US 2170534 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 1939. A, MacNUTT COVERING MATERIAL Filed Dec.
2 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY Aug. 22, 1939. MacNUTT COVERING MATERIAL Filed Dec. 2, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f 6 W m 0 1 mm V W 7 m0 7 W n. m R 7 5 D ./.8 6 9 r0 7 2 K /9 T r 9 6 B Z a Au Wm 9 2 4 /z I 2 m E BY MM?! 6W1 ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 22 1939 UNITED STATES COVERING MATERIAL Arthur Dawes MacNutt, Kenmore, N. Y., assignor to Certain-Teed Products Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Application December 2, 1937, Serial No. 177,664
This invention relates to covering materials and especially to covering elements which are laid in courses in overlapping arrangement. The invention particularly relates to covering elements intended to be exposed to the weather and simulating wood shingles.
The production of covering elements or shingles intended to be laid in courses of composite form, such as asphalt slate surfaced felt base shingles, with a texture and surface appearance simulating the grain of wood shingles or other surface characteristics has been proposed heretofore in various ways. The grain of wood shingles, for example, has been simulated by forming indentations in the asphalt coating which is applied upon the felt base and to which coating the layer of slate surfacing adheres, these indentations being formed in some cases by pressing the granular material into the asphalt coating. Such indentations have been formed in more or less irregular outline to simulate the irregular outline of wood gram.
It has also been proposed to accomplish the simulation of wood grain in shingles carrying upon a saturated felt base a coating of asphalt surfaced with granular mineral material by applying to such a slate surfaced element stripes of asphalt coating extending transversely of the butt edge of the shingle toward the rear edge thereof and spaced apart so that the simulation of the grain of wood is accomplished. Such stripes have been surfaced with granular material of contrasting character to that upon the first asphalt coating, this contrast emphasizing the grain character of the simulated wood surface.
An effect which is much sought after in the roofing art is that of securing the appearance of a thick butt with covering elements of ordinary thickness. For example, with roofing elements made with a saturated felt base which is asphalt coated and mineral surfaced a stripe or marginal portion of dark appearance has been secured by .the application of black or dark colored slate or granular material to these marginal portions. This not only gives the appearance of extra thickness but also may be so applied as to emphasize the shadow which one shingle element throws upon the element in the course beneath which it overlaps. It also has been proposed to secure these effects by applying a stripe of dark colored material, such as black or dark colored slate, to the subjacent shingle. This dark colored stripe or area has been applied'upon the upper part of the subjacent shingle in. such a way that a portion thereof is exposed below the butt edge of the overlying shingle. In such shingles or covering elements of the prior art this dark stripe or area, and particularly the exposed portion thereof, have been continuous in the coursewise direction.
While such means for producing the shadow effect and the effect of the thick butt for the overlying shingle have been effective in ordinary shingles, in those in which the simulation of the grain of the wood is embodied this eifect of shadow and of thickness heretofore has not been accomplished. No suggestion has been made as to how to provide the shadow area while maintaining the grain simulation. The present invention has for an object the securing of the desired shadow effect in such grain simulating shingles, as well as the emphasis of the thickness of the butt of the overlying shingle, while securing certain other advantages. Particularly in shingles in which the grain of the wood is simulated by stripes which extend transversely of the butt edge of the shingle, that is transversely of the coursewise dimension of the elements, the invention purposes to secure these effects while at the same time securing the deeper contrast between the stripes and the spaces or stripe therebetween which together simulate the grain of the wood. The invention further purposes to secure in an assembly of shingles laid in courses the effect of shingles which have not only a relatively thick butt but are made with their butt edges irregular or roughened or even of serrated outline. This effect also may be enhanced by the particular form of the shingle cooperating with the means of creating the shadow eifect.
The invention broadly concerns the formation upon the face of the covering element or shingle of lines or stripes or bands extending transversely of the butt edge and in spaced relation to each other. Preferably, for the purposes of the invention, these lines or stripes or bands are raised above the general level of the surface of the shingle or element, although in some cases they may be formed by indentation, and together with the stripes or the portions of the face area therebetween produce the simulation of the grain of the wood of wood shingles. In some cases also these stripes and the spaces therebetween, whether these be depressed or raised relative to each other, may simulate other surface textures such as ribbing upon tiles of ceramic materials or the channelling or depression of certain slates.
The feature of the invention which enables the shadow effect to be secured as well as the eflfect of increased thickness of the overlying shingle,
is the formation of the surface of the element in such a way and with such material that between the grain simulating stripes or lines and along a band or area which is adjacent the line at which the butt edge of the overlapping shingle will be positioned in the assembly of shingles upon a structure, areas of dark appearance are formed. These dark areas then substantially constitute an interrupted or discontinuous band, said areas being interspersed with the alternate stripes which extend transversely of the butt edge of'the shingle. These dark areas between said transverse stripes which thus constitute an interrupted band extending coursewise of the element or shingle may be made of such width in the direction transverse to the butt edge, that is lengthwise of the grain simulating stripes or lines, as to provide a substantial deepening of the shadow effect while at the same time substantially affecting the appearance of the butt edge of the overlying shingle. By making this width of the interrupted or discontinuous band sufiiciently great, the effect of a substantial increase in the thickness of the butt edge of the overlying shingle may be secured.
While this interrupted shadow band of the invention accomplishes effects similar to those which heretofore have been obtained in the art, it accomplishes afurther result, namely, that the butt edge of the overlying shingle will be given thereby an irregular or roughened or serrated appearance. This result is obtained by the cooperation of the individual dark areas which appear between the grain simulating lines or stripes with the butt edge surface of the overlying single or with this butt edge surface and a marginal stripe at said butt edge of said overlying shingle, if this is desired.
Not only is the shadow effect deepened as well as the thickness of the butt of the overlying shingle enhanced,'but these spaced shadow areas have the effect of deepening the simulated grain of the wood. Moreover, they emphasize the contrast between the spaced lines or stripes and the areas therebetween at that portion of the shingle which is in the shadow of the overlying shingle and therefore requires that this contrast be emphasized.
Another feature of the invention provides that the stripes or lines which extend transversely to the butt of the element or shingle do not extend to meet the butt edge of the shingle or element. By spacing the ends of these stripes or lines from the butt edge of the element or shingle the contrast and particillarly the effect of irregu-' laritywill be emphasized because the shadow areas of the interrupted band will be spaced from the ends of the grain simulating stripes of the overlying element by .the amount of the set-back of the ends of these lines or stripes from the butt edge of said overlying element.
Moreover, this contrast and effect of irregularity will be further emphasized by the fact that the overlying element or shingle, preferably having the stripes of irregular width and of irregular spacing, will have the lower ends of these grain simulating stripes spaced irregularly in the coursewise direction with respect to the spaced areas of the interrupted shadow band on the underlying shingle. It will be apparent, therefore, that in addition to the combination in a covering element or shingle of the interrupted or discontinuous band having its areas alternating with the grain simulating stripes, this interrupted shadow band being placed upon the secure the effect of irregularity of the butt edge formation while maintaining the shadow and thick butt effects.-
The invention will be further described in connection with the drawings in which Figure 1 shows a face view of an element embodying the invention.
Figure 2 is a cross-section on line 22 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a cross-section on line 3-3 of the element of Fig. 1.
Figure 4 shows in section a modified form of the invention.
Figure 5 shows another modification of the invention. 3
Figure 6 shows an assembly of the elements of Figure 1.
Figure 1 shows a shingle strip l of common form having tabs with cut-outs therebetween. This strip is made with a base 3, Figure 2, which may be of felt impregnated with asphalt. Upon the face of the base 3 a coating 5 of asphalt may be applied to bind thereto a surfacing layer 1 of granular material such as slate. This surfacing layer 1 in the particular embodiment being described may extend upon the lower portions of the tabs 8 of the shingle strip and as well upon the upper portion of .the strip which is to be mon practice, in laying shingle strips of this type, to lay the lower edge of the tab 8 substantially matching with the inner ends of the cut- .outs 9 of the subjacent shingle, a portion of the surfacing it will be overlapped by the tabs 8 but a substantial portion 'of the surfacing II will be left exposed below the lower edge of the tabs 8. The layer H constitutes the discontinuous band above referred to.
In the particular embodiment illustrated a relatively sharp demarcation is shown between the surfacing II and the surfacing 1, the surfacing ll being of considerably darker appearance than the surfacing 1 applied to the lower portions of the tabs 8. If desired, however, this demarcation along the line l3 may be modified so as to shade or vignette the surfacing H into the surfacing I thus to secure a gradual shading from the area occupied by the surfacing H toward the lower or butt edge of the tabs 8. Preferably, however, this shading will not extend to the lower edge and a substantial area of the tabs 8 will be maintained with the appearance of the surfacing I. The purpose of this shading is to secure, in some cases, the effect which is produced by a shadow falling on a relatively rough surface. Also, as the edge of a'rather thick wood shingle, for example, of rough finish on the face and upon the end edge thereof would throw a I shadow of less distinct demarcation than a sharply trimmed butt edge throwing a shadow upon a smooth surfaced shingle, the shading of the surfacing II may simulate such an appearance.
The upper edge l of the surfacing II may be sharply demarked from the surfacing I upon the upper portion of the shingle because this edge or line I5 normally is covered by the overlying shingle of a 'superjacent course. In some cases also the surfacing I I may extend from the line I3, or from a vignetted area adjacent the line I3, rearwardly of the shingle over a considerable portion of the upper part thereof toward or to the rear edge thereof. When it is .desired, however, that the color of the underlying shingle which will appear through the cut-outs of the overlying shingle shall be the same as that of the surfacing I on the tabs 8 then the upper portion of the shingle strip may be surfaced with the surfacing I of the same color or character as that upon the tabs I as shown in Figure 1. The shingle strip as thus far described in the particular embodiment illustrated, therefore, would have three bands of surfacing, the center band'being of contrasting appearance and preferably considerably darker than the appearance of the other two bands.
As the invention particularly relates to the securing in elements or shingle strips simulating wood shingle of shadow effects and of the effects of irregularity of the butt edge and also to the deepening of the simulated grain of wood shingles, the invention provides for the simulation of the grain of the wood by stripes formed upon the face of the shingle which is to be exposed. As shown in Figure 1 the stripes 20 extend in generally parallel relation in the direction from the lower or butt edge of the element or shingle strip toward the rear edge thereof, that is transversely of the coursewise dimension of the element. These stripes are preferably spaced apart by areas of the surfacing I and of the shadow effect area I I.
The width of the stripes and of the areas of the surfacings 'I and I I exposed therebetween are so chosen that when the shingle is assembled with other shingles in the overlapping arrangement upon the roof and taking into account the distance at which such shingles are viewed, the simulation of the grain of wood is secured. The width of such stripes 20, for example, may be from r, or in width and portions thereof may be 1" to 2 wide. When, as shown upon the tabs of the shingle in Figure 1, a crossing of the grain as in wood occurs portions of the two stripes may meet and produce a width of the combined stripes which may be in some cases 3: or greater. In the development of elements or shingles carrying the simulation of grain as proposed heretofore, it has been found that because of the fact that the elements are viewed from a distance these relatively large dimensions, producing when viewed closely an apparently coarse effect, are desirable for the proper grain effect in an assembly of elements upon a roof or wall. correspondingly, as described above, the shadow area extending between lines l3 and I5 and provided by the surfacing Il may be of relatively considerable depth and may extend, for example, to a point about a third to one-half of the length of the cut-out from the inner end thereof.
In the particular embodiment illustrated in the drawings the stripes 20 are formed of granular material bound by an asphalt overlay coating 22 upon the surfacing materials 'I and II. In order to apply the asphalt upon the surfacing materials I and II a printing cylinder or block may be used carrying printing surfaces of the form of the stripes in the spaced arrangement illustrated. After the asphalt has been printed over the previously surfaced element the surfacing 20, which may be of contrasting color or appearance and in some cases of different shade from that of the surfacing 'I, may be applied to the asphalt coating 22. It will be noted that the coating 22 and the surfacing 20 thereon extend in the particular embodiment illustrated to the line I5 of the surfacing II and overlie the band of surfacing II, producing shadow areas 26 between the stripes 20. There thus will be formed by the areas 26 a discontinuous band in which the disconnected areas 26 are separated by the stripes 20. The stripes 20, as they extend in the particular embodiment illustrated in Figure 1 to the line I5 above the inner ends of the cut-outs 9, will have their upper portions covered by the lower or butt edge of the overlying shingle. The effect thus secured will be that corresponding to the effect secured in wood shingles because of the grain upon the face of the shingle extending to and under the butt edge of the overlying wood shingle.
It will be noted from Figure 1 that the lower ends 24 of the stripes 20 terminate inwardly of or above the lower or butt edge of the tabs 8. Thus a portion of the surfacing I may appear between the lower ends 24 of the stripes 20 and the lower ends of the tabs 8. Because of the irregular spacing of the stripes 20 in the coursewise direction and of their irregular width this set-back of the lower end 24 of the stripes 20 upon the individual I from the butt edge, and having the shadow areas 26 therebetween are assembled in overlying arrangement in courses with the lower edge of the shingle or the tabs thereof positiond upon the shadow area band of the subjacent course, these two features of the shingle of the invention act together to enhance the effect of an irregular edge upon the overlying shingle. Differences in the color between stripes 20 and the background area I, as well as between these areas and the shadow areas 26 may increase the effect of irregularity while maintaining the shadow effect which has been described. The eye is impressed by the lack of continuity of the same color area and by the contrasts which exist between the irregularly placed but contiguous or adjacent areas and stripes. Thus, particularly in view of the relatively great width between the lines I3 and I5 of the band of surfacing II, a considerable depth of shadow may be obtained and the irregular effect of the butt or lower edge of the overlying shingle also is secured by the combination of the discontinuous band II and the set-back of the edges 24 of the stripes 20 from the lower edge of the tabs 8.
While in the particular embodiment described in the drawings the surfacing II is applied to the same coating 5 as is the surfacing I in some cases this surfacing II may be applied upon an overlay coating 30 to bind the surfacing II to the surfacing l which in such case may extend fully over the coating upon the base 3 as illustrated in Figure 4. In such case where the stripes 2b are bound upon an overlay coating 22 this overlay coating preferably will extend over the surfacing ll and, therefore, will leave exposed between the stripes 20 areas 26 in the manner described in connection with Figure 1.
In some cases, however, the invention may be carried out by-applying the overlay coatings 22 directly upon the surfacing l adhering to the asphalt coating 5 upon the base 3 and surfacing the overlay coatings 22 with the surfacing 2d and then, in order to secure the desired contrast of the areas 26 with the upper portions of the stripes 20, these areas may also be printed on with asphalt between the stripes 2d, the surfacing material l l thereafter being applied to these printed areas and being prevented from adhering to the areas occupied by the stripes 20 because of the surfacing material thereon. Figure 5 shows a section corresponding to that of Figure 2 but in which the surfacing H adheres to a coating 32 which has been applied to the surfacing l inhetween the overlays 22 which carry the surfacings 20. 4
As has been mentioned above, the depth of the grain of the. wood of wood shingles is emphasized by the presence of the areas 26 produced between the grain simulating stripes 20. In addition to the advantage obtained by carrying the lower edge E3 of the area ii, that is of the areas 26, a substantial distance below the inner end of cutout 9, thereby to emphasize the shadow effect, the sharp contrast between the surfacing upon the stripes 20 and the areas 26 acts in an area which is actually or is simulated to be in shadow and thereby tends to deepen the grain appearance. The effect of this deepening of the grain tends to be carried by the eye along the grain simulating stripes and, especially where the shading or vignette of the surfacing ll into the surfacing l is utilized, this deepening effect is accomplished upon a large part of the face area of the element.
Other modifications of the invention without departing from the spirit thereof may be made. The contrast which is desired between the shadow bands I i formed by the areas 26, for example, may be secured by leaving the asphalt coating 30 exposed without surfacing between the stripes 20 which overlie the area H as well as the area I.
A further modification may be made by printing the asphalt coating 22 only upon the portion of the tab surface, that is the surfacing I, andso as to abut the coating 30, ami then printing the surfacing material 20 upon this overlay stripe of asphalt 22 and extending upon the coating 30 adhering to the surfacing I. The'set-back, also, of the ends 24 of the stripes 20 may be varied so that the more or less uniform set-back, as shown in the drawings, may be modified to secure an en'- hanced irregular appearance when these ends gated areas extending transversely of the coursewise edge of the element and spaced apart in said coursewise direction, said element having in the portion of said face which will lie adjacent the edge of an overlying element in a superjacent course a discontinuous bandcomprising a plurality of areas spaced in the coursewise direction and separated by said elongated areas, said areas of said discontinuous band being so formed as to darken the appearance of said portion of the face of the element to produce a shadow efiect and to deepen the contrast with said elongated areas between which they are formed.
2. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement comprising stripes of surfacing materal bound upon a base, said stripes extending generally transversely of the coursewise edge of said element and spacedapartinthecoursewise direction and contrasting with the areas between said stripes to simulate the grain of wood, the portions of said areas which in the overlapping arrangement of the element in courses will lie exposed but adjacent to the coursewise edge of the overlapping element being surfaced to provide a darker appearance than the remaining portions of said areas so as to form a discontinuous stripe extending in the coursewise direction producing the effect of a shadow on the subjacent shingle adjacent said overlying shingle.
3. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement having upon the portion of the face to be exposed thereof which will lie adjacent the exposed coursewise edge of an overlying element a series of areas arranged in spaced relation in the coursewise direction to form a coursewise extending discontinuous band, and stripes formed upon the face of the element and extending transversely of the coursewise direction across at least a part of said discontinuous band and interspersed with said spaced areas thereof, said transversely extending stripes being of such outline and width and at such spacing as to povide a simulation of the grain of wood.
4. A roofing element comprising a flexible base having bound thereon by an adhesive coating a granular surfacing material, said granular surfacing material upon the face of said element to be exposed in an assembly of said elements in overlapping arrangement in courses being applied to form stripes extending generally transversely of the coursewise dimension of said element interspersed with contrasting stripes and of such outline as to simulate th grain of wood shingles, the portions of some of said stripes upon the area of said element which will lie adjacent to the lower edge of an overlying element in said assembly being of darkly contrasting character with respect to the general appearance of said face of the element provided by the stripes, said darkly contrasting interspersed areas forming a discontinuous darkly contrasting coursewise band spaced from the lower edge of said element and positioned thereon to extend along the lower edge of the overlying element in said assembly.
5. A roofing element comprising a felt base saturated with asphalt and having a coating of asphalt thereon binding to said base a surfacing of granular material of given color upon the portion of said element to be exposed, said surfacing of granular material alternating with the surfacing of granular material of contrasting character to form stripes of said two materials extending generally parallel and generally in the direction transverse to the coursewise edge of said element, alternate stripes separated by stripes of the contrasting color having the portions thereof which will lie adjacent the lower edge of an overlying element in an assembly of elements in overlapping arrangement in courses surfaced with granular material of such dark color as to contrast deeply with both of said surfacing materials which form said stripes thereby to form a band extending in the coursewise direction of said element and comprising spaced areas of said dark appearing surfacing material.
6. A roofing element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement comprising a felt base saturated with asphalt and having an asphalt coating upon a face thereof binding to said face a surfacing of granular material of given color,
stripes of granular surfacing material of contrasting color bound upon said first granular surfacing by a second coating of asphalt and leaving stripes of said first granular surfacing material exposed between said stripes of contrasting color, said stripes extending generally transversely of the coursewise dimension and being of irregular spacing and outline, the portion of said element which in such an assembly will lie adjacent but exposed beneath the lower edge of the overlying element being formed of disconnected areas of granular surfacing material of darker appearance than either of said two granular surfacing materials of said stripes to form a discontinuous band extending-in the coursewise direction upon said portion of said element, said disconnected darker areas lying between the upper portions of the stripes of said second surfacing material.
7. A roofing element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement comprising a base having thereon a coating of asphalt binding thereto a surfacing of granular material upon a major portion of the part of the element which is to be exposed in an assembly of elements in the overlapping courses, said element having upon the upper portion of said part of the element to be exposed and in position to beexposed beneath the lower edge of an overlying element in said assembly a band of granular material adhering to said coating and being of dark appearance with respect to said first mentioned surfacing material, said element having extending transversely of the coursewise dimension thereof and in spaced relation in said coursewise direction overlay stripes of asphalt adhering to said two surfacing materials and binding thereto a third surfacing material contrasting with said first two surfacing materials, said overlay stripes of asphalt and their surfacing material being so spaced as to form contrasting stripes therebetween of said first granular material and being of such dimension in the coursewise direction and being so spaced in said direction as to produce the simulation of the grain of wood shingles, whereby the band of said second surfac'ing material becomes discontinuous and comprises the areas between said overlay stripes to produce an irregular shadow efiect upon said element.
' 8. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement having demarked upon the face thereofto be exposed a plurality of elongated areas extending transversely of the coursewise edge of the element and spaced apart in said coursewise direction, the spaces between said elongated areas being of similar but for the most part unequal dimension to that of the widths of the elongated areas thus to simulate corrugations in tiles or graining in shingles, said element having in the portion of said face which will lie adi'acent to an overlying element in a superjacent course a discontinuous band comprising a plurality of areas spaced in the coursewise direction and separated by said elongated areas, said areas of said discontinuous band being so formed as to darken the appearance of said portion of the face of the element relatively to the bottom portion of said face to produce a shadow effect and to deepen the contrast of the spaces with said elongated areas between whichthey are formed.
9. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement comprising a grit surfaced base sheet providing a general background surface, and a plurality of grit surfaced stripes formed as overlays on said grit surfaced base and extending generally trans-, versely of the coursewise dimension of the element, said stripes being of varying width lengthwise thereof and of irregular widths and spacings and having a substantially greater average width than the grain, of Wood shingles, said stripes terminating adjacent but inwardly from the exposed coursewise edge of the element, whereby to simulate an irregular butt edge of a wood shingle.
10. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement having demarked upon the face thereof to be exposed a plurality of elongated areas extending transversely of the coursewise edge of the element and spaced apart in said coursewise direction, said areas being of irregular spacing and outline to simulate the grain of wood shingles, said areas terminating adjacentbut at a point inwardly from the exposed coursewise edge of the element, whereby the simulation of an irregular butt edge of the wood shingle is obtained, said element having upon the portion of said face to be exposed which will lie adjacent the exposed edge of an overlying element in a superjacent course a discontinuous band formed of a plurality of areas spaced in the coursewise direction and separated by wood grain simulating areas and being so formed as to darken the appearance of said portion of said face so as to produce a shadow effect and to cooperate with the elongated areas which terminate inwardly of the coursewise edge of the overlying element to enhance the simulation of' the irregular butt edge of a wood shingle.
11. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement comprising a grit surfaced base sheet providing a general background surface, a plurality of grit surfaced overlay stripes extending generally transversely of the coursewise dimension of the element and being of contrasting appearance with respect to said background surface, said stripes being of irregular width and of irregular spacing in said coursewise direction and terminating adjacent but at a point inwardly from the butt edge of the element, the spaces between said stripes being darker in their upper parts than in their lower ends.
12. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement having demarked upon the portion of the face to be exposed thereof and spaced from the coursewise edge thereof tion of the exposed face of the element upon a; awasea which said discontinuous band is formed relative to the lower portion thereof to produce upon said element the efiect of the shadow of the overlying element.
13. A covering element for laying in courses in overlapping arrangement with similar elements having demarked upon the portion of the face thereof to be exposed a plurality of stripes, said stripes extending generally transversely of 10 the coursewise direction and being of irregular outline and width and being irregularly spaced in said coursewise direction, the spaces between said stripes upon the upper part of said portion of said face to be exposed being darker in color than the remainder of said spaces, so as to form a discontinuous band comprising a plurality of dark areas spaced in the coursewise direction between said stripes.