|Publication number||US2173663 A|
|Publication date||Sep 19, 1939|
|Filing date||Feb 4, 1937|
|Priority date||Feb 4, 1937|
|Publication number||US 2173663 A, US 2173663A, US-A-2173663, US2173663 A, US2173663A|
|Inventors||Raymond John Edwin|
|Original Assignee||Raymond John Edwin|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
SePt- 19, 1939. J. E. RAYMOND I 2,173,663
ROTARY ENGINE Filed Feb. 4, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. l9,` 1939. J. E. RAYMOND- ROTARY ENGINE Filed Feb. 4, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Sept. 19, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 10 Claims.
My invention relates to improvements in rotary engines of the type in which a spherical shell is divided into compartments by a pair of intersecting plates in such manner that the volumes of the compartments change on revolution of one plate about a diameter while the other plate rotates about its axis.
An object of my invention is to provide in such an engine a seal and bearing at the intersection of the plates which will permit the plates to re volve about their respective axes and at the same time maintain an eiiicient seal between the four compartments.
Another object is to provide in such an engine means whereby the ratios between the maximum and minimum volumes of each compartment may be varied at will, either while the engine is idle or in operation.
Another object is to devise such an engine which may be driven by the explosion of fuel vapour in a chamber located externally of the spherical shell communication of which with the shell compartments is controlled by valves whereby a highly effective power cycle is provided in the engine.
A further object of my invention is to provide a device of the character herein described which may be used as a rotary engine or by slight modication of the valves as a pump.
With the above and other objects in View which will hereafter appear as the specification proceeds, my invention consists, in a preferred embodiment, of the construction and arrangement all as hereafter more particularly described and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of my improved engine broken away to shown parts thereof in section;
Fig. 2 is a. horizontal sectional view taken along the line 2 2 of Fig. l, certain parts being shown in elevation;
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional View taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view of my engine taken along the line 4-4 of Fig. 5, showing my improved means for varying the compression ratio, and with some of the details of the previous iigures omitted for the sake of clarity of illustration; and
Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view therethrough taken along the line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Like characters of reference designate corresponding parts in the diierent views.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to (Cl. 12B-8) Figs. 1, 2 and 3, a pair of hemspherical shells I and 2 form a hollow sphere which is divided into expansion chambers by a revoluble disc 3 which passes through a slot I1 in a disc 4 which is xed as to position but which is rotatable 5 about the normal through its centre. The disc 3 is provided with trunnions 5 and 6 which are received in bearings I and 8 in the respective shells I and 2, and a bearing for the disc 4 is formed by flanges 9, 9 on the shells I and 2 bel0 tween which the margin of the disc 4 is received, the flanges being spaced apart by an annular ring I0 to prevent binding of the disc as it rotates.
The discs 3 and 4 are required to make a pressure-tight seal with the wall oi the sphere formed by the shells I and 2, and with each other, and to this end the margin of the disc 3 may be provided with conventional sealing means such as rings II, and the intersection oi the discs 3 and 4 may be sealed by a cylindrical member I2 provided with journals I3 which are received in sockets I4 in the disc 4, and also with a longitudinal slot I5 through which the disc 3 passes being held rotatably positioned therein by means of a pivot pin I6, which is a press t in the hole I6a in the centre of the disc 3 and which extends on each side of it into the bearing sockets I2a and I2b, (Fig. 3) of the cylindrical member. The cylindrical member I2 forms a seal between the discs 3 and 4 by close contact with the arcuate surfaces of the slot I'l in the disc 4.
It will be observed that the intersecting discs 3 and 4 divide the sphere formed by the shells I and 2 into four chambers which will vary in volume as the plate 3 is revolved, and in the preferred form of my engine I provide bosses I8 on each side of the disc 4 which substantially lill the diametrically opposite chambers when the disc 3 is in such position that such chambers are of minimum volume, i. e., when the disc 3 is in the position illustrated in Figs. l to 3 inclusive.
In the wall of the sphere formed by the shells I and 2 are provided four ports I9, 2li, 2l and 22, each disposed substantially on a diametrcal plane of the sphere and adjacent to the axis of revolution of the disc 3. The port i9 is connected to a source of supply of explosive vapour, such as a carburetor (not shown) and the port 26 is adapted to exhaust gases from the sphere. The ports 2| and 22 are connected by an explosion chamber 23 in which means such as a sparkplug 24 may be provided for exploding vapour in the chamber, and the port 2| is also provided with a valve 25 normally held closed by a spring 2S, and adapted to be opened by gas pressure in the sphere, The port 22 is adapted to be closed by a rotary valve 21 carried by the disc 3 and disposed in a recess 28 in the shell 2 surrounding the trunnion 6, an arcuate slot 29 in the valve 2 serving to open the port 22 when it is in register therewith.
The operation of my engine in the form illustrated in Figs. l to 3 inclusive s as follows:
The engine is cranked to start it in the same manner as a conventional reciprocating internal combustion engine. As the disc 3 revolves clockwise Figs. 1 and 2 about its diameter, chamber A bounded by the discs 3 and 4 and the wall of the sphere formed by the shells and 2 comes into communication with the port I9 when the volume of the chamber is a minimum. Continued revolution of the disc 3 causes the volume of the chamber to increase, thereby drawing a charge of explosive vapour from the carburetor into the chamber. As the volume of the chamber reaches a maximum, the margin of the disc 3 crosses the port i9 and cuts it off from communication therewith and simultaneously the margin of the disc crosses the port 2| to place the chamber in communication therewith. The spring 2B holds the valve 25 in the port 2| closed until continued revolution of the disc 3 has caused the volume of the chamber to decrease to such an extent that the pressure of the vopour charge therein has become greater than that of the expanding burned gases from the previous explosion in the chamber 23 and in the expansion chamber' B which is now in communication with the open port 22. The valve 25 is therefore forced to open and the new charge is expelled from the decreasing compression chamber A through the port 2| into the chamber 23 driv- 4ing the burned gases ahead of it out through the port 22 into the increasing Volume of the expansion chamber B. The rotary valve 21 is arranged to close the port 22 before any of the new charge passes through it and the burned gases are now further expanded during the remainder of the expansion stroke in the now isolated expansion chamber B. Simultaneously the remainder of the new charge is completely expelled from the compression chamber A through the still open port 2| into the chamber 23 thereby increasing the pressure of the explosive vapour therein to the desired pre-ignition value. At this time the margin of the disc 3 crosses the port 2| and brings into communication therewith, at its point of maximum volume, the chamber A1 the low pressure within which allows the relatively high pressure in the chamber 23 to operate the valve 23 and close the port 2|. At the same instant the expansion chamber B containing the fully expanded burnt gases is brought into communication with the port 20, through which they are expelled, and simultaneously a chamber B1 of minimum volume is brought into communication with the chamber 23 which contains the compressed fuel charge. With the port 22 open, this charge is exploded by the spark-plug 24, and the pressure in the chamber 23 and the communicating expansion chamber B1 isolated by the discs 3 and 4 rises sharply and provides a power impulse tending to cause the volume of the latter charnber to increase and cause the disc 3 to revolve. This cycle of operations is repeated continuously once initiated by cranking of the engine, and
power developed by the revolution of the disc 3 is transmitted through the trunnion 6.
It should be obvious from the foregoing description that of the four chambers into which the sphere formed by the shells I and 2 is divi-ded by the intersecting discs 3 and 4, the pair on the left of Fig. l are used only to draw fuel vapour from the carburetor or other source and compress it into the chamber 23; and the pair to the right of Fig. l are used as expansion chambers in which the energy of the explosions taking place in the chamber 23 is utilized. As illustrated then, the engine is analogous to a two cylinder twostroke-cycle reciprocating engine.
In Figs. 4 and 5 is illustrated a means whereby the compression ratios of the chambers of any engine of this type may be varied from unity to a substantially innitely high value.
Referring to such figures, the device comprises the hollow sphere formed by shells 3U and 3| provided with the intersecting discs 3 and 4 as previously described. In this exemplication, however, while the trunnions and 6 arecarried by the shells 3|) and 3|, the disc 4v is rotatable about its axis in a groove 32 in a spherical shell 33 which closely engages the inner walls of the shells 30 and 3|. The shell 33, which may be composed of more than one piece to facilitate assembly of the engine, is provided with an equatorially disposed flange 34 which is received in a groove 35 in the inner periphery of the sphere formed by the shells 30 and 3 l, such groove being coplanar with the axis of the trunnions 5 and 6. Teeth 33 in the flange 34 are engageable with a worm 3i carried by an actuating shaft 33 journalled in a pressure tight housing 39 on one of the shells 39 or 3|, and terminating in a hand-wheel 40. Slots 4| are provided in the shell 33 through which the trunnions 5 and 6 pass and which permit the shell 33 to revolvea limited extent within the shells 30 and 3|, when the hand-wheel 40 is rotated. Bosses 42 may be provided on the disc 3 which overlie and seal the slots 4| and also serve the same purpose as the bosses I8 in the first described embodiment of the engine.
It will be obvious that the features of Figs. 4 and 5 may be incorporated in an engine such as is disclosed in the other gures. In such case, then, by rotating the hand-wheel 40, the shell 33 may be revolved within the outer sphere, thereby varying the maximum and minimum angles between the discs 3 and 4 as the disc 3 revolves and thus changing the ratio between the minimum and maximum volumes of each of the four compartments formed b-y the intersecting discs on revolution of the' disc 3. The power output of the engine may be controlled very smoothly by this means, between zero and the maximum possible, as'when the shell 33'is in such position that the disc 3 remains at approximately right angles to the axis of revolution of the disc 4 while the disc 3 revolves there is only a very slight change in the volume of each of the chambers formed by the discs during each revolution ofthe disc 3, and very little work is done by the expanding gases during the cycle; as the angle between the disc 3 and the axis of the disc 4 is decreased, the volume charge of each of the chambers increases, thereby increasing the work done by the expanding gases.
An advantage of an engine constructed according to my invention is that its power output may be varied from zeroV to maximum as rapidly or as slowly as may be desired, so that no vari- 'IISI able ratio gear unit or equivalent device is required in order to adapt the engine to changing load conditions.
Yet another advantage of the device is that the combustion of the fuel therefor takes place in a relatively isolated chamber, so that the moving parts of the engine are not exposed to as high temperatures as when they are in contact with the burning gases.
While I have described my invention with reference to a particular embodiment, I realize there are many other ways in which the novel features disclosed therein may be employed, and I therefore wish my disclosure to impose no limitations on the scope of the invention beyond those set forth in the appended claims.
What I claim as my invention is:
l. In a rotary engine comprising a hollow spherical shell divided into compartments by a pair of intersecting plates, one of which is revoluble about a diameter thereof and the other of which is rotatable about a central axis normal to the plane of the plate, adjustable means for varying the angle made by the latter plate with the axis of revolution of the first plate.
2. A rotary engine comprising a hollow spherical shell divided into compartments by a pair of intersecting plates, one of which is revoluble about a diameter thereof and the other of which is rotatable about a central axis normal to the plane of the plate, means for rotatably positioning the second plate therein, an outer substantially spherical shell closely overlying the first shell, means for rotatably positioning the i'lrst plate therein, and adjustable means for rotating the inner shell within the outer shell whereby the angle made by the second plate with the axis of revolution of the first plate may be varied.
3. A rotary engine as claimed in claim 2 wherein the means for rotating the inner shell comprises an equatorially disposed flange thereon, a similarly disposed groove in the outer shell in which the flange is received, such groove being coplanar with the axis of revolution of the first plate, teeth on the flange, a worm gear journalled in the outer shell and engageable with the teeth on the flange, and means disposed externally of the outer shell for rotating the worm gear.
4. A rotary engine comprising a hollow shell divided by a pair of intersecting plates; one of which is revoluble about a diameter and the other of which is rotatable about its axis which is disposed at an angle to such diameter; into four compartments the volume of each of which varies on revolution of the rst plate, means for admitting an explosive vapour fuel charge into the shell for compression in either one of one pair of adjacent compartments, an explosion chamber disposed exteriorly of the shell, means for admitting each fuel charge during compression into the explosion chamber at such a time that it will force the exploded fuel charge therein into the one of the other pair of adjacent compartments which is increasing in volume, means for interrupting the transfer of exploded fuel charge into the expanding compartment before any of the explosive vapour has entered the expanding compartment, means for interrupting the connection between th compression compartments and the combustion chamber after each fuel charge has been admitted, means for connecting the explosion chamber to each expansion chamber when its volume has reached a minimum, means for exploding the fuel charge Within the explosion chamber, and means for exhausting the products of combustion from eachy expansion compartment after its volume has become aV maximum.
5. In a rotary engine comprising a hollow shell divided into compartments by a pair of intersecting plates, one of which is revoluble about a diameter and the other of which is rotatable about its-axis and is provided with a slot for the reception of the revoluble plate, combined sealing and bearing means for the intersection of the plates comprising a cylindrical sealing member journalled in the rotatable plate and having a slot therethrough in which the revoluble plate is received in fluid tight relation, means for forming a fluid tight seal between the surface of the cylindrical member and the slot in the rotatable plate, and a pivot pin disposed transversely of and rotatably secured within the cylindrical member extending through and being immovably fixed within a central hole in the revoluble plate.
6. In a rotary engine as claimed in claim 1, combined sealing and bearing means for the intersection of the plates comprisig a cylidrical sealing member journalled in a slot in the rotatable plate: and having an opening therethrough in which the revoluble plate is received in uid tight relation, means for forming a fluid tight seal between the surface of the cylindrical member and the slot in the rotatable plate, and a pivot pin disposed transversely of and rotatably secured Within the cylindrical member extending through and being immovably xed within a central hole in the revoluble plate.
7. In a rotary engine as claimed in claim 4, combined sealing and bearing means for the intersection of the plates comprising a cylindrical sealing member journalled in a slot in the rotatable plate and having an opening therethrough in which the revoluble plate is received in fluid tight relation, means for forming a fluid tight seal between the surface of the cylindrical member and the slot in the rotatable plate, and a pivot pin disposed transversely of and rotatably secured within the cylindrical member eX- tending through and being immovably xed within a central hole in the revoluble plate.
8. A machine of the kind described, comprising a casing having a spherical opening therein, a revoluble disc within the opening provided with two diametrically opposite trunnions afxed thereto and extending into bearings in the casing, a second disc crossing said opening at an oblique angle with respect to the axis of revolution of the first disc and intersecting it on a diameter thereof, a groove around the inside of the spherical opening in the plane of the second disc, the rim of the saidfsecond disc extending into the groove and permitting' rotation only about an axis normal to its plane, a cylindrical sealing member journalled into the second disc with its axis along the line of intersection of the tWo discs, a longitudinal slot in the cylindrical member through which the rst disc passes in uid tight relationship, and a pivot pin journalled transversely in the cylindrical member about which the first disc revolves.
9. A machine of the kind described comprising a casing having a spherical opening therein, a revoluble disc Within the opening provided with twodiametrically opposite trunnions afxed thereto and extending into bearings in the casing, a second disc crossing said opening at an oblique ang-lev with respect to the axis of revolution of the first disc and intersecting it on adiameter thereof, a groovearoun'd. the inside ofi` thek spherical opening inA the plane of the seclond disc, the rim of the said second discfextending'into the' groove and permitting rotation only about an axis normal to its plane, acylindrical sealing member journalled into the second disc` at an oblique angle with respect to the axisl of revolution` of therst disc. and intersecting it ona diameter thereof, a groove around the inside of the spherical opening in the plane of the second disc,.the rim of said second disc extending into the groove and permitting rotation only about anaxis normal to its plane, a cylindrical sealing member journalled into the second disc with its axis along the line of intersection of the tWo discs, a longitudinal slot in the cylindrical member through which the first disc passes in fluid tight relationship, a pivot p-in journalled transversely into` the cylindrical member about which the rst disc revolves, inlet and outlet portsy through the casing to the spherical opening, and a combustion chamber disposed between an outlet and an inlet `port in such a manner that two compartments act as compressors feeding the combustion chamber and the other two compartments act as expansion compartments for the combustion chamber after combustion has taken place.
JOHN EDWIN RAYMOND.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3102517 *||Nov 8, 1961||Sep 3, 1963||Marquardt Corp||Nutating disc internal combustion engine|
|US4589388 *||May 17, 1985||May 20, 1986||Fenton John W||Internal combustion engine|
|US4815432 *||Jul 5, 1988||Mar 28, 1989||Michael Sutton||Variable cavity fluid power device|
|US5251594 *||Dec 31, 1991||Oct 12, 1993||Leonard Meyer||Nutating internal combustion engine|
|US6442935 *||Jul 30, 1999||Sep 3, 2002||3D International A/S||Driving system for machinery, such as a motor, compressor etc.|
|US7441534||Jun 9, 2004||Oct 28, 2008||Douglas Bastian||Rotary engine system|
|US20060124102 *||Jun 9, 2004||Jun 15, 2006||Douglas Bastian||Rotary engine system|
|WO1984000997A1 *||Sep 10, 1982||Mar 15, 1984||D Michael Keisler||Internal combustion engine having a spherical chamber|
|U.S. Classification||123/241, 418/19, 418/68, 418/199|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B2730/03, Y02T10/17, F02B53/00|