US 2172260 A
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Spt. 5, 1939. T. J. REEs GENERATING APPARATUS Filed April 15, 1937 3 Sheets-Sset 1 Sept. 5, 1939. T. J. REEs GENERATING APPARATUS Filed April 15, 1957 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 www Patented Sept. 5, 1939 UNITED STATES EBATENT OFFlCE 2 Claims.
This invention relates to a generating apparatus and has for its object to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, an apparatus of the class referred to whereby the products of combustion of hydrogen and oxygen are employed in connection with heated water vapor for the purpose of generating super-heated steam to be employed as a driving medium for rotary and reciprocatory engines.
A further object of the invention is to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, an apparatus of the class referred to including means to burn a fuel such as hydrogen and oxygen gases constant pressure within a combustion chamber in the generation of steam.
A further object of the invention is to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, an apparatus of the class referred to including a combustion chamber and means for introducing combustible gases under high pressure into said chamber and with said means so formed to prevent the mixing of the gases prior to the combustion point thereby safeguarding against preignition.
A further object of the invention is to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, an apparatus including a combustion chamber, a burner opening thereinto, means for delivering combustible gases in a non-mixed state through the burner tip into said chamber and at an angle to the point of combustion to form a flame travelling in a direction to create a vacuum surrounding the burner tip to prevent the latter being burned and deteriorated.
Further objects of the invention are to provide, an apparatus of the class referred to which is comparatively simple in its construction and arrangement, strong, durable, compact, thoroughly efficient in its use for the purpose intended thereby, readily assembled and comparatively inexpensive to set up.
With the foregoing and other objects in View, the invention consists of the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts as will be more specifically referred to and as illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein is shown an embodiment of the invention, but it is to be understood that changes, variations and modiiications may be resorted to which fall within the scope of the invention as claimed.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a side elevation of the apparatus,
Figure 2 is a fragmentary View partly in elevation and partly in vertical section,
Figure 3 is a section on line 3 3, Figure 2,
Figure 4 is a fragmentary view in sectional plan of the housing and combustion chamber forming element,
Figure 5 is a fragmentary view in vertical section upon an enlarged scale of that portion of the apparatus for generating the energy medium,
Figure 6 is a detail in vertical section of the lower portion of the oxygen supply pipe,
Figure 7 is a section on line 1 1, Figure 6, and
Figure 8 is a section on line 8--8, Figure 5.
The apparatus includes a water reservoir I 0, a pump Ii, a water intake pipe I2 leading from reservoir I0 to pump I I, an engine I3 of the stator and rotor type of known form having its power transmitting shaft I4 extending from opposite ends of the stator, a reduction gearing I5 of known form, a housing I6 arranged over the engine I3, a water pressure tank I'I arranged above pump II, a water supply line I8 leading from pump I I to tank Il and having interposed therein a valve controlled by-pass I9 leading therefrom to the top of reservoir I0, a valve controlled water feed line 2B extended from tank II and provided with a pair of spaced nozzles 2l of the water vaporizing type opening into an expansion chamber 22 within the housing, a burner 23 opening into a combustion chamber 24 within the housing, an oxygen gas tank 25, a valve controlled feed line 26 leading from the latter and opening into the chamber 24 in proximity to the upper end of the latter, a hydrogen gas tank 21, a valve controlled feed line 28 leading from tank 21 passing through the burner 23 and opening into the combustion chamber 24, a return pipe 29 leading from engine I3 to the reservoir I0, a support 30 for reservoir I0, and a transmission shaft 3| extended from the reduction gearing I5. The latter is associated with and operated with one of the extended portions of the shaft I4. The other extended portion of the shaft I4 passes through the pump I l. The operating shaft for pump II is indicated at 32 and is driven from a transmission 33 leading from shaft I4 to shaft 32. A bearing 34 is provided for one end of shaft I4. The tank Il has a pressure gage 35.
The housing I6 comprises a hollow substantially globular outer casing 36 of metallic material formed of oppositely disposed superimposed, hollow upper and lower portions of semi-globular contour. Each of said portions consists of a pair of abutting parts and with one of the parts being flanged for overlapping the other. The upper and the lower portion of the casing 36 will be formed of two parts in the manner as is shown CII in Figure 3 relative to the upper portion of the casing. The upper and lower portions of the case ing 36 will be hereinafter referred to as upper and lower sections, a hollow substantially globular metallic inner casing 31 spaced from casing 35 and a body of insulation material 31a interposed between said casings. The casing 36 at its top and bottom is formed with aligned openings 38, 39 and said openings are intersected at their axes by the vertical median of casing 36. The latter at its bottom is provided with a depending collar 43 having its inner face forming a continuation of the wall of opening 39. The casing 36 is formed of a pair of oppositely disposed hollow superimposed sections 4|, 42 substantially of like form and provided with laterally extended annular fianges 43, 44 respectively. The ange 43 overlaps the flange 44. The body of the casing 35 is of less thickness than the body of the casing 31.
The casing 31, which provides the expansion chamber 22, is formed with a pair of aligned openings 45, 46 respectively which have their axes intersected by the vertical median thereof. The opening 45 is of materially greater diameter than opening 46. The casing 31 is formed o-f a pair of oppositely disposed hollow superimposed sections 41, 48 provided with laterally extending apertured abutting annular flanges 49, 56 respectively. The flange 49 is provide-d with an annular groove 5l in its lower facel The flange 53 has its upper face formed with an annular rib 52 which extends into the groove 5I. The sections 41, 48 are detachably anchored together by the holdfast means 52a. The opening 45 is in the section 4l and has its wall of two different diameters to form a shoulder 53. The portion of largest diameter of the Wall of opening 45 is of less length than the portion of smallest diameter and is the lower portion of such wall. The top of section 41 is provided with an annular boss 54 having its inner face forming a flush continuation of the portion of smallest diameter of the wall of opening 45. The section 41 has as an integral part thereof an energy medium conducting element 55 which depends'from the bottom of said section, communicates with the expansion chamber 22 through the opening 46 and leads to and discharges into the engine i3 for supplying theenergy medium thereto. The latter is in the form of superheated steam.
The element 55 is in the form of a tubular member 56 having an intermediate portion 51, an upper portion 58 of reduced diameter with respect to portion 51 and a tapered lower portion 59. The member 56 axially thereof is formed with a conducting channel 69 having its wall forming a ilush continuation of the wall of opening 4S. The channel 60 extends from one end to the other end of Velement 55, The lower end of channel 5i* is closed by a plug 6l which has threaded engagement with the wall of the channel. The lower end of the portion 51 of member. 56 is formed with a pair of oppositely extending openings 62 communicating at their inner ends with the channel 6D and having their outer ends flush with the outer periphery of portion 51. Secured within the openings 62 are a pair of oppositely disposed nozzles 63 having the inner part of their inner faces tapered, as at 64 and the outer parts of their inner faces flared as at 55. The said outer parts are of greater length'than said inner parts. These latter open into the channel 63. The portion 51 of member 56 is formed with a laterally extended apertured annular flange 66 which seats on an enlarged circular portion 61 formed on the top of the stator of engine I3` The flange 66 is anchored to engine I3 by the holdiast means E8. The element 55 extends into the engine I3. The portion 58 of member 56 extends through the insulation 31a, opening 39 and collar 40.
Suspended within and from the casing 31 is a hollow casting 59 which in vertical section is substantially of heart or inverted pear shaped contour and in horizontal section of annular contour. The casting 69 includes a hollow body part 10 having a threaded opening 15 axially of its upper end and an opening 16 axially of its lower end, a tubular upstanding stem 1| integral with the outer face of the top of body part 1Q and which surrounds and has its inner face offset with respect to the wall of the opening 15 and an interiorly threaded depending collar 12 integral with the outer face of the bottom of body part 15 and which has its inner face forming a continuation of the wall of the opening 16. There is assoelated with the collar 12, a threaded plug 11 for closing the opening 1G. The body part 10, in connection with the plug 11 forms the combustion chamber 24. The latter has a closed lower end and its upper end formed to receive the inner end of the burner structure 23 which opens into the chamber 24. In cross section the upper po-rtion 13 of body part 19 is in the form of a segment of a circle and the lower portion 14 of body part 1@ is flared. The portion 14 is of greater height than portion 13. The body part 10 is spaced completely from the wall of the expansion chamber 22, The space between the upper portion 13 of body part 16 and the Wall of expansion chamber 23 is less than the space between the lower portion 14 of body part 10 and the wall of the expansion chamber 22. The portions 13, 14 of body part 1l] form respectively the upper and lower portions of the combustion chamber 24. The lower portion of the chamber 24 decreases in diameter from the upper to the lower end of portion 24 of body part 1E?. The stem 1I is of uniform inner diameter. The stem 1l is formed with upper and lower parts 11, 18 respectively. The part 11 is of reduced outer diameter with respect to the outer diameter of part 18 whereby at the junction of said parts the stem 1I is formed with a peripheral shoulder 19. 'I'he part 11 at its upper portion is threaded on its outer periphery as at 86. The upper portion of part 18 extends into the opening 45, the shoulder 19 abuts shoulder 53, the part 11 extends through the opening 45 and through and above boss 54. Engaging with threads is a nut 8l which seats on boss 54 and in connection with the latter, part 11 and shoulders 53, 19, not only clamps casting 69 to casing 31 but further suspends the body part 10 in the expansion chamber 22 in spaced relation to the wall of the latter. The portion 14 of the body part 10 is formed with an upper row of spaced sidewise aligned inclined ports 82 and a lower row of spaced sidewise aligned inclined ports 83. The ports 32 are arranged substantially at the transverse median of the portion 14 of body part 10. The ports 83 are arranged in proximity to the opening 16. The ports 82, 83 establish communication between the combustion chamber 24 and the expansion cham-ber 22 for the passage of the products of combustion from a. combusted mixture within the combustion chamber to the expansion chamber. A pair of spaced catalytic elements 84 are suspended from the upper part of the portion 13 of the body part 10 within the upper portion of the combustion chamber.
The burner or burner structure 23 includes a vertical tubular outer sleeve formed of an outer portion 86 and an inner portion 81. rIhe portion 36 is of greater inner and outer diameter with respect to that of portion 81. 'Ihe latter is formed at its inner end with an inwardly extending annular iiange 88. The outer periphery of portion 8l is formed with screw threads. 'I'he inner perphery of portion 86 of sleeve 85 is provided with screw threads. The junction of the portions 86, 81 forms the sleeve 85 with an internal shoulder 89. rIhe sleeve 85 constitutes a holder and threadedly engages at its inner end terminal portion with the threads of opening 15 in body part 19 of casting 69 whereby the burner and casting are connected together.
The burner 23 opens into the combustion chamber 24 and its inner end is termed a tip. Seated upon the flange 88 is a disc 99 formed with an axal opening 9| and a row of spaced oppositely inclined ports 92 surrounding opening 9|. Extending into the sleeve 85 and bearing against disc 99 is a tubular clamping member 93 which also constitutes a hydrogen gas conducting means. 'I'he ports 92 provide intakes for the hydrogen gas to the combustion chamber 24. The inner end of member 93 is open. The outer end of member 93 is closed by a head 94 formed axially with a threaded opening 95. The side of member 93 in proximity to head 94 has an opening 96 and an integral lateral nipple 91 which registers with opening 95. The hydrogen gas feed line 28 is coupled as at 91ab to the nipple 91. The member 93 includes an outer and an inner portion 98, 99 respectively. The portion 99 is of greater outer diameter than portion 99 and is formed on its outer periphery with screw threads which coact with the threads on portion 96 of sleeve 85 for connecting member 93 and the sleeve together. The outer diameter of portion 99 of member 93 is such as to snugly engage the inner face of portion 81 of sleeve 85. 'I'he junction of the portions 98, 99 of the member 93 provides the outer periphery of the latter with a shoulder |99 which coacts with the shoulder 89 for conning a packing |9|, under a compressed state within sleeve 85 and between said shoulders. Threadedly engaging with the wall of opening 95 of head 94 is the enlarged threaded outer end |92 of an oxygen gas conductor |93 which is of a length to extend through the axial opening 9| of disc 99 into the combustion chamber 24. The conductor |93 at its outer end |92 is coupled as at |94 to the oxygen gas feed line 26. The conductor |93 is formed of an inner and an outer tubular section |95, |96 respectively (Figure 6) which are threadedly connected together and with the inner section |95 provided with a reduced outer end portion which extends into the inner end of the outer section |96. The inner end of the'inner section |95 is closed, as at |91 and formed at such end axially thereof with a depending lug |98. The inner section |95 in proximity to its closed inner end |91 is formed with spaced downwardly inclined ports |99 which open into the upper end of the combustion chamber 24 and constitute intakes for the oxygen gas for chamber 24,
The nozzles 2| are oppositely inclined and of like form. Each nozzle extends through the section 4| of casing 36, through insulation 31a and into section 41 of the casing 31. The inner or discharge end of each nozzle is flush with the inner face of section 41. The nozzles are directed to spaced points of the outer face of the portion 13 of the body part 19 of casting 69. A
spark plug I9 is arranged in the body of the housing, extends across the expansion chamber 22 and through casting 69 into the combustion chamber 24.
The structure as aforesaid includes a hydrogen gas conducting means which is the member 93 and an oxygen gas conducting means which is the element |93. The member 93 and element |93 are arranged in concentric spaced relation and closed to each other whereby the gases are not mixed until they reach the combustion chamber 24 for ignition. The oxygen gas is delivered at a point below the delivery of the hydrogen gas and substantially in a direction to intersect the hydrogen gas on the delivery of the latter.
The cross section contour of the casting 69, which forms the combustion chamber, provides when the pressure within the generator is nearly equal to the injected fuel pressure, thereby making it possible to operate at close pressure differences, that is, the difference between the injected fuel pressure and the pressure within the generator as it has been found that the nearer the pressure difference the higher the efficiency obtained.
The ports in the body part 19 of the casting' 69 provide for the spraying of the products of combustion from the combustion chamber into the expansion chamber. The latter is for the reception of vaporized water which is injected by pump pressure to contact the upper part of the outer face of the portion 13 of body part 19 and as the said portion 13 is of high temperature a superheated vapor is formed and into the vapor the products of combustion from the hydrogen and oxygen gases are sprayed, thus forming a driving medium of superheated steam.
The apparatus includes means to burn a fuel such as hydrogen and oxygen gases at constant pressure Within a combustion chamber.
The orifices for the passage of fuel, water and steam are so formed and so related as to coact so that the percentage of fuel and water injected generates an energy medium of a quality corresponding to the predetermined operating tempera-ture and pressure.
The term heart shape is to be considered as generic to heart shape and to inverted pear shape.
When assembling casings 36, 31 and casting 69, the parts of the lower portion or section of the casing 36 are positioned about the section 48 of casing 31 in a manner whereby the said lower portion or section of casing 36 will appear as shown in Figure 2. Casting 69 is then mounted in section 48 of casing 31, after which section 41 of casing 31 is mounted on and secured to section 48. The casting 69 is then suspended from section 41. Prior to securing sections 41, 48 together, insulating material is packed between said section 41 and the lower portion or section of casing 36. After section 41 has been secured to section 48 the elements 2| are attached to casing 31; then the insulating material 31a is positioned to envelope the section 41 and the parts of the upper portion or section of the casing 36 are arranged in the manner as shown in Figure 2. The upper and lower portions or sections of casing 36 are then secured together, and the structure will appear as sho-wn by Figure 2.
What I claim is:
1. In a steam generating apparatus, an upstanding casting including a hollow body part of heart-shaped contour in vertical section and of annular contour in cross section, said body part being formed with a threadedopening axially of its upper end, an upstanding tubular peripherally shouldered stem integral at its lower end with the top of said body part surrounding and offset with respect to said opening, said bo-dy part formed of a ilared lower portion closed at its lower end and an upper portion of less height than said lower portion and of segmental contour in cross section, said portions providing a combustion chamber having its intake formed by said opening, means providing a vertically disposed expansion chamber of globular form having an outlet at its lower end, an opening at the upper end of the expansion chamber and an annular boss forming an upward. continuation of the wall of said opening, said stem extending upwardly through said opening provided by said means, the wall of said expansion chamber completely encompassing in spaced relation said body part, said lower portien in proximity to the axis of its lower end being formed with a circumferential row of spaced downwardly'disposed outwardly inclined ports and above and in proximity to said row formed with a circumferential row of spaced downwardlyV disposed outwardly inclined ports, said rows of ports establishing communication between the lower portion of the said chambers, means for injecting water vapor under pressure against the outer face of the upper portion of the body part, means passing through said stem and connected with said opening for' supplying a combustible fuel and a combustion supporting agent into the upper portion of the combustion chamber, means carried by the upper portion of said body part for combusting the delivered fuel, and means carried by the stem, seated on said boss and in connection with the peripheral shoulder of said stem and the shoulder on the wall of said opening at the upper end of the expansion chamber for suspending said body part within the expansion chamber.
2. In a steam generating apparatus, an upstanding casting including a hollow body part of heart-shaped contour in vertical section and of annular contour in cross section, said bodyA part being formed with a threaded opening axially of its upper end, an'upstanding tubular stem integral at its lower end with the top of said body part and surrounding said opening, said body part formed of a ared lower portion closed at its lower end and an upper portion of less height than said lower portion and of segmental contour in cross section, said portions providing a combustion chamber having its intake formed by said opening, a structure providing a vertically disposed expansion chamber of globular form having an outlet at its lower end, said stem extending upwardly through the top of and peripherally abutting intermediate its ends said structure, the wall of said expansion chamber completely encompassing in spaced relation said body part, said lower portion in proximity to the axis of its lower end being formed with a circumferential row of spaced downwardly disposed outwardly inclined ports and above and in proximity to said row formed with a circumferential row of spaced downwardly disposed outwardly inclined ports, said rows of ports establishing communication between the lower portion of ythe said chambers, means for injecting water vapor under pressure against the outer face of the upper portion of the body part, means adjustably engaging with said stem and bearing against the top of said structure for suspending said body part within the expansion chamber, means mounted in the stem for delivering a combustible fuel into the upper portion of the combustion chamber, a combustion supporting agent delivering means eX tending through and depending from the deliver-` ing means for delivering a combustion supporting agent in the combustion chamber at a point below the delivery of the fuel, means engaging with the wall of said opening for connecting the delivering means with the upper portion of said body part, and spaced means carried by the upper portionfof said body part for combusting the delivered fuel.
THOMAS J. REES.