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Publication numberUS2177490 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 24, 1939
Filing dateApr 9, 1936
Priority dateApr 9, 1936
Publication numberUS 2177490 A, US 2177490A, US-A-2177490, US2177490 A, US2177490A
InventorsKieffer John E
Original AssigneeKieffer John E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Art of making indented material
US 2177490 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 24, 1939 J, E, KlEFFER 2,177,490

ART OF MAKING INDENTED MATERIAL Filed April 9, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l LENGTH 0F SHEET INVENT OR.

JaHN E. KIEFFER BY Gaan/Laad ATTORNEYS Oct. 24, 1939.

ENG TH 0F JHEEY J. E. KIEFFER 2,177,490

ART 0F `MAKING INDENTED MATERIAL Filed April 9, 1956 4 Sheets-Shea?I 2 FIG' 8 INVENTOR,

JoHN E. KIEFFER .ATTORNEYJ LENGTH oF SHEEY oct. 24; 1939. J. E. KIEFFER 2,117,499

ART QF MAKING INDENTED MATERIAL Filed April 9, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 f3.9 40 45 44 /4/ 45 44 fdl LENGTH oF `ffm-ET LENGTH oF .SHEET LENGTH or HEET LENGTH aF `SHEET INVENTOR.

" JoHN E. KIEF'FER Oct. 24,1939. 4 J. E. KlEFFl-:R I 2,177,490

ART OF MAKING INDENTED MATERIAL Filed April 9, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ...MN/EET 68 25K? 64a/ 63 x 62 lINVENTGR. QQ-@Y JOHN KJEFFE Gamm ma TTORNEYJs patented Oct. 24, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Aa'r or' MAKING INDENTED MATERIAL l Jenn a. mener. Emana. Application AwaA 9, 193e, semi No. 73,410

This invention relates to the 'art of making indented paper; i. e., paper which is provided on one or both of its surfaces with a multiplicity of indentations, protuberances, corrugations, nutl ings, waves or crinkles.

In Patent No. 1,780,526 dated November 4, 1930,

I have disclosed a material of this type in which /the indentations and protuberances have been molded into the paper after it has been coml pletely formed and after a substantial portion of its water content had been removed without materially decreasing its plasticity or causing the fibers to set in their usual substantially at condition, and prior to the iinal conditioning and ll setting of the :bers of the paper. By molding the protuberances in this manner, I have found it possible to produce deeper indentations than had been made by prior processes and vto impart to the product a previously unequalled rubber-likeL N resiliency and springiness normal to its surface. Indented paperbecause of its shock absorbing' cushioning properties is particularly well adapted for wrapping and protecting fragile articles such as glassware, and for covering iloors or stairs under carpets. It also has excellent thermal insulating qualities and for this reason is being used in ever increasing quantities as a pipe covering.

` Indented paper as made prior to the present invention has one shortcoming; namely, it the material is laminated as by winding a web in a roll or by stacking a number of sheets, the indentations or protuberances of the diierent layers tend to register and to nest in each other. For certain uses and applications of indented paper, this is a serious disadvantage, for nesting of the indentations cuts down the amounts of air space between the layers, thus lessening to a considerable extent the shock absorbing and heat n insulating qualities of a laminated sheet. Furthermore, nesting .of the indentations makes it impossible to wind a web so as to produce a roll having a uniform circular cross-section. Moreover, it is exceedingly diilicult to separate nested 45 sheets by hand, lan operation'which must be performed very rapidly in the placing of sheets between the articles being wrapped. -This invention constitutes an improvemen -over the invention disclosed in my prior patent 60 and over indented material as previously made.

It has for one of its important objects the production of an indented material, in which the tendency of the indentations or protuberances to register or nest when the material is laminated Il is reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely.

l2 Claims. (Cl. 1ML- 33) Another object of importance is to produce a laminated material consisting of non-nesting indented sheets or webs.

In its very essence, the invention consists in arranging the protuberances and/or indentations 5 on the sheet or web of material in such manner that the material differs in cross-section at as many lines transverse to its length as possible. In other words, it is my purpose to provide 'a sheet or web of material in which as large areas as possible do not have matching or similar transverse cross-sections. In achieving this purpose, I arrange the protuberances and/or indentations in a plurality of longitudinally extending zones along the width of the-sheet or web. The protuberances and/or indentations in any given zone may diiIer in shape and/or size from those in an adjacent zone, or may be outof line transversely of the sheet with those in adjacent zones.

The material in certain of the zones may be left unindented. The width of the zones may vary within relatively large ranges. It maybe stated that the smaller the width of the zones and the larger the'number of zones, the greater will, be the area within which the materialwill not have two similar transverse cross-sections. This is the same as saying that increasing the number of zones and decreasing their width will reduce the probability that the material will nest along any line when wound upon itself or when superposed on another sheet or web.

In another of its aspects, the invention resides in superposing a. plurality of indented sheets having similar zoned patterns, so that their non-- matching zones are in contacting relationship and the resulting laminated product has a thickness equal to the sum of the thicknesses of the individual sheets.

This applicationy is a continuation in part of application serial No. '158,131 med December 1a, 40 1934.

Referring brieiiy to the drawings,

Figure 1 is a plan view of a small portion of one form of material embodying the inventive concept of the present invention;

Figure 2 is a cross-section taken along line 2--2 of Figure l;

Figure 3 is a cross-section taken along line 3-3 of Figure 1;

Figure 4'is a .cross-section taken along line 4-4 of Figure l;

Figure 5 is a plan view of asmall portion of a second form of material made according to the teachings of this invention;

Figure 6 is a cross-section taken along line 6-6 of Figure 5'; l y,

Figure 7 is a cross-section taken along line 'l-l of Figure 5;

Figure 8 is a plan view of a small portion of a third form of material embodying my inventive concept;

Figure 9 is .a plan view, partly broken away, of a laminated product made by superpcsing two sheets similar to the one illustrated in Figure 8;

Figure 10 is a cross-section taken along line Ill-I0 of Figure 9;

Figure 11 is a plan view, partly broken away, of another form of laminated product made by superposing two sheets similar to theone illustrated in Fig-ure 8;

Figure 12 is a cross-section I2-I2 of Figure 11;

Figure 13 is a diagrammatic representation of an arrangement of rolls of indented material for making the laminated product of Figure 11;

Figure 14 is a plan view, partly broken away, of a laminated product which may be made from the material illustrated in Figure 16;

Figure 15 is aA cross-section taken along line I5-I5 of Figure 14; and

Figure 16 is a plan view of a portion of an taken along line indented sheet of double width from which may be made the laminated product of Figure 14.

Referring to the drawings vin greater detail and particularly to Figures 1 to 4 inclusive, it will be noted that the material illustrated in these figures is divided into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones. Five zones designated by the numerals I, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are shown, but it is thought to be obvious that the number of zones may be either less or greater.

Zone I is shown provided on its upper surface with a series of hollow protuberances designated by 6 and on its lower surface with a series of hollow protuberances designated by 1. The two surfaces are also provided with a series of indentations designated by 8 and 9 respectively. The protuberances are'illustrated as being substantially semi-spherical in form, but it is to be understood that they may take other polyhedral shapes without sacrificing' any of the advantages of the invention. It will be noted that the protuberances on each of thesurfaces are in substantial contact along the diagonals of the zone, while they alternate with the indentations in the length and Width of the zone.

Zone 2 is shown provided on its upper surface with a series of protuberances designated by IU and on its lower surface with a series of protuberances II. The two surfaces are also provided with the series of indentations I2 and I3. The protuberances and indentations in zone 2 Vare preferably different in shape and/ or size than those in zone I. They are shown Ito be frustopyramidal in form; though it is to be understood that they may have other shapes and forms. It will be noted that the protuberances alternate with the indentations transversely of the zone, and that each transverse line of protuberances and indentations is separated by a flat area designated by I3'.

Zone 3 lis shown provided on its upper surface with a series of protuberances designated by I4 and on its lowersurface with a series of protuberances I5. The upper surface is also shown provided with the indentations I6 and the lower surface with the indentations I1. The protuberances are illustrated as being semi-spherical in form, but they differ from those of zone I in size and also in the fact that they contact diagonally ofthe web instead of transversely and longitudinally.

Zone 4v is illustrated as being provided with the same shape and size of protuberances and indentations as zone 2, and zone 5 is shown provided with the same shape a'nd -size of protuberances and indentations as zone I. In zone 4 the protuberances on the upper surface are indicated by II' and those on the lower surface by I8. 'I'he indentations on the two surfaces are indicated by I9 and 20. In zone 5, the protuberances on the two surfaces are indicated by 2I and 22, and the indentations by 23 and 24.

In Figures 2, 3 and 4 are shown sections along three different transverse lines through a given area of material. It will be noted that the sections in Figure 2 and Figure 3 are similar only through two of the zones; namely, zones 2 and 4.

Hence, if the lines along which these sections werel taken were superposed, the dissimilarity in cross.- sections along the other three zones would prevent the laminated material from nesting. It 'will be noted that the sections in Figures 2 and 4 have no matching/portions at all, and that the sections in Figures 3 and 4 are similar only through zones I, 3 and 5. 'I'he number of corresponding portions in the sections above noted can be further decreased by changing the size and shape of the protuberances and indentations of zones 4 and 5.

-The reason that the patterns of certain of the zones are illustrated as being similar is that this renders less expensive the cost of making the indentlng rolls.

The material shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7 differs from that illustrated in Figures 1 to 4 inclusive merely in the form of the protuberances and indentations. The material is shown to be divided transversely of the sheet or web into five longitudinally extending zones 25, 26, 2J, 28 and 29. The protuberances and indentations on the upper surface of zone 25 are denoted by 30 and 3| respectively, while those on the lower surfacevare denoted by 32 and 33 respectively. The protuberances in this zone are substantially semi-spherical in form and are in substantial contact transversely and longitudinally of the sheet. It is to be noted that along the diagonals of the zone the protuberances are separated by the indentations.

The protuberances and indentations on the upper surface of zone 26 are denoted by 34 and 35 respectively, while those on the lower surface are denoted by 36 and 31 respectively. It is to be noted that the protuberances and indentations of both zones 25 and 26 are shown to be of substantially the same shape and size, but that theprotuberances in zone 26 are in substantial contact along the diagonals of the zone instead of being in contact along the length and width of the sheet. In other words, there is an angle of about between the lines of contact of the protuberances in the two zones. It is thought to be evident that if zones 25 and`26 were to be superposed no nesting of protuberances and indentations would occur. It is to be understood Ithat I am not to be restricted to an angle of 45 as other angles, e. g., 33 or 67, will produce'satisfactory results.

For practical reasons zones 21 and 29 are shown as being duplicates of zone 25, while zone 28'is shown to have a similar pattern to zone 25. As shown by Figures 6 and '7 the material differs considerably in cross-section along different transverse lines.

In Figure 8 is shown an indented sheet having four longitudinally extending zones 1I, 3l, 4l and li. Zones 38 and 40 are provided on both their surfaces with frusta-pyramidal protuber- In Figures 9 and l0 `are shown two different' forms of laminated material which may be made by superposing two sheets or webs having 'the construction illustrated in Figure 8.' Referring toFlgure 9, it will lhe noted that the zones of the upper laye: are designated as 38,19, l0 and `4I while those of the lower layer are designated as 38', 39', 40' and 4I'. 'I'he product may be made by superposing the two layers while one layer is shifted or offset a distance equal to one zone relative to the other. As a result the product has a laminated central portion equal in width to three zones (i. e., one zone less than the width of the material) and two marginal single zones Il and 4I. If desired 4the two single zones may be severed from the body of the product. From the cross-section shown in Figure 10 it is evident that the superposed sheets cannot nest at any point and the laminated producthas a thickness equal to the sum of the vindividual layers. If thought necessary or desirable the several layers may be secured together by means of an adhesive or staples. It is within my inventive concept to superpose the layers as they are being wound on the pipe or mandrel to be' covered.

Referring to Figures 11 and 12, it will'fbe noted that the zones of the upper layer are designated by the numerals 38a, 39a, 40a and Ma, while the corresponding zones of thelower layer are designated by the numerals 38h, 39h, 40h and Mb. The two layers are superposed so that zones 38a and 40a which are provided with frusto-pyramidal protuberances and indentations are in direct contact with zones 4I b and 39h respectively which are provided with the semi-spherical protuberances, and zones 39a and lla which are provided with semi-spherical protuberances are-in direct contact with zones 40h and 38h respectively which areprovided with frusto-pyramidal protuberances and indentations. Hence, the two layers are laminated throughout their width and the superposed layers. do not nest at any point.

There are various ways in which the product of Figures 11 and 12 can be made. One way consists in placing two sheets similar in construction to the indented material of Figure 8 side by side and then turning one sheet onto the other about an edge. Another wayls to superpose one sheet upon the other as lone of the sheets is turned through an angle of 180 in a horizontal plane. In Figure 13 is shown diagrammatlcally an arrangement for making the product in one continuous operation from two webs of material. The two webs are indicated by the numerals and 5| and are being drawn from the rolls 52 and 53 into which they had been wound at some time during the process of manufacture. Roll 52 is positioned above roll 53, one of the rolls having been turned horizontally through an angle of 180. Hence the web 50 is drawn downwardly from roll 52 and the web 5I is drawn upwardly from the roll 453 'as the two webs are superposed with their marginal edges in ilush relationship. Suitable means (not shown) may be provided to apply ad hesive to one or bothl of the webs and to press both of the webs together, The laminated material which is indicated by the numeral 54 may be vdirectly wound on another roll or on a pipe to be insulated. In Figure 13 the pipe to be wound is designated by the numeral 55.

In Figure 14 is shown a portion of a laminated product which d iiers from the product of Figure 11 in'that certain ot the zones are provided with transverse corrugations instead of protuberances and indentations of restricted area. The two layers are denoted by 5I and 6I, each layer being divided into four zones those of the upper layer being denoted by 62, 63, 64 and 65 and those of the lower layer being denoted by 62a, 63a-, 64a and 65a. Zones 02 and B4 of the upper layer and zones 82a and 64a of the lower layer are provided with frusto-pyramidal protuberances and indentations 66 and 61, while zones 63 and 65 of the upper layer and zones 83a and 65a of the lower layer are provided with transverse corrugations 58. It will be noted that the corrugations in the -diil'erent zones of the same web are shown to be out of line transversely of the sheet, but I may arrange them in other ways. As shown in Figure 15 the two layers though they are in direct contact do not nest at any point. It is thought to be clear that the product of Figure 14 may be made in any of the ways given for the product of Figure 11.

The two sheets used in making the laminated products previously described may be produced by slitting a sheet of double width down its longitudinal center line. Such a double lsheet is shown in Figure 16. The double sheet which is designated as 66 is symmetrical about the cutting line, but it is to be understood that the pattern may be different on the two" sides o the center line.

Various ways will suggest themselves to persons skilled in the art for making the indenting rolls by means of which the protuberances and/or indentations of the present invention may be impressed into the paper. One illustrative method is to make a number oi sets of indenting rolls in the form of hollow tubes, eachset bearing one design of protuberance and/or indentation; cutting the tubes into shorter tubes having a length equal to the desired width of the zones; and uniting the'short tubes endto end tc form a set o! indenting rolls having the desired arrangement of zones. e

To obtain the best results, including the deepest possible indentation and protuberance and the most resilient and springy product, I .prefer to mold the protuberances and indentations into the paper in accordance with the teachings of my prior patent (Patent No. 1,780,526), i. e., into the semi-plastic sheet of paper before it is dried.

However, I am not preciudedfrom forming the The term paper in the present disclosure is used in its ordinary sense in the art, vi. e., to designate a sheet material yformed by papermaking methods from an aqueous suspension of fibrous materials such as cellulose and/or asbestos which may be admixed with other vegetable, animal or mineral fibers to impart to the product other desirable properties.

When I state that the protuberances are polyhedral or globular, I intend to mean that they' are of relatively small restricted areas; in other words, that their dimensions are of the same relatively small order of magnitude.

When I state that the protuberances and/or indentations in any zone diflerin form fromsthose `in other zones, I intend to mean that they differ herent in my invention.

either in form, and/or shape or that they are dis,- posed at a different angle.

The foregoing speciiicationand description include the essential and distinctive thought of my invention, butit` is to be distinctly understood that the same may be modified in various ways and/or combined with various other details without affecting the peculiar results obtained, and without departing from the spirit of the invention or thescope of the appended claims, in which I intend tol-,claim all the patentablenovelty in 1. As an article of manufacture, a sheet or web of indented paper, the sheet or web being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, each zone being provided Aon one or both of its surfaces with a plurality of indentations of polyhedral shape, the indentations in any one zone differing in form from those in. an adjacent zone.

2'. As an article of manufacture, a sheet or web of indented paper, the sheet or web being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, certain of the zones being provided on one or both of their surfaces with frustopyramidal protuberances and certain other of the agnes being provided with1 semi-spherical protube'rances.

3. As an article of manufacture, a sheet or web of indented paper, the sheet or web being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, certain of the zones being provided on one or both of their surfaces with globular protuberances and certain other of the zonesr being provided with corrugations.

4. As an article of manufacture, a sheet or web of indented paper, the sheet or web bein-g divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zcnes, certain of the zones being provided on one or both of their surfaces with globular protuberances and certain other of the zones being provided with cross corrugations.

- 5. As an article of manufacture, a sheet or web of indented paper the sheet or web being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally ex' tending zones, said zones being provided on one or both of their surfaces with a multiplicity of polyhedral identations, the indentations in any given zone being in line both transversely and longitudinally of the paper and the indentations in a given zone being out of line with those in another zone.

7. As an article of manufacture, a laminated sheet or web consisting of at least two layers of indented paper, each layer being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, each zone being provided on one or both zone, said layers being superposed with their non-, lmatching zones in ,direct contact.

8. As an article of manufacture, a. laminated `sheet or web consisting of at least two layers of indented paper, each layerbeing dividedl in'its width into a. plurality of longitudinally extending zones, certain of the zones being provided on one or both of their surfaces with globular protuberances and certain other of the zones being vprovided with semi-spherical protuberances, vsaid layers being superposed with their non-matching zones in direct contact.

9. As an article of manufacture, a laminated sheet or web lconsisting of at least two layers of indented paper, each layer being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, certain of the zones being provided on one or both of theirsurfaces with globular protu- -berances and certain other ofthe zones being provided with cross corrugations, said layers being superposed with their non-matching zones in direct contact.

10. A method of making va laminated material consisting of two layers of indented paper which do not nest, which consists in making a web of indented paper having twice the width of the final product, the pattern of the indentations on the two sides of the longitudinal center line of the web being different, slitting said web along said longiudinal center line to form two webs, and superposing one of said webs upon the other with said indentations in non-registering relationship.

11. A method of making a laminated material consisting of two layers of indented paper which do not nest, which consists in making a web of indented paper, the web being divided in its width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, each zone -being provided on one or both of its surfaces with a plurality of indentations of polyhedral shape, theindentations in any one zone differing in form from those in an adjacent zone and the pattern of the indentations being symmetrical about the longitudinal center line of the web. slitting the web along said longitudinal center line to form two webs, and superposing one of said webs upon the other with said indentations in non-registering relationship.

12. A method of making a laminated material consisting of two layers of indented paper which do not nest, which consists in providing two webs of indented paper of identical pattern, each web being divided in its Width into a plurality of longitudinally extending zones, each zone being provided on one or both of its surfaces with a plurality of indentations of polyhedral shape, the indentations in any one zone differing in form from those in an adjacent zone, and superposing one of said webs upon the other with the zones of both webs extending in the same direction and with their indentations in non-registering relationship.

JOHN E. KIEFFER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2502111 *Dec 5, 1945Mar 28, 1950Fox Paper CompanyMethod of forming plural ply indented paper pads
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US8030535Nov 24, 2003Oct 4, 2011The Procter & Gamble CompanySanitary napkin for clean body benefit
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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/185, 428/179, 101/32, 156/292, 156/210, 156/205, 493/338, 156/183
International ClassificationB31F1/07, B31F1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB31F2201/0761, B31F1/07, B31F2201/0784, B31F2201/0733, B31F2201/0738
European ClassificationB31F1/07