US 2174587 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 3, 1939. D. LOVE 2,174,587
WELL REAMER Filed June. 15, 1936 Patented Oct. 3, 1939 I p v I I I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WELL REAMER Dean Love, Fullerton, Calif., assignor to Chicksan Oil Tool Company, Ltd., Fullerton, Calif., a corporation of California Application June 15, 1936, Serial No. 85,209
2 Claims. (01. 255-73) This invention relates to a well drilling tool View of the bearin tio taken as indicated and relates more particularly to a well reamer. by l ne 011 A general object of this invention is to provide The bore enlargin Well reamer f the present a simple, practical and particularly efiicient bore invention includes, genera y, a Shank b y 5 enlarging well reamer for use in the rotary metha multiplicity of disc cutters II and means I2 0d of well drilling. rotatably mounting the cutters II on the body l0.
Another object of this invention is to provide The body It of the reamer is adapted to be a well reamer operable to effectively and rapidl interposed or connected in a well drilling string.
enlarge the rat-hole or reduced lower portion of When the reamer is to be employ t0 enlarge a a well bore. pilot bore or rat-hole the body I0 may be con- Another object. of this invention is to provide n ed with th low r p r ion f th dril n a bore enlarging well reamer embodying a plu- String and may have a pilot bit connected with rality of rotatable disc cutters mounted to be its lower end to guide the reamer in the rat-hole. particularly rapid and eflicicnt in their cutting The y s an elongate member and y be action. cylindrical in its general configuration. Suitable Another object of this invention is to provide m n r pr vi at h pp d of the a bore enlarging well reamer of the character body ID to facilitate its connection in the drillmentioned in which the disc cutters do not being strin In th case i l a n the wcome balled up or made inoperative by accumuins pe S w threaded D is provided lations of mud and cuttings. on the upper end of the body II) and a threaded 20 Another object of this invention is to provide socket (not shown) may b provided in the lower a bore enlarging well reamer of the character end of the body. The body I0 may have a submentioned in which the disc cutters are formed stantia-lly intermediate portion I4 of enlarged and mounted to have substantial clearance at diameter for carrying the cutters I! and the their trailing sides so that they are very rapid cutter supporting parts. The body portion I4 25 and efficient and do not become balled up with may be cylindrical and the shoulders I5 at its accumulations of mud and cuttings. opposite ends may be tapered or bevelled. A Another object of this invention is to provide central longitudinal fluid passage I6 extends a well reamer of the character mentioned emthrough the body IE) from one end tothe other to bodying reaming disc cutters of novel and imconduct the rotary mud or circulation fluid. 30 proved design. The body It! is provided with means for re- Another object of this invention is to provide ceiving the cutters II and their mounting means a well reamer of the character mentioned eml2. In the particular embodiment of the invenbodying simple, dependable means for rotatably tion illustrated in the drawing there are two cir- 35. mounting the disc cutters. cumferential rows or series of cutters II and the 5 A further object of this invention is to proportion !4 of the body I!) has two vertically vide a well reamer of the character mentioned spaced circumferential rows of projecting lugs in which the disc cutters and the wear receiving or wings for carrying the cutters II and their bearings supporting the cutters may be easily mounting means I2. These wings are preferably and quickly replaced. integral with the body portion I4 and are ar- 40 The various objects and features of my invenranged in pairs, each pair comprising a forward tion will be fully understood from the following wing I! and a rear wing I8. The pairs of wings detailed description of a typical preferred form !I and I8 in each set or series are equally cirand application of the invention, throughout cumferentially spaced and the corresponding which description reference is made to the acpairs of wings I1 and I8 of the two sets or series 45 companying drawing, in which: may be substantially vertically aligned as illus- Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the improved trated in Fig. 1. The wings I1 and I8 project reamer provided by s nvention. Fig. 2 is an laterally or outwardly from the body portion I4. enlarged transverse detailed sectional view taken The outer surfaces of the wings I! and I8 are substantially as indicated by line 22 on Fig. 1. suitably rounded and merge with the surface of 50 F 3 is an enlarged fragmentary Vertical 16- the body portion I I. In accordance with the intailed sectional view taken as indicated by line vention the wings ll and i8 are pitched or in- 33 on Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a side or end elevation clined relative to the longitudinal axis of the of one of the bearing sections for supporting a body ID. The wings IT and 18 are inclined or 5 0 disc cutter and Fig. 5 is a diametrical sectional pitched downwardly and forwardly relative to the longitudinal axis of the body I and the direction of rotation of the reamer.
The Wings I1 and I8 of each pair of wings are spaced apart to leave a recess I9 for carrying or receiving a cutter II. The recesses I9 are preferably comparatively deep and extend into the body portion I4, as best illustrated in Fig. 2. The opposing inner sides or surfaces 20 and 2| respectively of the wings I1 and I8 are fiat and parallel and are inclined downwardly and forwardly relative to the longitudinal axis of the body I0 and the direction of rotation of the reamer. The surfaces 29 and 2| comprise the side walls of the recesses I9. The invention provides fluid ports 22 in the body I!) which extend outwardly from the passage I6 to the inner ends of the recesses 9. The ports 22 are adapted to discharge the circulation fluid outwardly against the cutters II in the recesses I9. The pairs of Wings I1 and I8 just described are preferably located adjacent the end shoulders I of the body portion I4.
The cutters II are in the nature of disc cutters and operate to shear the formation at the side Wall .of the well bore when the reamer body I0 is rotated in the well. A disc cutter II is rotatably mounted in each recess I9 and where there are six pairs of wings I1 and I8, as just described, the reamer embodies six cutters II. The cutters II may be identical in size and shape. The opposite sides of the cutters II may be flat and parallel. A central longitudinal opening 23 of substantial diameter is provided in each disc cutter II. A counterbore or concentric socket 24 is provided in each cutter at the forward end of its opening 23. The cutters II are preferably of substantial diameter relative to the diameter of the body Ill.
The disc cutters I I are shaped to have particularly effective cutting cooperation with the earth formation and to remain free of accumulations of cuttings and mud. The peripheries of the cutters II are rather steeply pitched rearwardly and inwardly from the forward faces of the cutters leaving relatively sharp forward cutting edges 25. These cutting edges 25 are annular and unbroken. In accordance with the invention ridges or teeth 26 are provided on the peripheries of the cutters I I. The teeth are not necessarily sharpened. The teeth 26 provide ample metal stock for the active cutting edge portions of the cutters while the grooves or spaces occurring between the teeth 26 form clearance passages for the circulation fluid and the cuttings. The teeth 26 may be of rearwardly increasing depth whereby they do not come into active engagement with the formation at the side wall of the well bore. The action or operation .of the cutters II will be hereinafter described.
The means I2 rotatably support the cutters I I in the recesses I9 to project from the wings I1 and I8 so that they may act on the wall of the well bore. The assemblies or means I2 for rotatably supporting the several cutters II may be identical. Each cutter mounting means I2 includes a split or sectional bearing comprising, two like sections 21. The bearing sections 21 are cylindrical members and their inner opposing ends 28 are flat and normally in abutting cooperation. The .outer surfaces or ends 29 of the bearing sections 21 are flat and normal and are adapted to engage against the walls 20 and 2| of the recesses I9. Annular peripherial flanges 30 are provided on the bearing sections 21 at their outer ends. The peripheral surfaces of the bearing sections 21 the cutter from the surface 20. Thus the bearing sections 21 are operable to transmit end thrusts from the cutters II directly to the wings I1 and I8 of the body. Longitudinal openings 3| are provided in the bearing sections 21. In the preferred construction the openings 3| are eccentric or offset from the central axis of the sections 21.
Pins 32 are provided to retain the bearing sections 21 in the recesses IS. The pins 32 are passed inwardly through openings 33 in the forward wings I 1 and have their rear .or inner portions threaded into openings 34 in the rear wings I8. The threads of the pins 32 and the openings 34 are preferably left-hand threads so that the pins have no tendency to unthread during opera tion of the reamer. The longitudinal axis of the openings 33 and 34 are inclined downwardly and rearwardly relative to the longitudinal axis of the body I9 and the direction of rotation of the reamer, being normal to the walls or surfaces 20 and 2|. Sockets 35 are provided in the wings I1 at the forward ends of the openings 33. Heads 36 are provided .on the forward ends of the pins 32 and are received in the recesses 35. The pins 32 having the heads 36 bearing in the sockets 35 and being threaded in the openings 34 operate to tie together the legs I1 and I8. The pins 32 pass through the openings 3| of the bearing sections 21 to retain the bearing sections and the cutters II in their proper positions in the recesses I9.
The invention provides means for relieving the pins 32 of practically all thrusts and pressures resulting from the active engagement of the cutters II with the wall of the well bore. A rib or key 38 is provided on the outer end 29 of each bearing section 21. The keys 38 are integral with the bearing sections 21. In practice the keys 38 are diametric of the openings 3| and are each divided into two parts by the presence of the openings 3|. The keys 38 are rectangular in transverse cross section having flat sides and outer faces. Channels or grooves 39 are provided on the opposing inner surfaces of the wings I1 and I8 to receive the keys 38. The grooves 39 are rectangular in transverse cross section to rather accurately receive the keys 38 and are arranged to intersect the openings 33 and 34. In the preferred construction the grooves 39 extend substantially horizontally inward from the outer ends of the wings I1 and I 8.
When assembling a cutter II and its bearing sections 21 in a recess I9 the assembly of the cutter and bearing sections is moved laterally or inwardly to enter the keys 38 in the outer end of the grooves 39. The assembly is then shifted inwardly until the openings 3| of the bearing sections 21 are properly aligned with the openings 33 and 34. The pin 32 is then inserted and threaded in place. The keys 38 cooperate with the grooves 39 to transmit the reaming or cutting thrusts directly to the body of the reamer and transmit the torque resulting from rotation of the cutters II directly to the body, thus relieving the pins 32 of practically all pressures and strains resulting from the engagement of the cutters with the earth formation.
In operation the body In of the reamer may be connected in the lower portion of a well drilling string above a pilot bit. When the string is operated or rotated in the well bore the pilot bit operates in the pilot bore or rat-hole to guide the reamer. During rotation of the spring the cutters II projecting outwardly from the legs I1 and I8 have their edges 25 in active engagement with the earth formation at the side wall of the well bore. The engagement of the cutters with the earth formation results in the independent rotation of the cutters about their individual axes. The relatively sharp forward peripheral edges 25 of the cutters I I act to shear or cut away the earth formation as the reamer and the cutters I I rotate. Owing to the substantial pitch of the peripheries of the cutters II there is a substantial clearance space C immediately behind each cutting edge 25 where it acts on the formation. Fig. 2 of the drawing illustrates the relationship of the cutters II to the wall of the well bore and shows the substantial clearance space C at the rear of each active cutting edge. These clearance spaces C allow the cutters II to clear themselves and provide for the circulation of the fluid and cuttings about the cutters. The teeth 26 and the spaces between the teeth provide turbulence or movement at the peripheries of the cutters and aid in keeping the cutters free of accumulations of mud and cuttings.
The circulation fluid discharging from the ports 22 impinges against the cutters II to flush them free of cuttings and to clear the teeth 26 of cuttings. The teeth 26 also strengthen the cutting edge portions of the cutters. The disc cutters II are of substantial diameter, and as they rotate during operation, present long active cutting edges 25. Because of their substantial length the cutting edges 25 are long wearing. The inclination or pitch of the cutters I I increases their cutting efiiciency and assures their proper individual rotation. The body I0 and its portion I4 are relatively small in diameter with respect to the effective diameter of the series of cutters II adapting the reamer for the enlarging of ratholes. The six cutters II arranged in the two vertically spaced series effectively and fully ream or enlarge the bore.
The cutters II supported by the bearing sections 21 may freely rotate about their individual axes without wearing the body In and without imposing severe strains on the pins 32. The bearing sections 21 directly engage the walls or surfaces 20 and 2I for the transmission of end thrusts to the wings I1 and I8 while the keys 38 cooperate with the grooves 39 for the transmission of the torque stresses directly to the body wings; The bearing sections 21 thus relieve the pins 32 of practically all strains and relieve the pins and body of wear. The cutters II and their hearing sections 21 may be easily and quickly removed for replacement when worn.
Having described only a typical preferred form and application of my invention I do not wish to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself any variations or modifications that may appear to those skilled in the art or fall within the scope of the following claims:
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A well reamer for use in a string of drilling tools including, a body to be interposed in said string, a disc cutter, and means mounting the disc cutter on the body to project outwardly therefrom at a point between its ends and to rotate about an axis inclined upwardly and forwardly relative to the longitudinal axis of the body and the direction of rotation of the reamer, the periphery of the cutter being inclined inwardly away from the leading peripheral edge of the cutter to leave clearance behind said edge, and teeth on the periphery of the cutter.
2. A well reamer for use in a string of drilling tools including, a body to be interposed in said string, circumferentially spaced pairs of spaced wings projecting outwardly from the periphery of the body in a plane between its opposite ends, a disc cutter between the wings of each of said pairs, the peripheries of the cutters being beveled DEAN LOVE.