US 2171499 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 29, 1939.
M. BUSI DRY-CLEANING MACHINE Filed Sept. 21, 1931 INVENTOR MW 7 @mm3 ATTORNEY Patentes Aug. 29, 1939 i PATENT oFFicE nar-CLEANING MACHINE Mario Busi, New York, N. Y., assignor to The Silver Globe Corp., New York, N. yY., a corporation of New York- Application september zi, 1931, serial No. 564,065
' s claims. (ci. ca -25) This invention relates in general to machines of the type inwhich garments and other articles of wearing apparel are treated to restore them to substantially their original condition by removing dirt, grime, grease and other soiling matters.
'I'he processes used in connection with the type of machines mentioned are divisible into two classes, viz., washing processes and dry-cleaning processes. The washing processes are characterized by the use of soap or other detergent dissolved or suspended in water as the cleaning agent; QWhereas, inthe. dry-cleaning processes,
substantially no water 'is used, the cleaning agent l5 being an organic solvent in which the usual soiling matters have a high degree of solubility.
The dry-cleaning processes were at irst `carried out in the machines especially designed for the washing processes. Since the dry-cleaning agents, generally called fluids, are all highly "volatile, some of them giving inflammable vapors Y and all of them giving ofivapors of very bad odor which rapidly undermine the health of the workers -in contact with them, it was found necessary to construct machines in which the processes. could be carried out without any oi! the vapor of the cleaning fluid getting out into the atmosphere.
The machines now available vconsist generally of an elongated perforated cylinder or drum mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis in a container which can be sealed so as to be vaporr tight. With these machines only a small amount of the cleaning iuid can be removed by rotating the horizontal cylinder at its maximum safe speed, hence in order to remove the cleaning iluid which. does not drain from the articles treated, a heating means such as a steam coil is provided capable of furnishing sufficient, heat todistill the residual .cleaning iluid directly from thearticles treated.
Since comparatively large quantities of the fluid must be removed by distillation, it has been found necessary, in order to carry out the process in a practical time interval, to employ relatively high temperatures, temperatures of 120 C. and upwards being not unusual with some of the fluids in common use. These high temperatures increase thie potential danger to life and property as a failure of the machine, or the pipes, etc.,
connected thereto, may cause the highly heated vapors to be injected into the atmosphere. Such excessive heat is, furthermore, injurious to ,the ilbres of the articles treated,v the effect being especially noticeable on synthetic fibres. When fluids containing chlorinated hydrocarbons are used, the use of excessive heat has the added disadvantage oi.' causing the iluid to react `with the moisture inherently present in the articles ltreated to form compounds, some of which are s highly destructive to the articles treated, and others of which are extremely dangerous to human life. The degree of heat used is also effective to permanently tix into the fibr of the articles treated such organic stains as contain 10 tannin. albumin, etc.,l which may have been missed in the pre-spotting that usually precedes the dry-cleaning. When so ilxed, these stains cannot be removed.
Because of their construction and design, and l5 the fact that they are in reality stills, machines of practicalcapacity are of excessive size and weight and are very expensive. Even a machine of relatively small capacity occupies an inordinate amount oi floor space. The shape of the 20 rotating drum and outside casing and the spacing between them required for housing the usual heating coils, furthermore, are such that a greater quantity ot cleaning iluid than is necessary must be used in order to ensure proper im- 25 mersion ot the articles treated.
This invention has for an object a machine of the type referred to which is adapted to all cleaning processes and is particularly adapted to dry-cleaning processes. The machine is vapor 30 tight and is so constructed and arranged that the entire dry-cleaning process may be carried out in it to the ilnal deodorization of the articles treated without the necessity oi removing ythe articles therefrom for treatment in other machines or using boiling temperature to remove 'the cleaning fluid.
` machine of simple, rugged and inexpensive construction which occupies a minimum of door 50 space -and which is so designed and arranged that the space between the outer container and the 1 inner container is reduced to a minimum, whereby the cleaning fluid required is also reduced to a minimum and substantially all oi it is in the 55 treated.
The particular nature of the invention `as well as other objects and advantages thereof will appear most clearly from a description of a preferred embodiment thereof as shown in perspective in the single figure of the drawing. For purposes of illustration the invention has been embodied in a machine which can be successfully used in connection with any type of cleaning process, but is especially adapted for use in dry cleaning.
Referring to the drawing: i
The outer container I of the machine is made up of an upper cylindrical portion 2 and a lower hemispherical portion 3. The contiguous edges of portions 2 and 3 are expanded into flanges 4 between which is interposed a gasket 5. Bolts 6 equally spaced around circumference of container I removably join portions 2 and 3. Legs 1 are fastened to the container I by means of bolts 8 to support it in its working position. Three legs are used in the machine illustrated. Means such as lag screws 9 may be used if desired to fasten lthe machine to the floor. The top of the container is made up of sections I6 and Il hinged together by hinges I2. Aring gasket I3 is placed connect the inside of container I through valved pipes, not shown, to a fluid supply and a vapor between the container and its top to Arender the machine vapor tight. A gasket I4 is also provided between top sections I0 and II for the same purpose. [Top section Il! is removably se.- cured to container I by bolts I5. Top section II serves as a door and is pressed against container I, in the closed position, by the pressure applying closing means I6 riveted to container I. Means I6 cooperates with an upstanding wedge I1 on door I I and is provided with a handle I8.
A cylindrical extension I9 at the bottom of container I includes a recessed boss 26 in the recess of which i'lts the bottom ball-racesupport of the thrust bearing 2|. y A pipe 22 is threaded into extension I9 and serves to connect -the inside of container I through valved pipes, not shown, to a fluid tank and an air supply means, also not shown. A pipe 23 is threaded into the cylindrical portion 2 of container I and serves to disposal means, also not shown.
Thrust bearing 2l supportsa shaft 24 which is fastened by nuts 25 to the lower U-shaped extension of ring 26. 'Ihe upper U-shaped extension of ring 26 is fastened by rivets 21 to the expanded lower end of hollow yshaft 28. Shaft 28 extends through a tapped opening in top section I0 and has a bevel gear 29 removably fixed to its upper end. The component parts of a packing gland 36 encircle shaft 28 and screw into the` tapped hole in top section I0 to bear against lthe packing material placed therebetween so as to prevent the passage of vapor into the atmosphere. I
Ring 26 is provided with a pair of diametrically oppositely disposed holes to serve as bearings for the short shafts 3l which are fixed to the perforated container 32 by means of round-headed nuts 33. The outer ends oi' shafts 3l are vexpanded, the bearings being correspondingly shaped, and spacing-washers 34 are provided thereonbetween ring 26 and container 32 to prevent lateral movement of container 32 along the aids of shafts 3|. For access to the inside of container 32, a trapezoidal doorway with which registers a like shaped door 35 is provided. Door 35 is hinged to the container 32 by hinges 36.
It will benoticed that the lower edge of door 35 has been somewhat cut away to allow it to be brought to the open position without interfering with the adjacent edge of container 32. A movable closure 31 fastens the door 35 in the closed position. Within the container 32 is fastened a plurality of arcuate shelves 38 by rivets 39 which pass through the wall of the container 32 and lugs 40 integral with the shelves. Shelves 38 are disposed in planes radiating from the axis of shafts 3|.
A ring gear 4I is fastened to container 32 by rivets 42 which pass through the wall of container 32 and lugs 43, integral with the ring gear 4I. A pinion 44.meshes with ring gear 4I and is fixed to a shaft 45 which is journaled in bosses 46 provided in the upper U-shaped extension of ring 26. A spacing-washer 41fixed to shaft 45 prevents lateral motion of shaft 45 and pinion 44 in one direction; motionin the other direction is prevented by the hub of. a bevel gear 48 which is pinned to shaft 45 and meshes with a bevel gear 49 pinned to the lower end of shaft 50. Shaft 56 passes through hollow shaft 28. To prevent vapors passing between shafts 28 and 50, shaft 28 is counter-sunk to form a seat for packing material and is threaded to accommodate a packing gland 5I which forces packing material against the seat and the periphery of shaft 50.
To the upper end of shaft 56 is removably xed a bevel gear 52 which meshes with a bevel gear 53 pinned to one end of short shaft 54. Shaft 54 is joumaled in one side'of U-shaped member 55 which is bolted to the top section I0. Bevel gear 53 and washer 56 prevent lateral motion of shaft 54. The other end of shaft 54 has pinned thereto one of the halves of a jaw-clutch 51, the other 62 pinned to the shaft of motor 63. Motor 63 is bolted to top section I0 of container I.
Gear 6I is pinned to a short shaft 64 which is journaled in member 55 below shaft 58. Gear 5I and washer 65 keep shaft 64 from lateral movement. Shaft 64 has splined thereto one of `the halves of a ljaw-clutch 66, the other half being pinned to short shaft 51 which is journaled in member 55 to be in line with shaft 64. A bevel gear 58 is pinned to the outside end of shaft 61 and meshes with bevel gear 29. Washer 69 and bevel gear 63 prevent lateral movement of shaft 61. Y'
A block 16 positioned beneath member 55 is bolted to top section I6 and has pivoted to it the lower end of lever 1I, the upper end of which extends through a 'U-shaped slot 12 cut in the top of member 55. Lever 1I lterminates in a knob 13. A forked member 14, whose tines fit in the circular groove 15, cut into the half of jaw-clutch 51 which is splined to shaft 54, is
pivoted to lever 1I. When lever II is positioned as in the drawing, shafts 54 and 58 are connected and the motor 63 will rotate container 32 aboutV When by manipulationv vof knob 13, lever 1I is carried to the other vend the axis of shafts 3I.
of slot 12, the halves'of jaw-clutch 51 will be separatedand shafts 54 and 53 disconnected.
To the other end of block 16 is pivoted the lower' clutch 6I connects shafts 64 and 61 and motor $3 drives container 32 about the axis of shafts 24 and 28. When lever 1l is carried to the other end of slot 11, shafts il and i1 are disconnected and motor 65 is ineffective to drive container 32 about the axis of shafts 2l and 23. The machine may be operated so that container 32 is driven at one time about either or both of the axes mentioned;
In operating the machine', handle I8 is moved to the left to allow opening of door I I, and closure 31 rotated to allow opening of doo-r 3b'. Ring 26 may be manually rotated if it is necessary to alignthe doors. The articles to be treated are then placed in container 32 after which doors 35 and I I are again closed and the proper amount of cleaning fluid run into container I through pipe4 23 and its valved connection to the duid supply. 'I'he fluid may be 'at room temperature, or if it 'is desired to speed up the process, the fluid may be warmed moderately'. Excessive heating of the iluid is to be avoided especially if delicate articles,
or articles of synthetic fibre, or articles which may be stained by the classes of organic materials previously mentioned.
Knob 18 is then moved to disconnect shaft 64 vand 61 and knob 13 moved to connect shafts 5l and 58, after which motor $3 is started. With the machine so arranged, motor i3 will rotatev lcontainer 32 about the axis of shafts 3l. 35 container 32 is thus rotating shelves 38 will move When the articles treated through the fluid. As the shelves rise from the fluid, they will carry the articles treated with them for a considerable disf tance before the angle `of theshelves. becomes too steep to support thearticles treated. Since the rotation of container 32 at that time is rather slow, the articles treated are out of the iluid for a suillcient length of time to allow the greater portion of the cleaning fluid to drain from them. The action of the shelves 38 is also such as to ensure constant mixing of the fluid' whereby the fluid is most efficiently used.
When from inspection through a sight glass, not shown, or from experience, it is evident that the articles treated are cleaned. or when thefluid has accomplished all that it can, the iluid is al lowed to drain out of container I to the fluid tank through pipe 22 and its valved connections. If desired, freshfluid may be admitted to rinse or further clean the articles. After the cleaning and/or rinsing operation has been repeated the necessary number of times, the articles treated are ready for centrifuging. 'I'his is accomplished by moving knob 13 to disconnect shafts il and 5I and then-moving knob 13 to connect shafts N and $1. When the machine is so arranged, motor 63 will rotate container 32 about-the axis of shafts 23 and 23 at a suillciently high rate to free the articles treated from substantially all' of the remaining cleaning uid. After thecentrifugingis completed, pipe 22 is connected tothe compressed air supply, the air may be moderately heated if desired, shafts Il and 61 are disconnected and shafts $4 and i3 are again connected. Motor 33 is then again effective to rotate container 32 about the axis of shafts 3 I This results in shelves 3l tumbling the articles treated in a stream of scavenging air in such a manner that the air passes through or comes in contact with everypart of each article treated.
In the present embodiment of the invention, Y
container 32 rotates about the axis of shafts 3I in one directionronly.. By the provision of suitable cam and gear arrangements or equivalent means, the container maybe made to rotate in either direction at will or to make a predetermined number of turns in one direction and then a predetermined number of turns in the opposite direction. Also the axes of rotation of container 32 need not be arranged as shown as a different disposition of these axes may be made. Container 32 has been shown and described as spherical and container I as having a hemispherical bottom portion 3. 'Ihis represents the most efficient design if space, simplicity of drive, and economy of cleaning fluid used are considerations, but it is obvious that other shapes may be used.
While a preferred embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it will be understood that the invention may be embodied in other forms and various changes may be made in structural details without departing from its principle as defined in the appended claims.
1. In a machine of the character described, an outer container, a-ring in said outer container, means supporting said ring for continuous rotation through 360 about an axis in said outer container, said supporting means including a pair of aligned shafts fastened to said ring and bear. ings for said shafts fastened to said outer con# tainer, an inner container in said ring, means supporting said inner container for continuous rotation through 360 in said ring about another axis, means for rotating said ring and said inner outer container having a top and .a bottom, an.
inner container in said outer container, a ring supporting said inner container for rotation about a horizontal axis, means for rotating said inner container about said axis, means supporting said ring for rotation about a vertical axis, and means passing through the topof said container for rotating said ring about said vertical axis.
3. In a machine of the character described, an outer container having a top and a bottom, bearing means in said top, bearing means in said bottom, a ring in said outer container, a pair of aligned shafts fastened to said ring, one of said shafts being journalled in said bottom bearing means and the other of said shafts being journalled in said top bearing means and extending through the top of said container, means connected to said other shaft for rotating said ring about the axis defined by 'said aligned shafts, an
inner container in said ring, a second pair of aligned shafts, said second pair of aligned shafts .being fastened to said inner container and jourouter container having a top and a bottom. bear- 16 ing means in said top, bearing means in said bottom, a ring in said outer container, a pair of aligned shafts fastened to said ring, one of said shafts being journalled in said bottom bearing' means and the other of said shafts being journalled in said top bearing means and extending through the top of said container. means` connected to said other shaft for rotating said ring about the axis defined by said aligned shafts, an
inner container in said ring, meanss'upportingsaid inner container for rotation about an axis angularly disposed to said aligned shafts and means extending through the top of saidycontainer for independently rotating said inner container about said angularly disposed axis.
5. In a machine of the character described, an
outer container having a top and a bottom, a ring in said outer container, a pair of aligned shafts vshafts fastened thereto, said shafts being journalled in said ring to dene a horizontal axis of rotation for said. container, means passing through said hollow shaft for independently rotating said inner container about said horizontal axis and means connected to said hfllow shaft for rotating said ring and said inner container about the axis defined by said first pair of aligned shafts.-
6. A combined washing andjcentrifugal extracting machine comprising a perforate walled container, means for tumbling the contents of said container in cleaning fluid, means for rotating said container at a high speed about a substantially vertical axis to extract cleaning fluid therefrom, said tumbling means vand said extracting means rotating said container about different axes of said container, and means lfor selectively driving said container to either tumble the contents thereof or rotate the same about said substantially vertical axis without' bodily shifting said container.
' MARIO BUSI.