US 2170049 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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(APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING BOOKS Filed Jan. -ll, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
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Aug. 22, 1939. H. w. FAEBER APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING Booxs Filed Jan. ll, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 m T .M W
MAQ@- A TTORNE Y.
Patented Aug. 22, 1939 UNITED STTE ATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING BOOKS Application January 11, 1938, Serial No. 184,417
My invention relates to apparatus for processing or operating upon books, including magazines and the like, particularly the bound leaves or signatures thereof, to impart thereto, before reaching the market, the characteristic, when open, of themselves to remain open or lie open more or less fiat, without or independently of external restraint by the hand or otherwise.
In accordance with my invention assemblies of l0 leaves and/or signatures, tightly bound together by wire staples or otherwise, generally with the book covers adhesively or otherwise attached thereto, are in succession and while in motion opened at suitable place between the sides of each assembly, preferably approximately midway; while restrained open and preferably while continuing in motion pressure is applied, preferably astride the crevice between the so divided portions of each assembly, to the portions thereof lying on opposite sides of the crevice, to smash or forcibly flatten the leaves or signatures of the two portions of the assembly, with the effect of somewhat reducing the restraint of the binding elements upon the leaves or signatures, as by loosening the binding and/or weakening the fibers of the leaves or signatures at or adjacent their binding elements, Without however materially impairing the binding, but nevertheless to a degree sufficient to cause the assembly or book when thereafter opened to remain or lie fiat in open position without independently applied restraint; more particularly the application of the pressure aforesaid begins at one end of each assembly, as it reaches the pressure applying stage in its movement, and, as it proceeds through the pressure applying stage, progresses to the other end throughout the longitudinal extent of the binding, preferably increasing from a minimum to maximum magnitude at each increment of the path of pressure application; and the progressive application of the pressure as aforesaid, besides smashing or flattening each assembly, as aforesaid, smooths or irons the two portions thereof on op- 45 posite sides of the crevice.
Further in accordance with my invention, for the purposes aforesaid, each assembly while continually in motion is successively opened, subjected to pressure, again closed, and discharged;
50 and more particularly the operations of opening and pressure application are performed before the adhesive, if used to attach the paper or other cover to the assembly, has set or dried, and still is pliant or yielding.
In accord with a further aspect of my invention, assemblies lying with their backs upon, and transported by, a conveyer belt or equivalent successively engage a piercing head provided with a knife-edge or equivalent arranged to enter and initiate opening thereof. From the piercing 5 head extends a spreader which progressively opens the assemblies upon guide plates, themselves more or less conforming in shape with the natural curvature of th-e leaves as they are moved to open position in preparation for appli- I0' cation of pressure.
Further in accord with my invention the pressure-applying or Smasher mechanism comprises an endless moving belt, between which and the aforesaid conveyer belt the open assemblies pass .15* in succession, have a smooth surface resiliently pressed, as by one or more rollers, against the leaves while the back of the open assembly or book rests upon the conveyer belt, with means for rapidly driving both belts, preferably at sub- 20 stantially equal linear speeds.
In accord with another aspect o-f my invention the opened assemblies after passing from between the aforesaid belts, are in succession discharged above guid-e plates between which 25 they fall, and in falling along the guide plates are closed by their action. Preferably a conveyer is disposed to receive and transport the now closed assemblies to a receiving truck, platform, or a conveyer. y 30 Further in accord with my invention the assemblies may be received on the first-named conveyer from a conveyer transporting them and on which while in motion the book covers are attached thereto while the latter are in 35 open position; and further in accordance with my invention the assemblies, during their transport toward aforesaid first-named conveyer, are held by clamping structures upon and carried by their conveyer, and while so held the book or 40 magazine covers, in open position as aforesaid, are attached to the assemblies, and the resultant book or magazine units are discharged to said first-named conveyer by passing them between guide plates which fold eachnewly attached cover to closed-book position, in which condition the units are received upon the first-named conveyer. My invention also resides features of construction, combination and arrangement of the characters hereinafter described and claimed.
For an understanding of apparatus illustrative of my invention, reference is had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a side elevation of apparatus em- 55 bodying the invention, with certain parts broken away;
Fig. 2 is a plan view, with parts broken away;
Fig. 3 is an end elevation of apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2, as viewed from the left end thereof;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary View in perspective looking toward the left of the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2, and illustrates the beginning of the assembly opening operation;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view in perspective of a part of the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2, illustrating the manner in which the opened assemblies or books are received beneath the pressure rolls;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary end elevation of the assembly clamp shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 6A diagrammatically illustrates the manner in which the assembly clamp of Fig. 6 may be opened;
Fig. '1 is a fragmentary side elevation, partly in section, showing an assembly engaging the piercing head;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary end elevational View of a side-wired book with its cover in open position;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken through a pressure roller, pressure and conveyer belts, and a book in flattened position therebetween;
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary end elevation of the apparatus of Fig. 1 as viewed from the right end thereof;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary plan view of the structure shown in Fig. 10; and
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary side elevation of the chain conveyer of Figs. 1 and 2.
Referring to the drawings, after the assemblies IDs of leaves or signatures, of a book I0, Fig. 8, have been bound together as at |017, and the cover I Ila adherently attached, the resulting book I0 is by conveyer Il, carried above the opening between two guide plates I2 and I3, Figs. 1 and 2. As shown, the conveyor I I, forming a part of a book-assembling machine (not shown) comprises a series of pairs of clamps I4 mounted on and spaced along the conveyer, here shown as an endless chain I5. A member I4 of each pair of clamps I4 carries an associated roller I6 which by engagement with a stationary cam I1, is opened against the bias of tension springs I8 to release the book I0 as it reaches the opening between guide plates I2 and I3. As the book I0 drops between them, its cover Illa (which then is in the open position, Figs, 6 and 8) is closed, the guide plate I2 having an apron IZa along which the book may slide, and the left-hand portion of plate I3 having a rolled, or outwardly curved edge.
The closure of the cover upon the assembled leaves or signatures is effectively accomplished since the upper convex or curved edges of the guide plates I2 and I3 progressively engage the cover from the back of the book toward the front, and thereby progressively move the cover to closed position. The book I0 comes to rest, in the position shown by its broken line outline in Fig. 1, with its back flat upon the rubber or friction surface of an endless conveyer belt I9, supported by a backing plate 2B, whose supporting brackets 2| are carried by frame 26, and passes over idler drum 22 and driving drum 23, respectively secured to shafts 22a and 23a journalled in upright supports 24 and 25 on frame 26. Drum 23 drives the conveyer I9 in the direction indicated by the arrows in Fig. 1; driving shaft 21 by means of a sprocket gear 28 secured thereto and a sprocket chain 29 passing over sprocket gear 3D rotates shaft 23a and its drum 23. An idler sprocket gear 3| carried by an arm 32 pivoted on a shaft 33 is by tension spring 34 biased in a clockwise direction to maintain sprocket chain 29 under suitable tension.
To provide a more positive drive of each assembly or book I toward the right as viewed in Fig. 1, driving pins or lugs 35, supported on a sprocket chain 36, travelling with and at the speed of conveyer I9, in turn carried by sprocket gears 31, 38 and 39, move beneath the guide plates I2 and I3 and individually engage the left hand edge of each assembly IU as it comes to rest on conveyer belt I9, and at a point somewhat above its back, and suciently thereabove to prevent possibility of a book rising above a lug. For magazines or books of size comparable to 'Ihe American, the lugs 35 are preferably spaced some eighteen inches apart longitudinally of chain 38.
The sprocket chain 36 and its associated gears 31--39 are supported by brackets 40 and 4I bolted to the frame 25. The sprocket gear 38 is secured, Figs. 2 and 12, to the upper end of a stub shaft 42 journaled in the bracket 4I, the lower end of said stub shaft having a beveled gear 43 secured thereto and meshing with a beveled gear 44 secured to the drive shaft 21. A timed relation between the positions of lugs 35 and the opening of conveyer clamps I4 is preferably obtained by driving both shaft 21 and the clamp conveyer II from a common drive shaft or driving motor.
In order to keep the sprocket chain 36 taut, the idler gear 33, supported on a pivoted arm 45, may be adjusted by screw 45 to vary the tension of the sprocket chain 36.
Preferably the sprocket gear 31 is disposed in a plane somewhat higher than that of sprocket gear 38 so that the lugs 35 as they move from left to right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, descend along the rear edge of each assembly and toward the back thereof. This is an advantage since the elevated position of gear 31 and of the lugs 35 prevent the assemblies from jumping over the lugs due to sudden acceleration caused by the engagement of the lugs therewith. As soon as the initial acceleration is completed, the lugs then move downwardly toward the stiffer, stapled backs of the assemblies, at which region a greater driving force may be applied without bending or marring the leaves or cover. Additionally, the sprocket gear 38, as viewed in Fig. 2, is spaced farther away from the center of the conveyer I9 than gear 31 so that by means of a sprocketchain guide plate 48, the right-hand portion of which is bent toward the axis of gear 38 and away from the line of travel of the books or assemblies, each lug 35 is gradually withdrawn from driving engagement with its associated assembly ID.
It is to be understood the driving unit including sprocket chain 36, lugs 35 and brackets 4D and II may be omitted in those cases where the conveyer belt I9 provides su'icient traction positively to move the assemblies toward the right.
As each book or assembly is moved from its left-hand position between the wider portion of the opening between plates I2 and I3 toward the right, the cover and leaves, due to the decreasing width of said opening, from left to right thereof, are slightly pressed together to center the assembly between said plates.
Interposed in the path of the assemblies as they are moved from left to right, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, and to the right of the narrow portion of said opening is a piercing device I) comprising a triangular shaped head, the apex or knife-edge of which is located in the center of said narrow opening so that it may readily enter between the adjacent central leaves of the assembly and initiate the opening of each book or assembly of leaves and/or signatures. Preferably the piercing device 5I! is supported somewhat below the center of each assembly, as viewed in Fig.v 1, by means of a member 5I rigidly secured to a portion of the stationary frame 26, a link 52, a rod 53, link 54, and supporting member 55 pivoted at 56 to a bracket 51 which is rigidly connected to the piercing device 5|). Adjustment of the device 50 may be made in any direction. For example, the link 52, by cap screw 52a, may be clamped in any selected angular position with respect to member 5I to elevate or lower the piercing device 50. By means of the clamps operated by cap screws 54a and 54h the link 55 may be Xed in any angular position labout rod 53 and further adjustment made by raising or lowering member 55.
In order progressively to spread the leaves of each assembly to open position, the piercing device 5 is not only provided with the triangular-shaped head but also with spreader elements, shown as three rods or bars 58, 59 and 60 attached to the piercing head and bent outwardly from the knife-edge and downwardly therefrom f well as centrally thereof.
toward the plane of conveyor I9. The elements 58-60 restrain or hold the leaves in their open positions. Preferably, and as shown in Fig. 5, the center element or rod 59 is somewhat longer than, and throughout the major part of its length is disclosed somewhat below, its associated and laterally spaced elements 5B and BIJ. In consequence, as each assembly is moved farther and farther to the right, Figs. 7, 4 and 5, the opening action, initiated as the knife-edge of piercing head 5E] enters the assembly, Fig. 7, is continued until the opposite sides thereof lie in the fully opened position.
Each of guide plates I2 and I3, beginning somewhat to the left of the piercing head 50 and continuing to the right thereof as viewed in Figs.
1, 2, 4 and 5, is curved outwardly and downwardly, substantially in conformity with the natural curvature of the oppositely spread leaves as they are progressively moved to, and restrained in, their fully opened positions. The adjacent central portions of the guide plates I2 and I3 bear against the sides of the assembly adjacent its back, to position each assembly with its back thereof fiat against conveyer belt I9. The central guide rod 59 nesting in the crevice IUC between adjacent open leaves, Fig. 5, and bearing against them,-performs a similar function as the assembly leaves the guide plates I2 and I3.
Additional support for the piercing device 5I) is provided by a bracket 57a attached toI rods 58-6 and itself adjustably carried by a threaded member 5I having a pair of nuts 6Iw bearing against a bracket GIS. The member Iil is freely movable through the opening in the bracket Iils and is preferably adjusted so that the assemblies as they are moved beneath the elements 553-5!) tend to lift them. 'Ihe resulting gravity bias contributes to the effectiveness of guiding element 59 in maintaining the back of each assembly at against the conveyer I9 as The gravity bias of elements 58-50 is amply sufficient to restrain the assemblies in their open positions until the leading edge of each is received below the pressurebelt 62.
Before describing the second stage of operations following the first or book-opening stage described above, I Wish to point out that though my invention is not limited thereto, books or assemblies of the type shown in Fig. 8 comprise a plurality of leaves or signatures IUS bound together by wiring stitching, as the wire staples Iiib, and the cover I0a of which is adherently secured to the back edges of the leaves and/or signatures. In applying the staples, a stapling or stitching machine, which may or may not form the staples, is arranged to drive them from one side of the assembly to the other, and thereafter tightly to clinch the open ends against the signatures or leaves, the result of which operations is to place the leaves and signatures under a substantial amount of compression. Because of the compressive forces and the natural resilience of the individual leaves, the assembly when opened will not lie flat, as upon a table, but on the contrary, the several leaves will tend to assume their original closed positions, and will in fact close the assembly. In short, the tightness of the staples Iilb acts to stiffen the leaves of the assembly well above the back thereof, with the result it will only remain in opened position while held there. Or in those cases where the assembly is of dimension such that it may remain open, the leaves are by the binding pressed together at the opening crevice and tend to cover or obscure the printed matter lying within, or in the region of, the crevice Ic.
After .the aforesaid stitching or stapling operations, suitable adhesive, as glue or cement, is applied to the backs of the leaves or signatures Is adhesively to secure cover Illa thereto. Suitable apparatus then presses the cover against the assembly Ii! of signatures, then held in position by the associated pair of clamps I4, and plates strike blows against the cover from opposite sides of the assembly and slightly. above the back of the assembly to form the cover against the assembly. Thereafter the clamps Ill carry each assembly and cover to the bookreceiving position above plates I2 and I3. The adhesive has not set at the time the assemblies are received between plates I2 and I3. In consequence the support of the back ofneach assembly, with its adhesively applied cover, flat against the conveyer I9 is beneficial since the cover is continuously pressed against the signatures.
With newly bound magazines, pamphlets, or assemblies of leaves with or without cover and comprising books, particularly of the side-Wired type, the aforesaid tendency is to .annoying degree present, and in the event the unaware reader lifts a hand fromthe leaves of an assembly, his place will be iost; and will require an irksome search through the assembly again to find it.
In accord with my invention the aforesaid tendency of the assemblies to close is materially reduced since the closing forces are dissipated to such an extent the assembly will remain open or lie flat, in any selected position without restraint of any kind. Each book or assembly has imparted to it the characteristic of remaining open without independently applied restraint of any kind.
Continuing with the description of the operation of my invention, the second stage thereof,
each assembly l0, after it has been fully opened by the piercing head 50 and the spreader elements 58, 59 and 60, is introduced beneath an endless pressure belt 62, the outer surface of which is smooth as contrasted with the cooperating friction surface of conveyer belt I9. Thus With canvas-rubber conveyer belts, the rubber friction surface of belt I9 is placed so as to engage the backs of the assemblies while the smooth canvas surface of belt 62 engages the leaves of the assemblies.
It is to be understood that the belt 62 may be of any suitable material which presents a smooth surface to the leaves while the belt I9 may be of any material presenting an adequate traction surface to the backs of the assemblies.
The pressure belt 62 is driven at the same speed as conveyer belt I9, the drive therefor including shaft 21, the sprocket chain 29, sprocket gear 3D, shaft 23a, gear 63 (Fig. 2) secured to shaft 23a, gear 64 meshing therewith and secured to a shaft 65 which carries the drum 66 upon which the pressure belt 62 is mounted. To adjust the belt 62, the shaft of the cooperating belt-supporting drum 61 is supported in journals 68 which, by means of adjusting screws 69 may be moved to the right or left respectively to increase or decrease the tension in, or tightness of, the belt 62.
Intermediate the drums 66 and 61 are three pressure rollers 1|, 12, 13, each appreciably crowned, journaled at 1|a-13a and carried by rods 14, 15, 16. The rollers are individually biased downwardly against the pressure belt 62 by coil springs 11, 18, 19. By means of adjusting nuts 8U, 8|, 82 the positions of each of rollers 1|, 12, 13 may be individually adjusted, and in the preferred arrangement of my invention, the rollers 12 and 13 are successively lower than 1| in order that there shall be applied to each assembly a gradually increasing pressure as it is moved beneath them.
As the leading end of each assembly enters the book-Smasher, as between the adjacent belts |9 and 62 the driving lug 35 has been substantially withdrawn from behind the back of the assembly, and it is entirely withdrawn, Fig. 5, upon further forward movement of the assembly. Sufcient traction is developed by belts I9 and 62 positively to move the assemblies to the right. In this connection it may be observed the conveyer belt I9 is wider than the pressure belt 62. In one embodiment of my invention a width of 6 inches was selected for belt I9 and a width of 4 inches for belt 62, though it is to be understood these widths may be greatly varied without departing from my invention.
Since the rollers 1|, 12 and 13 are all mounted somewhat below the lowermost edge of drums 66 and 61, the pressure belt 62, astride each assembly directly over its crevice |00, is curved downwardly and its moving surface exerts a smoothing or ironing action upon the exposed leaves of each assembly. This ironing or smoothing action progresses from the right to the left edge of each assembly, and longitudinally of the crevice lc, as viewed in Figs. 1, 2 and 5. Due to the pressure upon the assembly, its configuration is changed in manner best shown by comparison of the forward and trailing ends of the assembly l0 of Fig. 5.
As also shown in Fig. 5, the assembly or book l0, by reason of the action of the staples, Fig. 7, tends to close against the spreader elements 58, 59 and 6U, which, of course, retain it in the illustrated position so that the leaves to the right and left of its central crevice |00 describe arcs or lie in curves which concave downwardly.
As each assembly is moved beneath the moving surface of pressure belt 62 the aforesaid curves substantially disappear since the crushing or smashing action causes the central leaves to extend almost at right angles to the vertical side portions of the back which are located just below the staples Ib. The conical shape of the pressure rollers 1|-13, as viewed in Figs. 2 and 9, produces a slight curvature of the belt 62 so that the maximum pressure is exerted upon the center of the assembly directly over its crevice. The slightly curved belt 62 also acts uniformly to distribute the pressure to the right and left of the central crevice |00 of the assembly and thereby maintains the back of the assembly flat against conveyer belt |9 and its rigid backing Dlate 20.
The combined action of pressure rollers 1|, 12, 13 and of belt 62 is sufcient somewhat to weaken the fibers of the leaves adjacent the back of the assembly, and to relieve the restraint upon the leaves and /or the compressive action of the staples, Without loosening them sufficiently to produce freedom of movement of the leaves and/or signatures relative to each other. The signatures and leaves of each assembly, after passage between belts !9 and 62, are still sufliciently rmly held together by the binding means, as staples |011.
If the desired characteristic of lying flat or in open position is to be imparted to an assembly having a large number of pages, the piercing device 50 may, after treatment as aforesaid, be xed in position rst near one and then near the other side of the center of the assembly and the assemblies again passed through the book-smasher. By so applying the pressure to the assembly at other than mid-division thereof by the piercing head 50, the tendency of the pages to reclose may be materially and sufficiently reduced regardless of the size of the assembly. In practice, I have found that one passage between the belts I9 and 62 is sufficient for assemblies corresponding in size with magazines like The American or Cosmopolitan.
After each assembly I0 passes beneath the pressure belt 62 and its associated rollers 1|, 12, 13, there is a partial return to the original configuration, generally shown at the left-hand portion of Fig. 5. However, each assembly has been forced somewhat beyond its yield point so that there is not a complete recovery. The resultant books are substantially free of the bias or forces which caused them to close; and the reading matter adjacent (and formerly within) the crevice Illc is fully visible.
In addition to the forces of the compression springs 1'|-19, a part of the pressure applied to the assemblies may be due to a gravity bias derived from the weight of the roller-supporting frame 85, consisting of steel bars welded together in open rectangular shape, and pivoted at one end on shaft 65.
As the assemblies are carried beneath the pressure rollers, they exert a lifting effort upon frame 85, though generally of insufcient magnitude actually to move it. To change the an` gular position of the frame and thereby vary the pressure to be applied to the assemblies by belt 62, a stop screw 6| threaded in an extension of crank arm 8f3-90, and bearing against a support, may be adjusted.
In an end of extension 85a of the roller-sup- 75 porting frame there is pivotally secured at 86, one end of a threaded rod 81, the opposite end thereof being pivoted at 88 to a crank arm 89 pivotally carried by shaft 33. A handle 99, integral with arm 89, when moved in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. l, exerts through the rod or link 87 a lifting force upon the frame 85 and rotates it in a clockwise direction about its pivotal support 65.
In an end of a second frame extension 851) a rod 92 supports an encircling compression spring 93 which biases the frame 85 in a coun terclockwise direction about shaft 65. The spring 93 may be omitted in those embodiments of my invention where the weight of the frame 85 and associated parts is amply sufficient to fix the positions of the pressure rollers 1|, "l2, 'I3 and the belt 62.
Afterthe smashing or flattening of the assemblies between belts I9 and 82, they are individually discharged from the right-most portion of the conveyor belt i8 upon two guide plates 95 and 96, which may be separate from, or integral with, supporting plate 29; and which are provided with an opening therebetween, through which the assemblies may fall. Since the back of each assembly first descends through the opening, the guide plates act upon the opposite sides of the assembly to close it. In Fig. l0 the assembly I9 is illustrated after initiation of the aforesaid closing action. As the assemblies drop through the opening between plates 95 and 9S, a guiding apron 9? by gravity conveys the closed books to, and deposits them upon, a conveyor 98 arranged to transport them to a receiving platform, trucks, conveyor, or, if desired, to a trimming machine.
During adjustment of the book-Smasher to accommodate assemblies of a given size, o-r due to accident in normal operation, an assembly may strike an obstruction, lose its correct position on the conveyer belt I9, or in other ways produce a jam. rIhe assembly or assemblies causing the diiculty may be quickly and easily removed, as will now be explained. If the jam occurs between the plates I2 and I3, a nut 99, Fig. 2, may be slightly loosened to permit a rod |09 to be rotated about its pivot IIlI to disconnect the plate I2 from the plate I3. The lefthand end of plate I3 may then be rotated in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 2, about a pivotal roller |82 (by screws |93 secured to plate I3) carried by pin |94 and bracket |85. The roller |92 extends through an opening in plate 29, the wall thereof providing additional pivotal support for the roller. Upon removal of the offending assembly, the plate I3 and the rod |99 may be returned to their original positions. The rod |90, slidable through support IIII, by means of a spring |96, permits to some degree the aforesaid pivotal motion of plate I3 under the abnormal conditions of a jam and avoids possibility of damage to, as by deformation of, the guide plates I2 and I3. The rod |08 also serves to retain the left end of plate I3 in an elevated position so that the lugs 35 are free to move beenath it. A bracket |9'I, secured to plate I2, retains it in the slightly elevated position illustrated.
In the event a jam occurs With assemblies beneath the pressure belt 82, it is only necessary to grasp operating handle 99 and rotate it in a clockwise direction about its pivotal support, shaft 33, which movement, by means of arm 89 and the adjustable thrust rod 8l', elevates the drum 61, belt 62, and the pressure rollers. It is to be observed that as the pivotal connection 88 between rod 8l and the arm 89 is moved beyond an imaginary line connecting the centers of shaft 33 and the pivotal connection 86, the gravity bias and the bias of compression spring 93 as applied to handle 90 is reversed. They then tend to move the handle in a clockwise direction. Its limit of movement in the clockwise direction is fixed, Fig. 3, as it strikes the frame 26. While the pressure applying device is thus elevated and biased in its elevated positien, the jam may be readily and easily cleared by removal of the offending assembly or assemblies.
To return the machine to operative position, the handle 98 is rotated in a counterclockwise direction until the parts assume the positions shown in the drawings.
While I have shown a particular embodiment of my invention, it will be understood that I do not limit myself thereto, since many modications may be made, and I, therefore, contemplate by the appended claims to cover any such modications as fall within the spirit and scope of my invention.
What I claim is:
l. In combination, a pair 0i vertically disposed guide plates, means for periodically delivering bound assemblies of leaves or signaturesI be-v tween said plates, a conveyer below said plates for supporting the assemblies with their backs flat against said conveyer, assembly-opening means including a piercing head disposed between said plates ior progressively opening said assemblies, each of said plates in the direction of travel of said conveyer being flared outwardly and downwardly from each other to support each assembly as it is opened, an endless belt ,disposed ab-ove and generally parallel to said conveyer, and means for applying through said endless belt a gradually increasing pressure upon the opened assemblies moving below it to impart to them the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint.
2. A book-smasher comprising a pair of vertically disposed guide plates for receiving bound assemblies of leaves or signatures therebetween, a conveyer below said guide plates for moving the assemblies along a predetermined path, a piercing head having guide members extending downwardly toward said conveyer for opening the assemblies, an endless belt supported above said conveyor, and resiliently mounted pressureapplying rollers associated with said endless belt for applying a force of assembly-smashing magnitude.
3. In a book-Smasher, the combination of an endless belt, resiliently mounted pressure rollers engaging a portion of said belt to maintain it in predetermined position, drums disposed on opposite sides of said rollers for supporting said belt, and means for pivotally supporting one of said drums and said rollers about the axis of the other of said drums.
4. In a book-Smasher, the combination of a frame, a pair of drums spaced one from the other and carried by said frame, an endless belt supported on said drums, means pivotally supporting said frame for movement about the axis of o-ne of said drums, and means connected to said frame adjacent the otherof said drums for elevating and lowering said frame, and resiliently mounted pressure rollers intermediate said drums for maintaining a portion of said belt in predetermined position, and means for moving previously opened, bound assemblies of leaves and signatures beneath said pressure rollers for successive application of pressure upon said opened assemblies.
5. In a book-Smasher, the combination of a pair of guide plates for supporting a bound assembly of leaves and signatures in vertical position with the back thereof at the bottom of said plates, a conveyer for driving said assemblies along and between said plates, means disposed between said plates for opening said assemblies comprising a piercing head having a knife edge for piercing the assemblies adjacent the central portions thereof, and means extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge gradually and progressively to move the leaves of the assemblies outwardly and downwardly as said conveyer moves said assemblies farther and farther between said plates and toward said last-named means.
6. In a book-Smasher, the combination of means including a conveyer for supporting bound assemblies of leaves and signatures in vertical positions with the backs thereof flat upon the conveyer and for moving themalong a predetermined path, means disposed in the path of said assemblies for opening them comprising a piercing head having a knife-edge disposed to enter between adjacent leaves of the assemblies near their central portions and edgewise thereof,
means extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge gradually and progressively to move the divided portions of each assembly outwardly and downwardly as said conveyer moves them along said predetermined path, and means disposed astride the opened assemblies for applying to them, from one side toward the opposite side thereof and directly above the back thereof, a pressure of magnitude to impart to each assembly the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint.
'7. In a book-Smasher, the combination of means including a conveyer for supporting bound assemblies of leaves and signatures in Vertical positions with the backs thereof flat upon the conveyer and for moving them along a predetermined path, means disposed in the path of said assemblies for opening them comprising a piercing head having a knife-edge disposed to enter between adjacent leaves of the assemblies near their central portions and edgewise thereof, means extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge gradually and progressively to move the divided portions of each assembly outwardly and downwardly as said conveyer moves them along said predetermined path, and means disposed astride the opened assemblies for applying to them, from one side toward the opposite side thereof and directly above the back thereof, a pressure of magnitude to impart to each assembly the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint, and means for automatically closing said assemblies after said application of said pressure.
8. A book-Smasher comprising a pair of guide plates for supporting bound assemblies of leaves and signatures in vertical position with the backs thereof at the bottom of said plates, a conveyer for driving saidv assemblies between said plates, means disposed between said plates for opening the assemblies comprising a piercing head having a knife-edge for piercing each assembly adjacent the central portion and edgewise thereof, guide members extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge gradually and progressively to move th'e leaves of each assembly outwardly and downwardly to a fully opened position as said conveyer moves each assembly along said plates, one of said guiding members being longer than the others and disposed to nest within. the crevice between the open leaves and adjacent the back of each assembly, and means for applying to each assembly, with an ironing action from one end of the book to the other, a pressure of magnitude to impart to each assembly the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint.
9. In an apparatus for assembling books, the
combination of a pair of guide plates for supporting bound assemblies of leaves and signatures in vertical position with the backs thereof at the bottom of said plates, a conveyer for driving said assemblies along and between said plates, means disposed between said plates for opening the assemblies comprising a piercing head having a knife-edge for piercing each assembly adjacent the central portion and edgewise thereof, guide members extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge gradually and progressively each assembly the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising an endless belt supported directly above the opened assemblies upon said conveyer, convex pressure rollers engaging said endless belt resiliently to maintain a part of said belt nearer to said conveyer than the portions disposed on opposite sides thereof and the lowermost portions of said convex rollers disposed in longitudi nal alignment with said longest guiding members,
and arranged slightly to nest within the longitudinal crevice of each assembly, thereby to insure that maximum pressure is applied to the center of each assembly.
10. Apparatus for imparting in succession to bound assemblies of leaves or signatures the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising a conveyer for moving a succession of assemblies along a predetermined path, a piercing device disposed in said path of said assemblies for moving divided portions of each assembly to open position, means engaging said divided portions to restrain them in open position, and pressure-applying means moving at substantially the speed of said conveyer for applying pressure to said divided portions of each assembly to reduce restraint of the binding upon the leaves or signatures thereof.
11. Apparatus for imparting in succession to bound assemblies of leaves or signatures the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising a conveyer for mov ing a succession of assemblies along a predetermined path, a piercing device disposed in path of said assemblies for moving divided portions of each assembly to open position, means engaging said divided portions to restrain them in open position, and a pressure-applying belt moving at substantially the speed of said conveyer for applying pressure to said divided portions of each assembly to reduce restraint of the binding upon the leaves or signatures thereof, and means receiving said assemblies after passage between said conveyer and said pressure belt for reclosing each assembly.
12. Apparatus for imparting to bound assemblies of leaves or signatures the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising a conveyer for continuously moving the bound assemblies along a predetermined path, a piercing device having a knife-edge disposed in said path and arranged for edgewise engagement between adjacent leaves and including means for spreading the divided portions of each assembly to open position, said means eX- tending along said path and bearing against said divided portions to restrain them in open position, and an endless belt disposed adjacent said spreader elements and resiliently biased against the open assemblies on said conveyer for the applicatio-n of pressure tothe divided portions of each assembly to reduce restraint of the binding upon the leaves or signatures thereof, and mea-ns for driving said belt at substantially the same linear speed as said conveyer.
13. Apparatus for imparting to bound assemblies of leaves or signatures the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising means for positively driving a succession of bound assemblies along a predetermined path, a piercing device, disposed in said path, having a knife-edge presented for entry between adjacent leaves o; each assembly and including elements extending outwardly and downwardly from said knife-edge progressively to move the divided portions of each assembly to open position, said elements disposed along said path for engaging said divided portions to restrain them in said open position, an endless pressure belt having one portion thereof disposed for movement along a path generally parallel with said conveyer, means including resiliently mounted rollers bearing against said belt to bias it downwardly for the application of pressure to the divided portions of each assembly to reduce restraint of the binding upon the leaves or signatures thereof, and means operable after said application of pressure for reclosing each assembly.
14. Apparatus for imparting to bound assemblies of leaves or signatures the characteristic of remaining open without externally applied restraint comprising a conveyer movable along a predetermined path, means for restraining in open position on said conveyer a succession of said assemblies, a support for rigidly supporting said conveyer along at least part of its path, an endless belt rotatably mounted above said rigidly supported portion of said conveyer, means for driving said belt vat substantially the same linear speed of said conveyer, and resilient means engaging said belt for applying to the divided portions of each assembly passing beneath it a pressure of magnitude suicient to reduce restraint of the binding upon the leaves or signatures thereof.
nAaRY vv. FAEBER,