US 2175751 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. T. FAIRCHILD ANGLE-INDICATING DEVICE Filed Oct. 7, 1938 Oct. 10, 1.939.
2 sheets sheet 1 3mm Jana; Z @ww/y Oct. 10, 1939. T FA|RH|LD 2,175,751
ANGLE-INDICATING DEVICE Filed Oct. 7, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 swam top Patented Oct. 10, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 3 Claims.
This invention relates to a device for determining horizontal, vertical or angular lines.
The principal object of this invention is to provide a gravity operated plumb or level thus eliminating the usual spirit level tube, comprising a stock, a weighted indicator rotatably mounted within the stock and novel means for mounting the indicator in the stock.
Another object of this invention relates to the provision of a pair of weighted indicators mounted on a common axis arranged one on each side of the stock, each coacting with a separate dial provided with degree graduations to give the angular position in which the stock is placed, regardless which side of the stock is viewed, the weighted indicators being supported for rotational movement by a novel mounting means and the whole being encased by transparent closures to protect the same against damage, dirt, etc.
With the foregoing and other objects in view theinvention consists in the arrangement and combination of parts hereinafter described and claimed, and while the invention is not restricted to the exact details of construction, disclosed or suggested herein, still for the purpose of illustrating a practical embodiment thereof reference is had to the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters designate the same parts in the several views, and in which Figure 1 is a front or side elevational view of a stock containing three pairs of gravity indicators constructed in accordance with this invention.
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the stock showing the same inclined at 5 degrees to the horizontal.
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view through the stock and one of the gravity indicators taken on line 3--3, Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a modified form of stock showing a gravity indicator and dial provided with degree graduations.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings, the numeral I0 indicates the stock of the improved plumb and level which can be made of metal, hard wood or any other suitable material. As shown the stock I0 is provided with three dials ll, l2 and I3 each including a gravity indicator. While three such dials have been shown it is to be understood that any desired number may be utilized, and inasmuch as they are all identical, a description of only one of the dial and gravity indicator mechanisms will be given.
The stock In is provided with a circular opening l3, see Figure 3, the end portions of which adjacent the side walls of the stock are of enlarged diameter as at H to provide annular shoulders l5. Arranged to snugly fit within the opening I3 is a metal disc I6 comprising a rim H, a web l8 and a hub IS, the disc l6 being rigidly secured to the stock in any desired manner (not shown). The sides of the rim I! are machined to provide flat parallel faces which are suitably graduated in degrees, in the manner to be hereinafter described to constitute the dial I 2. Preferably the width of the rim I1 is less than the length of the circular opening l3, the disc 16 being centrally positioned therein whereby to provide annular spaces 2| of equal depth between the rim faces 20 and shoulders 15.
Within the bore 22 of the hub l9 are positioned spaced bearing bushings 24 which rotatably support a spindle 25. The spindle 25 comprises a central enlarged portion 26 of a diameter less than the bore 22,and journal portions 21 having bearing engagement with the bushings 24, each of said journal portions 21 being formed with a square shank extension 28 projecting outwardly of the outside faces of the hub I9 and bushings 24 as clearly shown. The square shank extensions 28 are each provided with a threaded axial opening 29. By virtue of the lesser diameter of the central enlarged portion 26 of the spindle 25 as compared to that of the bore 22 there is provided an annular chamber 30 adapted to contain a supply of lubricant, the chamber 30 communicating with a passageway 3| provided in the web l8 of the disc. The upper end of the passageway 3| communicates with a threaded opening 32 in the stock It! which is normally closed by a screw 33. Thus, lubrication of the spindle journals 2"! is effected in a positive manner to insure proper rotational movement of the spindle on the bearing bushings 24.
Carried by each of the square shank extensions 28 is a gravity indicator 35. Each indicator 35 is formed as a unitary integral member having a pointer 36, a hub 31 and a depending weight 38 of sector shape adapted to fit between the hub 19 and rim 1 I of the disc IS. The hub 31 is provided with a square opening 39 adapted to receive the square shank 28, the width of said hub 3l and shank 28 being equal. A set screw 40 coacting with the threaded opening 29 acts to positively secure the gravity indicator on the square shank 28. Obviously the gravity indicator is so formed and machined as to be perfectly symmetrical and balanced and the mounting of both indicators on the spindle 26 is such that both pointers will lie in the same plane intersecting the spindle axis of Seated on the shoulders 20 of the stock ID are' circular glass closures 4| which are held in position in any desired manner as by the beads or molding 42. The pointers 38 of the gravity indicators 35 are of such a length that the tips thereof will lie closely adjacent to the inside peripheral edge of the dial faces 20.
The dial faces are graduated in degrees starting with degrees at diametrically opposite points thereon to which the pointers 36 will point when the stock Iii is placed on a level surface, thus making 90 degrees with reference to a vertical plane passing through the 0 degree reading. The graduations run around on the face of the dial from 0 degrees to 90 degrees, 90 degrees to 0 degrees, 0 degrees to 90 degrees and 90 degrees 0 degrees, as clearly shown in the dial readings of Figures 1 and 4. Thus regardless whether the stock I0 is placed on its bottom edge or top edge, the gravity indicators 35 will by virtue of their free rotational movement of the spindle 26 give a proper angular reading of the position in which the stock is placed. Even if the stock is placed on either end, the gravity dials 35 will rotate to their normal vertical position to give a proper angular reading of the position in which the stock is placed. As the dial faces can be read from either side of the stock it is immaterial which side is viewed. The outer face of the weight portions 38 of the gravity indicators 35 is provided with an indicator mark or scored line 49 which is directly in line with the tip of the pointer 36 so that when the pointer is at 0, the indicator mark will also be at 0, so that the degrees can be read from the bottom.
In Figure 4 is shown a metal stock Illa preferably formed as a casting having machined parallel wide faces 45 and 46, connected by a web 41 defining a circular casing 48 in which is housed the gravity indicator mechanism and dial faces such as shown in Figure 3. The circular casing 48 is provided with air vents 50 which may also be utilized in the construction shown in Figure 3.
It will be apparent that the above described plumb and level can be produced cheaply, which is accurate and light in weight, and which will operate instantly in the performance of its functions, and which in every respect is efflcient and practical.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A plumb or level comprising a stock, a circular opening formed therein, a disc fitted within said opening, a spindle rotatably supported by said disc, a gravity indicator attached to each end of said spindle for simultaneous movement therewith, a circular dial face having degree graduations thereon-arranged on each side of said disc and transparent closure means sealing each end of said circular opening, said disc being formed to provide a lubricant reservoir surrounding said spindle and disposed wholly within the body of said disc.
2. A plumb or level comprising a stock, a circular-opening formed therein, a disc fitted within said opening and rigidly secured therein, said disc being formed to provide a rim, a central hub and a connecting web portion, a spindle rotatably supported within said hub having noncircular extensions projecting axially outwardly of said hub, a one piece gravity indicator fitted on each of said non-circular extensions and removably attached thereto, said gravity indicator including a pointer and a sector shaped weight portion having a substantial portion of its mass so shaped as to fit within the annular space of said disc defined by the rim and hub for movement therein, said hub being of less length than the width of said rim, the construction and mounting of said gravity indicators being such that the outer surface of each lies in the plane of a side of said rim, a dial face having degree graduations formed on each side of said rim and transparent closure means sealing each end of said circular opening and each spaced from a dial face and associated gravity indicator.
3. The plumb or level as set forth in claim 2, wherein said hub is provided with an axial bore. a bearing bushing fitted in each end of said bore in axial spaced relation, said spindle having a central enlarged portion arranged between said spaced bushings and journal portions having each a bearing engagement with one of said bushings, said central enlarged portion being of less diameter than the diameter of said bore to define an annular lubricant chamber, and a lubricant passageway extending through said stock and web communicating with said chamber.
JAMES TOBE FAIRCHILD.