The taper of the tube likewise affords additional load carrying capacity when the tube is set as a pile, and the tapered tube 32 is preferably made from one piece of heavy gauge sheet or plate metal, the rigidity of which prevents the ground from crushing the tube as and after itis driven.
However, the tube may be made from a plurality of tapered tubular sections welded or otherwise joined together end to end to form a substantially rigid, tapered tube in order to obtain a tube of the desired length.
Moreover, the tapered tube 32 is strongest at its upper end against failure during driving so that the same may be driven further and faster than a cylindrical tube having an even greater wall thickness.
In certain cases it may be desired to strengthen the tube 32 against distortion during driving, to strengthen the ultimate pile driven, to provide a greater bearing surface for the ultimate pile, and to assist in obtaining ready penetration of the pile in the ground G. This may be accomplished by providing the tube 32 with longitudinal corrugations, ribs or flutes 32', as shown in Figs. 2, 4 and 6.
After the tapered tube 32 has been utilized as a mandrel for beingl driven into theground, the same is left therein in situ to form a plain pile or foundationsupport A, as shown in Fig. 3, or a iluted pile or foundation support B, as shown in Fig. 4.
In certain cases it may be desired to further strengthen the pile and increase its load bearing capacity, and in such event, the pile A, shown in Fig. 3, may be filled with a core of suitable ma- A terial such as concrete, indicated at 36 (Figs. 7, 8 and 9) to form a solid pile C shown in Fig. 7, which may be either plain, as shown in Fig. 8, or iluted as shown in Fig. 9. v
In certain cases, it may be desirable to,uti1ize a tapered tube 32a as a mandrel for being driven v so that the effective amount of ground displaced is reduced by the amount indicated at G', which collects Within the tapered tube 32a. as the tube is being driven.
12, and the tube 32a may either be plain, as
shown in Figsl 1, 3, 5 and 8, or fluted as shown in Figs. 2, 4, 6 and 9.
The terms rigid or substantially rigid or solid utilized herein as distinguished from colllapsible, refer to tapered tubes having sufficient rigidity and strength to be driven into the ground and/or removed therefrom without collapsing due to ground pressure or failing under normal work-x ing conditions; the terms one-piece or integral utilized herein, with reference to a shell, refer to elements, which may be originally made of a plurality of pieces and joined together in any 'suitable manner so that they may be driven or sunk into the ground as a unitary structure; and nally, the terms rfr-ibbed, corrugated and fluted are used herein more or less synonymously. y 1
We claim: l
1. A foundation support .which 'consists in a substantially rigid, tapered, metal tube, having a nose integral with its small end driven downward into the ground by power applied toits upper end.
2. A.foundation support which consists in a substantially rigid, longitudinally uted, tapered, metal tube, having a nose integral with its small end driven downward into the ground by power applied to its upper end.
3. Pile construction including a substantially' rigid, tapered, metal tube having a small end driven downward into the ground by power applied to' its upper end, and a core poured within the driven tube.
4.' Pile construction including a substantially rigid, longitudinally fluted, tapered, metal tube having a small end driven downward intothe ground by power applied toits upper end, and a core poured within the driven tube.
CHESTER A. ORR.
EDMUND W. RIEMENSCHNEVIDER. 25