|Publication number||US2174361 A|
|Publication date||Sep 26, 1939|
|Filing date||May 16, 1936|
|Priority date||May 16, 1936|
|Publication number||US 2174361 A, US 2174361A, US-A-2174361, US2174361 A, US2174361A|
|Inventors||Bridget D Condon|
|Original Assignee||Bridget D Condon|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (43), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 26, 1939. B. D. CONDON mmsme NIPPLE Filed May 16, 1956 Patented Sept. 26, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 3 Claims;
nected to. the breast portion of the nipple by a thinner and more elastic neck portion which is readily responsive to the jaw action of the infant, and this thinner neck portion diverges from .the teat to the breast portion thereby affording an improved regulation of the flow of food in direct relation to the vigor of nursing.
Means are provided to preclude interruption of the flow of food by compression of the teat due to the bite of the infant during nursing.
The nipple constantly increases in diameter from the tip to the base, whereby complete inversion of the nipple can be readily accomplished with but a minimum of distortion, which inver- .sion is essential to thorough cleansing. The parts are devoid of inaccessible recesses, whereby they can readily be cleansed and sterilized in accordance with modern sanitation and good taste.
The invention may be adapted to various types of containers and for use with different foods of various nature.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my application Serial No. 748,209 filed October 13, 1934; now patent No. 2,096,961, dated October The nature and principle of my invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein I have disclosed my improved construction for accomplishing a more nearly natural form of artificial feeding of infants.
Figure 1 shows an elevation of the invention.
Figure 2 is a vertical section of Figure 1.
Figures 3, 4 and 5 show a section of the teat on the line X-X in Fig. 2, the eifect of compression being illustrated in Figures 3 and 5. 4.0 t
Figure 6 shows the invention with a smaller diameter base.
Figure 7 is a vertical section of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is an enlarged detail section of the valve shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 9 shows the valve of Figure 8 embodied in a closure cap.
The nipple is preferably of the improved shape or contour illustrated. As shown in the several figures of the drawing the contour of the nipple is formed by continuous curvilinear lines and the diameter of the nipple constantly increases from the tip to the base, thereby greatly facilitating the complete inversion of the nipple, as is essentially necessary for thorough cleansing. That is to say the contour of the nipple is formed by segments of contiguous circles and is devoid of constrictedneek portion which is conventional in the variously shaped nipples of the prior art. 1Vl'.ore specifically, the external contour of the nipple is convex at the tip, concave; at the, neck and convex at the base, with a constantly increasing diameter, irrespective of the concave contour of the neck portion. From this comprehensive des ription, itwill be readily apparent that the ni ple can with facility be quickly turned inside out for the purposes of thorough cleansing. It will also be readily apparent, that any constriction of the neck of the nipple would defeat the purpose of the improved contour of the present invent ion. a
This improved contour is further utilized to afford normal function of the infant during the act of nursing. A brief general description of the human breast will suffice to set forth the principle of the improved contour and structure of the nipple.
The, human breast is provided with an annular muscle internally surrounding the areola, and from this annulanmuscle, a plurality. ofother muscles, convergently radiate to the equator of the teat, the latter muscles of course being at tached at both ends. While thesemuscles are not voluntary muscles, they possess altonicity and contraction which is responsive to the reflexes of nursing. In the normal act of nursing, the areola is engaged in the mouth of the infant to. a variable extent; and due to the factthat these muscles diverge from the teat to the areola margin, some effort isrequired for the infant to re-. tain the teat in the mouth. That is to say, that each closure of the infantsjaws will resultin a shorter grasp upon the teatand necessitate a renewed effort tograsp theteatin the mouth, which action produces a stripping eifect upon. the teat and facilitates the flow of lacteal fluid. Normally the act; of nursing requires the .combined efforts of the lips, jaws, cheeks and tongue, which the infant of course employs by normal instinct. It should be understood that the normal act of nursing or suckling includes more than mere sucking.
Various nipples of the prior art are provided with a constricted neck and an enlarged globular tip, whereby the infant may readily retain the grasp of the nipple in the mouth. Obviously, this subordinatesthe jaw action of the infant which would otherwise be normal by instinct.
The improved contourpreviously described is further supplemented to. simulate. the human breast, by making the neck portion 5 of the nipple thinner and consequently more elastic than the breast or base portion 4 as is shown in Figure 2. As shown in this figure, resiliency may be enhanced by thickening the wall at the point of juncture, as is indicated at l. Pertinently, it should be explained that the neck portion 5 diverges away from the mouth of the infant and is suitably elastic; consequently, the normal jaw efforts of the infant will shorten the grasp on the neck portion 5, with the consequent stripping action, thereby materially assisting in producing the required flow of food from the container with which the nipple is engaged. The infant will instinctively regain this grasp by normal jaw action.
It will of course be understood that the aforementioned divergence of the neck portion 5 is properly proportioned, so as to accomplish the desired result; as distinguished from an undue divergence constituting an interference to the normal grasp. Suitable elasticity of the neck portion 5 is essentially necessary, and it is advisable that the elasticity increase as the neck portion diverges, so that the greatest elasticity is at the greatest diameter of the neck portion. However, the neck portion 5 may be uniformly elastic, with its wall thickness less than the wall thickness at the equator of the teat and less than the wall thickness of the breast portion 4.
When the several described details are appropriately combined, the extent to which the infant will engage the nipple in the mouth, will vary with the size of the mouth and the vigor of nursing. Obviously, the flow of food will vary in direct proportion to the extent of engagement of the nipple in the mouth of the infant. The extent to which the infant engages the nipple into the mouth, will increase with the vigor of the infant, in relation to growth, thereby regulating the flow of food in direct relation to the requirements of the infant and the ability to consume the increased flow. The lips of the infant of course suffice for air tight closure, which is supplemented by sucking produced by the combined efforts of tongue and checks, to augment the stripping effect produced by the jaw action of the infants repeated efforts to regrasp the nipple in the mouth.
Any constriction of the neck portion of a nipple, whether said neck portion be cylindrical or otherwise will mitigate the normal jaw action of the infant, to an objectionable extent. Furthermore, such constricted neck portion will also render complete inversion of the nipple more difficult and thus constitute an obstacle to proper cleansing,
The base of the nipple is preferably of sufficient diameter to preclude accidental entrance into the mouth of the infant, as will sometimes accidentally occur with prior art nipples having a relatively small base.
To prevent closure of the teat by-the bite of the infant, a restricted area of the wall of the neck 5 is thickened into an internal prominence 6. Figures 3 and 5 show the result of compression due to the bite of the infant and illustrate that closure of the teat is impossible, and it will be readily apparent that the improved structure assures a passage for the flow of food. Preferably, the thickened area 6 extends from the equator of the teat to the juncture of the neck with the body, further extension being unnecessary; and preferably the prominence 6 curvilinearly joins the adjacent surfaces, thereby avoiding angular contours which are liable to collect caseous deposits which are not removed by routine cleansing. This structure is strictly a baifie, in contradistinction to the conventional ribs, generally employed as a reinforcement to avoid collapse of the nipple; the constantly increasing diameter precluding collapse in the present invention.
The necessary orifice of the teat is preferably plural and such plurality is preferably, comparable to the human breast, say six or more perforations. These perforations are preferably situated in a thin wall area 8 situated on the tip of the teat. The purpose of the thin wall area 8 is to obviate closure of the (singular or plural) orifice by flexure, or by compression, or by both combined, as is of course inherent to rubber, of which nipples are usually made. The thin wall area 8 is best formed by gradually decreasing the thickness of the wall from the equator of the teat to the axis thereof, rather than by an internal recess at the tip of the nipple, for the reason that the latter construction presents an abrupt difference in wall thickness which results in closure of the orifice when the teat is compressed during nursing. The orifices when plural are preferably calibrated, several small orifices being preferable to a single larger orifice and more comparable to the human breast. Where the nipple is used for gruel or other viscous food a single enlarged orifice may be employed to facilitate the flow of food.
Figure 8 shows an enlarged sectional detail of my improved valve illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. As best seen in Figure 8, the valve is formed by an external depression 20 communicating with an internal slit [9. The depression 20 is a curvilinear concavity of sufficient depth to produce a gradually thinned central area readily yieldable to a reduction of pressure within the container to which the nipple is attached in use. When thus yielding, the slit l9 will slightly open andair will be admitted to relieve the reduction of pressure within the container. Due to the fact that the curvilinear concavity produces a gradual thinning of the nipple wall and the slit perforates the thinnest part of the wall, the weight of fluid in the container will aid in holding the edges of the slit in close contact to prevent fluid leaking therethrough, as would otherwise be the case with a uniformly thinned area perforated. by a slit. The curvilinear depression 20 is exceedingly easy to cleanse, and it will be readily understood that upon inversion of the nipple, the nipple wall can be flexed parallel to the slit 19, whereby this slit can with facility be readily cleansed with a brush. This improved structure is far more sanitary than the various tubes and perforate knobs employed as valves in nipples of the prior art.
It is advantageous to prepare feedings in advance and close each container with a suitable cap member. In Figure 9, I show such a cap member, which may take various forms and be attached to the container in any suitable manner, the nipple and cap member being interchangeable on the same container. The valve structure shown in Fig. 8, can be employed on the closure shown in Figure 9, where the indentation 20' is on the interior and the slit [9' on the exterior, to provide for the egress of air and vapor when the contents of the container are warmed.
In Figures 6 and '7, I have shown the previously described construction applied to a nipple having a base of less diameter than shown in Figures 1 and 2. The primed numerals in Figures 6 and '7 are synonymous with the designations in Figures 1 and 2 and the specification is equally applicable thereto.
In the several figures of the drawing I have shown the nipple as provided with an annular bead for attachment to a suitable container, and it will be understood that such is merely a conventional showing and that any known means for attachment may be employed, as the present invention is not directed to that particular feature. It will also be understood that when plural orifices are employed, the valve may be omitted, as there will be ample ingress of air through the orifices at each instance the infant attempts to regrasp the nipple between the jaws. The internal prominence 6 is optional and may be omitted except where occasion demands. It will also be understood that the breast portion 4 may be made of sufficient thickness to obviate the need of the thickened area 1.
In the invention herein disclosed, what I claim as new and hereby secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A nursing nipple comprising a breast portion connected to a teat portion by a thinner and more elastic neck portion, said neck diverging from the teat, to the breast, and the wall of the breast portion being annularly thickened at its juncture with the neck portion, and a single internal prominence extending longitudinally of said teat and neck and being longitudinally integral with the side wall of said teat and neck, said prominence having an elevation above the integral side wall materially in excess of the thickness of the integral side wall and sufficient to serve as a baflle to preclude closure of said teat and neck by compression due to the bite of an infant.
2, A nursing nipple comprising a breast portion connected to a teat portion by a thinner and more elastic neck portion, said neck diverging from the teat, to the breast, and the wall of the breast portion being annularly thickened at its juncture with the neck portion, and a single internal prominence extending longitudi nally of said teat and neck and being longitudinally integral with the side wall of said teat and neck, said prominence having an elevation above the integral side wall materially in excess of the thickness of the integral side wall and sufficient to serve as a baflle to preclude closure of said teat and neck by compression due to the bite of an infant, an external concavity gradually thinning the side Wall of said nipple, and thethinned portion of the side wall of said nipple being perforated by a slit.
3. A nursing nipple comprising a breast portion connected to a teat portion by a thinner and more elastic neck portion, said neck diverging from the teat, to the breast, and the wall of the breast portion being annularly thickened at its juncture with the neck portion, and a single internal prominence extending longitudinally of said teat and neck and being longitudinally integral with the side wall of said teat and neck, said prominence having an elevation above the integral side wall materially in excess of the thickness of the integral side wall and sufiicient to serve as a baffle to preclude closure of said teat and neck by compression due to the bite of an infant, the wall of said teat gradually decreasing in thickness from the equator to the axis, a number of perforations in the thinned end of said teat, an external concavity gradually thinning the side wall of said nipple, and the thinned portion of the side wall of said nipple being perforated by a slit.
BRIDGET D. CONDON,
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|U.S. Classification||215/11.5, 4/255.12|
|International Classification||A61J11/02, A61J11/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61J11/0065, A61J11/02|
|European Classification||A61J11/02, A61J11/00S8|